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The COSMOS CONNECTION Philosopher
By: Theresa J Morris

We share our direct connections to source through our channels connected to another place in space some regard as their doppelganger. For now the Spiritual Science and New Science of the New Age also known as the Golden Age of Cosmology is upon us in 2015.

The idea here is not to resolve these issues, but rather to clarify them for discussion and address commonly-held misconceptions regarding them.

We no longer subscribe to the knowledge that the known cosmos stops at the edge of this known universe which we have mapped with NASA.

The inside description of a context that is relative in size/structure (attributes/modes) to the known universe that we inhabit.

A Universe, also known as a Cosmos, is a particular individual space-time organization with a specified number of dimensions of space and time and definite and specific laws of physics.

Other Universes (other Cosmoses) may have different numbers of dimensions of space and time and different laws of physics than our own Universe (Cosmos).

Universe: A cosmos. From our solar system to the edge of the unknown, history and science collide on The Universe.
The COSMOS CONNECTION Philosopher
By: Theresa J Morris

We share our direct connections to source through our channels connected to another place in space some regard as their doppelganger. For now the Spiritual Science and New Science of the New Age also known as the Golden Age of Cosmology is upon us in 2015.

The idea here is not to resolve these issues, but rather to clarify them for discussion and address commonly-held misconceptions regarding them.

We no longer subscribe to the knowledge that the known cosmos stops at the edge of this known universe which we have mapped with NASA.

The inside description of a context that is relative in size/structure (attributes/modes) to the known universe that we inhabit.

A Universe, also known as a Cosmos, is a particular individual space-time organization with a specified number of dimensions of space and time and definite and specific laws of physics.

Other Universes (other Cosmoses) may have different numbers of dimensions of space and time and different laws of physics than our own Universe (Cosmos).

Universe: A cosmos. From our solar system to the edge of the unknown, history and science collide on The Universe.

The Universe is all of time and space and its contents. The Universe includes planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, the smallest subatomic particles, and all matter and energy.

Multiverse: The part of infinity that directly joins a given universe with all possible configurations of that universe.

Metaverse: In string theory, the part that is along with, after; over also denoting change in the multiverse that houses the branes or film that each universe is said to be attached to and hang like individual sheets in a hypermagnetic wave with rhythms of hypercosmicstrings going up and down that has a third element
causing up, down, backwards, forwards, motions inside the Xenoverse.

Note: In computer science, a metaverse is a virtual reality simulation based on the physical reality of a single individual universe, but one or more levels of implementation above it. It is conceived that it will be possible in forthcoming centuries to create such simulations using massive arrays of matrioshka brains and Jupiter brains.

Xenoverse: the unknown alien elements that are beyond and part of the metaverse and multiverse structure. Compared to a patchwork quilt hanging on a line to dry in space that is multivariate inside the Omniverse. While Omniverse is said to be the outside ring of all that is known, the xenoverse is the inside the hypermacrocosm that is unknown beyond the metaverse-the unknown sets of laws that govern how branes behave to create metaverses, the laws of which govern the creation of multiverses.

Omniverse: All possible attributes and modes are in play, multiverses are categorized by the attributes/modes active in its child universes. Some or all possible modes of existence are actualized.

If we take the point of origin as our being as a point in measurement, then we can generate the following hierarchy:7 Levels of Cosmos accepted at the time on earth of the 21 century date 12-21-12.

We have new science sharing that of the ancient texts referring to the 7 levels of heaven, 7 colors of rainbow, 7 chakras, and we have the spiritual science theory in ACE Folklife History that is being reconfigured based on ancient archaeology and xenoarchaeology that if we begin with the 7 levels in the COSMOS we can someday find out what is beyond these levels. We subscribe to 13 dimension which at this time have no official accepted name in mainstream metaphysics or in philosophy.

Point of Origin (our location in space-time), 2. this universe, 3. the multiverse, 4. the metaverse, 5. the xenoverse, 6. the omniverse. 6. the alphaverse, 7. the omegaverse.
Philosophy can be broadly grouped into several major areas:
Epistemology, the study of knowledge and belief.
Logic, the study of what follows from what.
Metaphysics, the study of the basic nature of existence and reality.
Value Theory, which includes ethics/moral philosophy, political philosophy, aesthetics, and similar areas.
Philosophy of Science and Mathematics, including Philosophy of Mind.

Philosophy in this narrower sense is defined not only by its subject matter, but by its methodology and attitudes. Something is not philosophical merely because it states some position related to those areas. There must also be an emphasis on argument (setting forward reasons for adopting a position) and a willingness to subject any and all positions to criticism.
About Philosophy
What is philosophy?

As with most disciplines, “philosophy” has both a casual and a technical usage.

In its casual use, “philosophy” may refer to nearly any sort of thought or beliefs, and subsume topics such as religion, mysticism, and even science.

When someone asks you what “your philosophy” is, this is the sort of sense they have in mind; they’re asking about your general system of thoughts, beliefs, and feelings.

In its technical use — the use relevant here at philosophy– it is a more specific study.

What isn’t philosophy?

Even in its narrower sense, philosophy can be difficult to demarcate.

Nevertheless, the following generalizations are useful as rules-of-thumb.

A position is not philosophical if:

It does not address or reduce to one of the studies shown in the previous section.
It may be more productively addressed through some other discipline (e.g., science).
No attempt is made to argue for a position’s conclusions or it is forbidden to subject the position to criticism.

Some more specific topics which are popularly misconstrued as philosophical, but do not meet this definition (and should not be posted about in /r/philosophy):
Mysticism. (“I meditated today and experienced the oneness of the universe…”)
Drug experiences. (“I dropped acid today and experienced the oneness of the universe…”)
Self-help. (“How can I be a happier person and have more people like me?”)
Trite sayings, quotes, or other clichés presented as fact. (“We are the universe experiencing itself.”)

Why is philosophy important?

Philosophical questions often have no direct bearing on the sorts of things people care about. Philosophy doesn’t produce technology or feelings of comfort and self-actualization. This can lead many to think that philosophy is not important or engaged with questions that don’t really matter.

Philosophy tends to be about the most fundamental issues.

For instance, you may ask, “Why is the sky blue?” For this you would naturally be directed to a physicist for an answer. You might further ask, “How can the physicist know her theories really tell us anything about reality?”

For this, you need a philosopher. Philosophy deals with the fundamental questions that ground all disciplines — and indeed, all human knowledge-seeking endeavors.

Another common question is whether philosophy is actually capable of accomplishing this task.

There are many questions and problems that philosophers try to solve, and some of those problems are very old; the fact that a question remains open after thousands of years may lead some to think that it isn’t solvable.

This does not mean philosophy does not progress. While there may in many cases be no final, universally-agreed-upon answers, there will be better answers than those of a thousand years ago and a more thorough and rigorous understanding of the problems themselves.

In this sense philosophy is like science: it is a continuing process of trial and error, and to retire from this process is to retire from searching for the truth. We still have no final, conclusive understanding, but we have better theories than we did before — as long as we continue to subject our theories to criticism, if we try hard, and if we are lucky, we may in time better approximate the truth.
Why is some philosophy so hard to understand?

Academic philosophy is often hard to understand because, like any other advanced academic discipline, philosophy and specific subsections of philosophy have developed complex languages for discussing the more complex problems.

Resources such as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and /r/askphilosophy can often help clarify these discussions, but just as understanding an advanced discussion of geology requires a deep background in the earth sciences, some detailed discussion of philosophical problems will be hard to follow without background in the discipline.
What is the difference between “Continental” and “Analytic” Philosophy?

The least controversial way to mark the distinction is to say that Analytical philosophy tends to follow in the footsteps one way or another of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and G.E. Moore, while Continental philosophy draws guidance from Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger.

In part because the two traditions are responding to philosophers that dealt with different problems, they tend to ask different questions. There are good arguments that this difference is overstated; especially in recent decades, many “Analytic” philosophers have taken to examining crucial Continental figures such as Nietzsche and Heidegger, and other figures–such as Hegel and Brentano–have long been considered important by members of the Analytic tradition.

Most philosophers would still argue that the difference in interest is significant, and might be expressed very roughly as the difference between the Analytic who asks “What do we know, and how does it work?” and the Continental who asks “What do we know, and how does it change the world?”

Finally, because of the two differences marked above, philosophers in the two traditions tend to write in different styles. Analytic philosophers often want to be as close to a science as they can be, whereas Continental philosophers often see other topics or modes of analysis–such as history, literature, or philology–as being better at revealing the subjects that they are interested in.

As would be expected, all of these descriptions are overly broad. There have been dozens of important and influential philosophers in both traditions, some of whom likely share more with philosophers of the other tradition than they do with their contemporaries. For this reason, it is generally more useful to examine and refer to particular philosophers, philosophical ideas, or “movements” in philosophy.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has articles on important individuals and movements in both traditions, such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, Logical Empiricism, Edmund Husserl, and Existentialism.
What about Eastern philosophy?

This article is primarily dedicated to discussion of philosophy in the Western tradition. This is not because Eastern philosophy is considered lesser or invalid, but because it often encompasses an entirely different set of ideas and methodologies than Western philosophy.

That is not to say that the problems in Eastern philosophy do not at times intersect with problems in Western philosophy. Out Education Research Associates (Era) exist for many of the major areas of Eastern thought: for example, /r/Buddhism,/r/Taoism, /r/zen, and /r/Eastern Philosophy for a more general picture. /r/philosophy welcomes posts from all philosophical traditions, so long as they meet our rules and guidelines.

What is the meaning of life? How should we live?

While these questions are often advertised as the work of philosophy in magazines or course descriptions, the truth is that almost no one working in philosophy today asks questions this vague.

Questions about the meaning of life are primarily restricted to religious debates these days, as it is very difficult to motivate the view that life could somehow have a meaning without a being to create that meaning. Questions about how we should live have become much more refined in contemporary ethics.

Instead of asking how we should live, philosophers ask questions like, “Are there moral reasons that can compel a person to action?”, “What is the source of morality?”, “What are the principles guiding moral action?” And so on.

Can we really know anything?

Most philosophers who discuss the subject answer yes. The difference comes in what their answers are to “How do we know anything?” This question remains one of the more important ones in contemporary epistemology.

We suggest your own research to find your own Reading List for some suggested contemporary and historical discussions of the question.

How one answers it depends on how one answers questions such as “What is knowledge?” and “What does it mean to say that a belief is true?”, which are also extremely important and contested questions in contemporary epistemology.

Thus, no answer to the question “How do we know anything?” can be completely representative or uncontroversial.

Nevertheless, an example is worthwhile, and Wittgenstein’s extremely influential argument in On Certainty is–if not typical–generally considered to be powerful.

Wittgenstein takes up GE Moore’s famous “here is one hand” argument against skepticism and asks what would be required for us to doubt a statement such as “I have a hand” or “The world has existed for more than 5 minutes.”

Wittgenstein’s point is not that such statements are obvious but that doubting them would be incomprehensible: that if I were to doubt that I had a hand, belief and doubt themselves would be rendered empty and meaningless.

An answer is–of course–infused with other arguments of Wittgenstein’s.
Do we have free will?

Like some of the other issues on this list, free will is a heavily debated subject in contemporary philosophy.

According to the PhilPapers Survey nearly 75% of philosophers lean towards accepting some type of free will.

Most of those almost 60% are compatibilists, or philosophers who believe that free will is compatible with causal determinism and/or naturalism.

The categories of libertarian, we have free will and are not causally determined and incompatibilist no free will are causally determined, each clock in at less than 15%.

Part of the debate surrounding free will is exactly what it means.

Most compatibilists accept the point that the important notions of free will do not require the ability to have chosen differently, and instead insist that free will requires that one’s actions be caused by internal conditions instead of external ones.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has a number of great articles on topic, including Free Will, Causal Determinism, Incompatibilism, Compatibilism, and Fatalism.
Is morality subjective?

It’s difficult to say what is meant by “subjective” when talking about ethics. On the one hand, we might think that what is good for a person depends on that person; that there is no hard and fast way to live the good life. In this view, we might think that what is good for me say playing soccer cannot be compared to what is good for my neighbor, who is perhaps a fan of baseball.

There is no way to argue against each others preferences in this sense of subjectivity, but we might still agree that neither of us has the right to attack another’s preferences.

For example, we might think that it would be wrong for me to slash her tires the evening before a big baseball game in order to prevent her from going. There is an appeal to real moral principles about how we should act, but what’s valuable for each of us is subjectively determined.

On the other hand, we might think that what makes a moral claim true depends upon the beliefs of the agent. This is a little closer to what is commonly known as cultural or moral relativism. Although it’s important to note that this view alone doesn’t entail that you can “do whatever you want,” or other common conceptions of moral relativism. This only suggests that moral facts are relative to the context, not that there are no moral facts.

In any case, the discussion about these views in ethics as well as many others continues in philosophy today. There is no strong consensus about the nature of morality, although a majority of working philosophers about 56% do think that some form of moral realism, the view that there are facts about what one ought to do, is true.

What is consciousness? and/or Are minds purely physical?

This is one of the hottest debates in contemporary philosophy, so the most appropriate answer might simply be “Who knows?”

A more full-bodied answer might point out that these questions do not quite get at the heart of the argument, which is rather centered around questions such as:
“Is it possible for minds to be purely physical?”
and
“Will science someday be able to describe consciousness completely using only current scientific terminology?”

The difference between these two types of questions is indicative, both of the particular debate and of the questions contemporary analytic philosophy tries to answer in general.

The first set of questions ask about what is though not necessarily in natural manner and are therefore not necessarily the type of questions best answered by philosophy.

The latter questions, however, ask what is possible, necessary, conceivable, and meta-questions such as “What evidence would be necessary to show x?” These latter questions are at least prima facie more up the alley of the philosopher.
How are science and philosophy related?

Science and philosophy were once a unified field asking questions about the nature of reality and humanity’s relationship to it. In Ancient Greece philosophers practiced moral philosophy and natural science alike.

Aristotle, for example, was among the very first biologists. During the Enlightenment physics, chemistry, and their cousins were all called “natural philosophy” and famous scientists such as Galileo and Newton were natural philosophers.

These days the fields are considerably more distinct, although contemporary work in cognitive science and of interest both to working scientists and philosophers of the mind.

How are religion and philosophy related?

Religion often finds foundations in philosophy. Many scholastic philosophers had the belief that “philosophy is the handmaiden of theology”; that is, in order to understand theology, you must understand philosophy.

This is present in many religions; some examples are that men studying to be Catholic priests must have an undergraduate degree in philosophy in order to attend theological seminary, and that Buddhism is arguable as equally a philosophy as a religion. Major philosophers from all time periods, such as Aristotle, Descartes, Aquinas, and Platinga, all express belief in a deity.

The Universe is all of time and space and its contents. The Universe includes planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, the smallest subatomic particles, and all matter and energy.

Multiverse: The part of infinity that directly joins a given universe with all possible configurations of that universe.

Metaverse: In string theory, the part that is along with, after; over also denoting change in the multiverse that houses the branes or film that each universe is said to be attached to and hang like individual sheets in a hypermagnetic wave with rhythms of hypercosmicstrings going up and down that has a third element
causing up, down, backwards, forwards, motions inside the Xenoverse.

Note: In computer science, a metaverse is a virtual reality simulation based on the physical reality of a single individual universe, but one or more levels of implementation above it. It is conceived that it will be possible in forthcoming centuries to create such simulations using massive arrays of matrioshka brains and Jupiter brains.

Xenoverse: the unknown alien elements that are beyond and part of the metaverse and multiverse structure. Compared to a patchwork quilt hanging on a line to dry in space that is multivariate inside the Omniverse. While Omniverse is said to be the outside ring of all that is known, the xenoverse is the inside the hypermacrocosm that is unknown beyond the metaverse-the unknown sets of laws that govern how branes behave to create metaverses, the laws of which govern the creation of multiverses.

Omniverse: All possible attributes and modes are in play, multiverses are categorized by the attributes/modes active in its child universes. Some or all possible modes of existence are actualized.

If we take the point of origin as our being as a point in measurement, then we can generate the following hierarchy:7 Levels of Cosmos accepted at the time on earth of the 21 century date 12-21-12.

We have new science sharing that of the ancient texts referring to the 7 levels of heaven, 7 colors of rainbow, 7 chakras, and we have the spiritual science theory in ACE Folklife History that is being reconfigured based on ancient archaeology and xenoarchaeology that if we begin with the 7 levels in the COSMOS we can someday find out what is beyond these levels. We subscribe to 13 dimension which at this time have no official accepted name in mainstream metaphysics or in philosophy.

Point of Origin (our location in space-time), 2. this universe, 3. the multiverse, 4. the metaverse, 5. the xenoverse, 6. the omniverse. 6. the alphaverse, 7. the omegaverse.
Philosophy can be broadly grouped into several major areas:
Epistemology, the study of knowledge and belief.
Logic, the study of what follows from what.
Metaphysics, the study of the basic nature of existence and reality.
Value Theory, which includes ethics/moral philosophy, political philosophy, aesthetics, and similar areas.
Philosophy of Science and Mathematics, including Philosophy of Mind.

Philosophy in this narrower sense is defined not only by its subject matter, but by its methodology and attitudes. Something is not philosophical merely because it states some position related to those areas. There must also be an emphasis on argument (setting forward reasons for adopting a position) and a willingness to subject any and all positions to criticism.
About Philosophy
What is philosophy?

As with most disciplines, “philosophy” has both a casual and a technical usage.

In its casual use, “philosophy” may refer to nearly any sort of thought or beliefs, and subsume topics such as religion, mysticism, and even science.

When someone asks you what “your philosophy” is, this is the sort of sense they have in mind; they’re asking about your general system of thoughts, beliefs, and feelings.

In its technical use — the use relevant here at philosophy– it is a more specific study.

What isn’t philosophy?

Even in its narrower sense, philosophy can be difficult to demarcate.

Nevertheless, the following generalizations are useful as rules-of-thumb.

A position is not philosophical if:

It does not address or reduce to one of the studies shown in the previous section.
It may be more productively addressed through some other discipline (e.g., science).
No attempt is made to argue for a position’s conclusions or it is forbidden to subject the position to criticism.

Some more specific topics which are popularly misconstrued as philosophical, but do not meet this definition (and should not be posted about in /r/philosophy):
Mysticism. (“I meditated today and experienced the oneness of the universe…”)
Drug experiences. (“I dropped acid today and experienced the oneness of the universe…”)
Self-help. (“How can I be a happier person and have more people like me?”)
Trite sayings, quotes, or other clichés presented as fact. (“We are the universe experiencing itself.”)

Why is philosophy important?

Philosophical questions often have no direct bearing on the sorts of things people care about. Philosophy doesn’t produce technology or feelings of comfort and self-actualization. This can lead many to think that philosophy is not important or engaged with questions that don’t really matter.

Philosophy tends to be about the most fundamental issues.

For instance, you may ask, “Why is the sky blue?” For this you would naturally be directed to a physicist for an answer. You might further ask, “How can the physicist know her theories really tell us anything about reality?”

For this, you need a philosopher. Philosophy deals with the fundamental questions that ground all disciplines — and indeed, all human knowledge-seeking endeavors.

Another common question is whether philosophy is actually capable of accomplishing this task.

There are many questions and problems that philosophers try to solve, and some of those problems are very old; the fact that a question remains open after thousands of years may lead some to think that it isn’t solvable.

This does not mean philosophy does not progress. While there may in many cases be no final, universally-agreed-upon answers, there will be better answers than those of a thousand years ago and a more thorough and rigorous understanding of the problems themselves.

In this sense philosophy is like science: it is a continuing process of trial and error, and to retire from this process is to retire from searching for the truth. We still have no final, conclusive understanding, but we have better theories than we did before — as long as we continue to subject our theories to criticism, if we try hard, and if we are lucky, we may in time better approximate the truth.
Why is some philosophy so hard to understand?

Academic philosophy is often hard to understand because, like any other advanced academic discipline, philosophy and specific subsections of philosophy have developed complex languages for discussing the more complex problems.

Resources such as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and /r/askphilosophy can often help clarify these discussions, but just as understanding an advanced discussion of geology requires a deep background in the earth sciences, some detailed discussion of philosophical problems will be hard to follow without background in the discipline.
What is the difference between “Continental” and “Analytic” Philosophy?

The least controversial way to mark the distinction is to say that Analytical philosophy tends to follow in the footsteps one way or another of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and G.E. Moore, while Continental philosophy draws guidance from Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger.

In part because the two traditions are responding to philosophers that dealt with different problems, they tend to ask different questions. There are good arguments that this difference is overstated; especially in recent decades, many “Analytic” philosophers have taken to examining crucial Continental figures such as Nietzsche and Heidegger, and other figures–such as Hegel and Brentano–have long been considered important by members of the Analytic tradition.

Most philosophers would still argue that the difference in interest is significant, and might be expressed very roughly as the difference between the Analytic who asks “What do we know, and how does it work?” and the Continental who asks “What do we know, and how does it change the world?”

Finally, because of the two differences marked above, philosophers in the two traditions tend to write in different styles. Analytic philosophers often want to be as close to a science as they can be, whereas Continental philosophers often see other topics or modes of analysis–such as history, literature, or philology–as being better at revealing the subjects that they are interested in.

As would be expected, all of these descriptions are overly broad. There have been dozens of important and influential philosophers in both traditions, some of whom likely share more with philosophers of the other tradition than they do with their contemporaries. For this reason, it is generally more useful to examine and refer to particular philosophers, philosophical ideas, or “movements” in philosophy.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has articles on important individuals and movements in both traditions, such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, Logical Empiricism, Edmund Husserl, and Existentialism.
What about Eastern philosophy?

This article is primarily dedicated to discussion of philosophy in the Western tradition. This is not because Eastern philosophy is considered lesser or invalid, but because it often encompasses an entirely different set of ideas and methodologies than Western philosophy.

That is not to say that the problems in Eastern philosophy do not at times intersect with problems in Western philosophy. Out Education Research Associates (Era) exist for many of the major areas of Eastern thought: for example, /r/Buddhism,/r/Taoism, /r/zen, and /r/Eastern Philosophy for a more general picture. /r/philosophy welcomes posts from all philosophical traditions, so long as they meet our rules and guidelines.

What is the meaning of life? How should we live?

While these questions are often advertised as the work of philosophy in magazines or course descriptions, the truth is that almost no one working in philosophy today asks questions this vague.

Questions about the meaning of life are primarily restricted to religious debates these days, as it is very difficult to motivate the view that life could somehow have a meaning without a being to create that meaning. Questions about how we should live have become much more refined in contemporary ethics.

Instead of asking how we should live, philosophers ask questions like, “Are there moral reasons that can compel a person to action?”, “What is the source of morality?”, “What are the principles guiding moral action?” And so on.

Can we really know anything?

Most philosophers who discuss the subject answer yes. The difference comes in what their answers are to “How do we know anything?” This question remains one of the more important ones in contemporary epistemology.

We suggest your own research to find your own Reading List for some suggested contemporary and historical discussions of the question.

How one answers it depends on how one answers questions such as “What is knowledge?” and “What does it mean to say that a belief is true?”, which are also extremely important and contested questions in contemporary epistemology.

Thus, no answer to the question “How do we know anything?” can be completely representative or uncontroversial.

Nevertheless, an example is worthwhile, and Wittgenstein’s extremely influential argument in On Certainty is–if not typical–generally considered to be powerful.

Wittgenstein takes up GE Moore’s famous “here is one hand” argument against skepticism and asks what would be required for us to doubt a statement such as “I have a hand” or “The world has existed for more than 5 minutes.”

Wittgenstein’s point is not that such statements are obvious but that doubting them would be incomprehensible: that if I were to doubt that I had a hand, belief and doubt themselves would be rendered empty and meaningless.

An answer is–of course–infused with other arguments of Wittgenstein’s.
Do we have free will?

Like some of the other issues on this list, free will is a heavily debated subject in contemporary philosophy.

According to the PhilPapers Survey nearly 75% of philosophers lean towards accepting some type of free will.

Most of those almost 60% are compatibilists, or philosophers who believe that free will is compatible with causal determinism and/or naturalism.

The categories of libertarian, we have free will and are not causally determined and incompatibilist no free will are causally determined, each clock in at less than 15%.

Part of the debate surrounding free will is exactly what it means.

Most compatibilists accept the point that the important notions of free will do not require the ability to have chosen differently, and instead insist that free will requires that one’s actions be caused by internal conditions instead of external ones.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has a number of great articles on topic, including Free Will, Causal Determinism, Incompatibilism, Compatibilism, and Fatalism.
Is morality subjective?

It’s difficult to say what is meant by “subjective” when talking about ethics. On the one hand, we might think that what is good for a person depends on that person; that there is no hard and fast way to live the good life. In this view, we might think that what is good for me say playing soccer cannot be compared to what is good for my neighbor, who is perhaps a fan of baseball.

There is no way to argue against each others preferences in this sense of subjectivity, but we might still agree that neither of us has the right to attack another’s preferences.

For example, we might think that it would be wrong for me to slash her tires the evening before a big baseball game in order to prevent her from going. There is an appeal to real moral principles about how we should act, but what’s valuable for each of us is subjectively determined.

On the other hand, we might think that what makes a moral claim true depends upon the beliefs of the agent. This is a little closer to what is commonly known as cultural or moral relativism. Although it’s important to note that this view alone doesn’t entail that you can “do whatever you want,” or other common conceptions of moral relativism. This only suggests that moral facts are relative to the context, not that there are no moral facts.

In any case, the discussion about these views in ethics as well as many others continues in philosophy today. There is no strong consensus about the nature of morality, although a majority of working philosophers about 56% do think that some form of moral realism, the view that there are facts about what one ought to do, is true.

What is consciousness? and/or Are minds purely physical?

This is one of the hottest debates in contemporary philosophy, so the most appropriate answer might simply be “Who knows?”

A more full-bodied answer might point out that these questions do not quite get at the heart of the argument, which is rather centered around questions such as:
“Is it possible for minds to be purely physical?”
and
“Will science someday be able to describe consciousness completely using only current scientific terminology?”

The difference between these two types of questions is indicative, both of the particular debate and of the questions contemporary analytic philosophy tries to answer in general.

The first set of questions ask about what is though not necessarily in natural manner and are therefore not necessarily the type of questions best answered by philosophy.

The latter questions, however, ask what is possible, necessary, conceivable, and meta-questions such as “What evidence would be necessary to show x?” These latter questions are at least prima facie more up the alley of the philosopher.
How are science and philosophy related?

Science and philosophy were once a unified field asking questions about the nature of reality and humanity’s relationship to it. In Ancient Greece philosophers practiced moral philosophy and natural science alike.

Aristotle, for example, was among the very first biologists. During the Enlightenment physics, chemistry, and their cousins were all called “natural philosophy” and famous scientists such as Galileo and Newton were natural philosophers.

These days the fields are considerably more distinct, although contemporary work in cognitive science and of interest both to working scientists and philosophers of the mind.

How are religion and philosophy related?

Religion often finds foundations in philosophy. Many scholastic philosophers had the belief that “philosophy is the handmaiden of theology”; that is, in order to understand theology, you must understand philosophy.

This is present in many religions; some examples are that men studying to be Catholic priests must have an undergraduate degree in philosophy in order to attend theological seminary, and that Buddhism is arguable as equally a philosophy as a religion. Major philosophers from all time periods, such as Aristotle, Descartes, Aquinas, and Platinga, all express belief in a deity.

THERESA J MORRIS RETURNS TO TJ MORRIS ET RADIO ON BLOGTALKRADIO.com SEPTEMBER 3, 2014 AND YOU ARE INVITED!

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ACIR Investigative Reports

ACE FOLKLIFE ACO BRAND TJ Morris Founder "MADE IN USA"

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ACO BRAND
TJ Morris Founder
“MADE IN USA”

TJ Morris ACIR ACO News/Media Publishing

TJ Morris
ACIR ACO
News/Media
Publishing

Book193

We share our direct connections to source through our channels connected to another place in space some regard as their doppelganger. For now the Spiritual Science and New Science of the New Age also known as the Golden Age of Cosmology is upon us in 2015.

We no longer subscribe to the knowledge that the known cosmos stops at the edge of this known universe which we have mapped with NASA.

The inside description of a context that is relative in size/structure (attributes/modes) to the known universe that we inhabit. A Universe, also known as a Cosmos, is a particular individual space-time organization with a specified number of dimensions of space and time and definite and specific laws of physics.

Other Universes (other Cosmoses) may have different numbers of dimensions of space and time and different laws of physics than our own Universe (Cosmos).

Universe: The Universe includes planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, the smallest subatomic particles, and all matter and energy.

Multiverse: The part of infinity that directly joins a given universe with all possible configurations of that universe.

Metaverse: In string theory, the part that is along with, after; over also denoting change in the multiverse that houses the branes or film that each universe is said to be attached to and hang like individual sheets in a hypermagnetic wave with rhythms of hypercosmicstrings going up and down that has a third element
causing up, down, backwards, forwards, motions inside the Xenoverse.

Note: In computer science, a metaverse is a virtual reality simulation based on the physical reality of a single individual universe, but one or more levels of implementation above it. It is conceived that it will be possible in forthcoming centuries to create such simulations using massive arrays of matrioshka brains and Jupiter brains.

Xenoverse: the unknown alien elements that are beyond and part of the metaverse and multiverse structure. Compared to a patchwork quilt hanging on a line to dry in space that is multivariate inside the Omniverse. While Omniverse is said to be the outside ring of all that is known, the xenoverse is the inside the hypermacrocosm that is unknown beyond the metaverse-the unknown sets of laws that govern how branes behave to create metaverses, the laws of which govern the creation of multiverses.

Omniverse: All possible attributes and modes are in play, multiverses are categorized by the attributes/modes active in its child universes. Some or all possible modes of existence are actualized.

If we take the point of origin as our being as a point in measurement, then we can generate the following hierarchy:7 Levels of Cosmos accepted at the time on earth of the 21 century date 12-21-12.

We have new science sharing that of the ancient texts referring to the 7 levels of heaven, 7 colors of rainbow, 7 chakras, and we have the spiritual science theory in ACE Folklife History that is being reconfigured based on ancient archaeology and xenoarchaeology that if we begin with the 7 levels in the COSMOS we can someday find out what is beyond these levels. We subscribe to 13 dimension which at this time have no official accepted name in mainstream metaphysics or in philosophy.

  1. Point of Origin (our location in space-time), 2. this universe, 3. the multiverse, 4. the metaverse, 5. the xenoverse, 6. the omniverse. 6. the alphaverse, 7. the omegaverse.

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ACE Guide-TJ Morris

TJ Morris ET Radio
TJ Morris Entertainment Org -Theresa J Morris HOST

AVATAR ASCENSION MASTER GUIDE

ACE Guide History for Writers

ACE Guide
History for Writers


THIS TIMELINE FOLLOWED BY HUMANOIDS ON EARTH OF THE GODS
AND ANGEL TIMELINE IS IN THE BOOK OF COSMOLOGY by TJ
PHYSICAL-ASTRAL-ETHERIC BODIES USED WITH THE HOLY GHOST (SPIRIT)
(ERA COP)
Theresa J Morris TJ Morris Media ACIR

Theresa J Morris
TJ Morris Media
ACIR


Theresa J Morris Biography
Author-Speaker-Radio Host
Theresa J Morris for shares for her friends in cyberspace. Theresa is an author, entrepreneur and parapsychologist. Parapsychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the investigation of purportedly psychic phenomena, as clairvoyance, extrasensory perception, telepathy, and the like. TJ is a psychic medium who shares Consciousness & Soul. Love is the main ingredients as essence and energy of who and what we are as self. TJ is a Tarot Reader Life Coach and Spiritual Counselor. TJ is also an agent, consultant, and organizer and owns a small business in the USA. Theresa J Thurmond Morris, Theresa J Morris shortened her name as a brand to TJ Morris. Born Theresa Janette Thurmond, Monroe, Louisiana, USA, December 26, 1951 married, had four daughters all born in Texas. Became a private investigator, legal investigator, then worked for DOD, DON and GS status for US government. Studied arson, fraud, subrogation, personnel information security, and obtained security certificates before graduating U.S. Naval Hospital Corps School. Became interested in psychology, metaphysics, theology, neuroscience in 1980s and moved to Hawaii. Became a President CEO of a corporation and developed a line of clothing, handbags, small leather goods, shoes, and stationary items in cuercus suber oak as eco fashion 1990-1994. Founded the first Ascension Center and Psychic Network 1989 -1994. Transferred to Fort Hood, Killeen, TX where she met her husband Thomas R Morris, and US Army-Retired. Drove commercial semi 18 wheeler truck over the road all 48 lower states before becoming an author and blogger 2004-2014. Became an Ufologist 2007 writing for UFO Digest. Author of Books 2007-2014 include Roswell Encounters, Roswell Connection, Taken Up, Enchanted Development, Theresa of Ascension, Knowing Cosmology, ACO Alien Contact Organization. TJ became a Radio Host June 3, 2012 as TJ Morris ET Radio and Cosmos Connection and has panel discussions and interviews authors. TJ is a motivational speaker in paranormal and spiritual communities with ET UFO, OBE, NDE, Dreams, and conscious experience shares. TJ has had many experiences with energy as a receiver of information as a keeper of the flame and became an archivist with her first book as Theresa Keeper of the Flame kept inside the book Ascension Ancient Mystery schools Psychic Awakening Classes which she is caretaker of the only copy as her gremremgremoire to be passed down to her four daughters.. . Ascension Ancient Mysteries shares as ACE Metaphysical Institute and Ascension Center Energetics for ACO and ACE as a joint venture in cyberspace culture sharing a universal world view with TJ Morris at the helm as Commander for radio shows as TJ Morris ET.
Theresa of Ascension – Ascension Ancient Mystery Schools – Psychic Awakening Classes & Other things for 2012 & Beyond – The Ascension Age – Magic times of the Mind. Soul Essence Consciousness and Neuro Science. Parapsychology has been part of a book of practicing communities online since TJ began sharing the Ascension Center in 1993. TJ knew what she needed to share communication to the world. It was important to share a new world view. This was known as the Ascension Age, Aquarian Age, and Golden Age of Communication & Cosmology.
Books Grimoire

ASCENSION ANCIENT MYSTERY SCHOOLS OF THE ARAK
ANGELS OF THE BENEVOLENT (BLUE BLOOD HUMANOIDS OF EARTH)
Emotional, Mental, Physical, Spiritual = Earth, Wind, Fire, Water, Spirit
Annana of the Annunaki Medicine Woman comes much later.
THE STORIES OF ARAK PREDATE THOSE OF MU AND ALL EL GODS

GODS OF ALL FOLKLIFE AND RELIGIONS PREMONITION
By Design of the Avatar Ascension Masters for the Supreme High Counsel
“LIVE and LET LIVE!” “Health & Prosperity” The LIFE ON EARTH of an ACE FOLKLIFE HUMAN MEMBER.
Ascension-Age-Cover-May-17-2012-Theresa-Morris-Copy

TIMELINE -ARAK TIMELINE PREDATES ANNUNAKI
Earth known shared history in ACE FOLKLIFE
ARAK GODS LIVED BEFORE THE ANNUNAKI!

TARA IS DAUGHTER OF ZEUS
THOTH is a SPARK of TARA
THOTH like ENLIL-HAS AN ANNUNKI CONNECTION PASSED DOWN IN ANTHOLOGY
ARAK ANTHOLOGY PREDATES AKKADIAN AND SUMERIAN WRITTEN STORIES ON FIRED CLAY TABLETS LEFT FOR HUMANOIDS TO DEFINE IN ACE FOLKLIFE HISTORY

TJ is the ET SPIRIT GUIDE of the ASCENSION AGE – MESSENGER STORY TELLER
CHANNEL OF THE DOWNLOADS COMMISSIONS FOR CERTIFICATION STORIES OF THE HISTORY BEING ETERNALLY REWRITTEN AGAIN AS HAS BEEN DONE IN THE PAST!

HISTORY OF THE MYTHOLOGICAL WORLD

This chronology lists several of the events in mythology and legend with known events in history along with several events of topical interest.

The Hyborian Age (according to Robert Howard, this age occurs between the Ice Age and the beginning of written history.)
 
c. 4004 BC (?) – Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden
 
c. 3100 – Estimated construction of Stonehenge in Wales. Its components are excavated from the Preseli Hills, 240 miles distant from its present location.
 
2690 – King Khufu (Cheops) begins construction of the Great Pyramid
 
c. 2500 – Construction of the pyramids begins in Egypt.
 
Cronus deposes Ouranus
 
Cronus imprisons his children in Tartarus (Later legends erroneously claims he swallows them and that they survived inside him until released.)
 
Zeus is born on Mount Ida in Crete. His birth is kept a secret from Cronus and minor goddesses raise Zeus in secret.
 
Metis is the first wife of Zeus.
 
Zeus learns his destiny to conquer Olympus. He seduces and takes Themis, Mnemosyne, Dione and Eurynome as wives.
 
Zeus frees his siblings from Tartarus.
 
Zeus seduces Demeter and Hera.
 
C. 2475 – King Gilgamesh reigns as Ruler of Ur in the Sumeria Empire
 
c. 2404 – Biblical Noah/Utnapishtim and his family survive the flood in an ark. Zeus conquers Olympus and takes Hera as his queen; Cronus flees into exile. Zeus and his brothers cast lots for the world as Poseidon inherits the oceans and Hades takes over Tartarus with his kingdom centered and named for himself.
 
Eileithyia born.  
 
Persephone born.
 
Hera drives Zeus’s other wives from Olympus. Leto flees to the island of Delos, Metis for Libya and Dione for Cythera.
 
Apollo and Artemis born from Leto with Eileithyia as midwife.
 
Ares (Aphneius) is born to Zeus and Hera on Olympus.
 
Aphrodite born on Cythera (later legends claim she sprang from the ocean).
 
Hephaestus born.
 
Ares and Hephaestus are young gods as their half-sister, Athena, daughter of Zeus and Metis arrives at Olympus with the secret to the headaches, which Zeus is suffering (Later legends erroneously claim she sprung from his head).
 
Hephaestus remains humble, seeking to tinker as a blacksmith god. Zeus accuses Hera of infidelity under the belief that Hephaestus is not his son. In the scuffle, they blindly knock the young smith god from Olympus. He lands in the sea near Lemnos and nursed from his injuries to full health by the Nereids.
 
c. 2395 BC – Gilgamesh reigns as King of Ur
 
Inanna/Aphrodite tries to tempt Gilgamesh, but he spurns her advantages.
 
Hermes born
 
As a young god, Hermes steals the cattle of Apollo and sacrifices one to the gods counting himself among them. Apollo backs Hermes acceptance into the pantheon.
 
2297 BC (?) – A flood devastates China during the reign of Emperor Yao
 
c. 2190 BC – Shi Huang Ti, first ruler of unified China, begins construction of the Great Wall of China using prisoners of war as slave labor.
 
c. 2000 BC – The Ancient Greeks begin worshipping the Olympian Pantheon as gods. Some of the Olympian Immortals begin choosing their favorite cities as centers of their worship.
 
Inachos arbitrates Argos to Hera instead of Poseidon. His riverbed is dried up in retaliation.
 
Phoroneus founds Phoronea.
 
Pelasgus, son of Inachos, becomes leader of the Pelasgians.
Pegasus the Flying Horse has it’s own history of the Gods.
 
c. 1900 – The first Battle of Magh Tureidh in Ireland between the Tuatha de Danaan and the Fomore
 
c. 1700 – The Milesians conquer Eire from the Tuatha de Danaan
 
c. 1600 – Zeus seduces Io, daughter of Inachos, but transforms her into a cow to conceal the infidelity. Her sister, Mycene, marries Arestor, founder of Mycenae.
 
Hera has Argus guard Io, but he is slain by Hermes. Io flees to her father, Inachos, the river-god, who barely recognizes her. She flees to Egypt and gives birth to Epaphus.
 
Young Epaphus is friend of Phaethon, son of Helios. Phaethon travels to his father for proof he is his son. He scorches the Earth trying to maneuver Helios’s sun chariot and is knocked out of the sky by Zeus.
 
c. 1585 – Epaphus/Apepi reigns as King of Egypt. 
 
c. 1575 – Apis succeeds Phoroneus, king of Argos.
 
Hephaestus is welcomed back to Olympus by Hera. He creates thunderbolts for Zeus and jewelry for Hera.
 
Prometheus steals fire to give to mortals, but is chained to the Caucasus Mountains as punishment.
 
Hephaestus creates Pandora and Hera brings her to life to bring misfortune to mortal man for accepting fire.
 
Pandora opens a jar she was warned to never open and a hive of demons are released spawning evil in mortal man from it.
 
Prometheus warns Deucalion to build an ark.
 
1470 BC – Thera/Atlantis explodes. The resulting flood washes away the earth. Athens is flooded during the reign of King Cecrops believing it is punishment for accepting Athena as their matron goddess over Poseidon. Celtic Noah and his family survive in an ark as does Deucalion whose father had a premonition of the disaster. Pelasgus, King of Arcadia and heir to Argos, survives the flood.
 
Greek armies invade Phoenicia. Aphrodite joins the Olympian pantheon after an existence as Ishtar of the Phoenician gods. Zeus seduces the Phoenician princess Europa and takes her to Crete.
 
Sons of Japeth, the son of Noah, conquer Eire and Britain. Rivals of the native Celtic gods, they become ancestors to the kings of Eire and Britain.
 
c. 1465 – Danaus and his daughters are received by King Galanor of Argos. They claim Argos as ancestors of Io.
 
1462 BC – Eight years after the flood, Cadmus founds Thebes by conquering the indigenous Hyantes and Aonian tribes and slaying a dragon sacred to Ares.
 
c. 1459 – Hades abducts Persephone in the reign of King Celeus of Eleusis.
 
1454 BC – Eight years after killing the dragon, Cadmus becomes king of Thebes.
 
c. 1440 – Zeus seduces Semele, daughter of Cadmus. Hera places doubts in her of whether Zeus is her lover and she dies by accident when he calls upon lightning to prove his identity. Zeus removes his son Dionysus from her to spare his life and gives him to the Maenads, lesser goddesses to nurse to health.
 
1420 BC –Aethlius founds Elis fifty years after the flood.
 
1419 BC – After a long reign, Cadmus supplanted by Pentheus.
 
c. 1395 – The city of Jericho in Ancient Palestine falls under forces controlled by Israelite leader Joshua. All its inhabitants are massacred and the city is cursed.
 
1379 – Pentheus is deposed by Dionysus. Polydorus, his brother-in-law and son of Cadmus, succeeds him.
 
1363 BC – During the Ming Dynasty, the Great Wall of China is restored after it is nearly destroyed by Mongolian occupation.
 
As an adult, Dionysus joins the Olympian Pantheon.
 
Hephaestus discovers Aphrodite has been unfaithful with Ares and reveals the affair to the gods. He lays his bad marriage on the fault of Hera and builds a throne that imprisons her. Dionysus gets him drunk to release her.
 
1364 BC – On Polydorus’s death, Nycteus becomes regent for Labdacus, son of Polydorus.
 
1338 BC – Labdacus rules briefly before his death. Lycus, brother of Nycteus, is regent for his son Laius.
 
1318 BC – After twenty years, Lycus overthrown by Amphion, grandson of Nycteus. Laius is sent to the court of King Pelops of Pisa.
 
1304 BC – Laius hurries home to claim the throne after deaths of Amphion and Zethus.
 
Zeus seduces Danae in the reign of King Acrisius of Argos. An oracle reveals her son will depose him and Acrisius casts her into the sea.
 
Oedipus born to Laius and Jocasta, but a prophecy claims he will depose his father. Oedipus is exposed on a mountain and raised by farmers.
 
c. 1290 – Perseus leaves Argos to his cousin Megapenthes after the death of King Acrisius. He rebuilds the walls of Mycenae.
 
Laius killed by Oedipus at Delphi. Jocasta names her brother Creon as regent.
 
Perseus succeeded by his son Electryon.
 
1276, October 31 – Hercules born in Thebes during the earlier reign of King Creon, brother of Jocasta. He loses his claim to throne of Mycenae to his cousin, Eurystheus.
 
1261 BC – Theseus born in Troezen.
 
1256 BC – Twenty years old, Hercules marries Megaera, daughter of Creon.
 
Oedipus slays the Sphinx and becomes King of Thebes.
 
c. 1255 Oedipus learns that Jocasta is his mother and blinds himself. He abdicates and places Eteocles and Polyneices on the throne.
 
1250 BC – Philistine armies from Caphtor (Crete) invade Gerar (Palestine). The Philistines are rumored to be descendants of the Pelasgians.
 
Eteocles banishes Polyneices who raises an army in Argos to retake the throne in the reign of King Adrastus. Both brothers slay each other in battle. Elderly Creon becomes regent for Laodamas, son of Eteocles.
 
c. 1242 – Creon is murdered by Lycus, who is in turn is deposed by Hercules. Thersander, son of Polyneices, takes the throne.  Peleus and Telamon born to Aeacus and Endeis in Phthia.
 
Peleus weds Thetis.
 
c. 1229 – Peleus and Telamon join the Argonauts.
 
1223 BC – Helen and Pollux born in Sparta to Zeus and Leda. Leda also conceives Castor and Clytemnestra to King Tyndareus restored to the Spartan throne by Hercules.
 
c. 1220 – During his tenth labor, Hercules visits Ancient Briton ruled by Albion, son of Poseidon.
 
1211 BC – Helen (12) abducted by Theseus (50).
 
Hercules rescues Theseus from the Underworld.
 
1209 BC – Achilles born in Phthia.
 
Hercules killed through the treachery of Nessus, but restored to life by Zeus as a god.
 
1205 BC – Helen (18) approached by suitors.
 
1200 BC – Achilles (9) hidden in the court of King Lycomedes of Scyros.
 
1196 BC – Achilles (13) seduces Deidameia who gives him a son, Pyrrhus.
 
1194 BC – The Trojan War begins. Achilles is 15 years old. King Thersander of Thebes dies at the onset of the throne. His regent, Peneleus, dies alongside him.
 
1184 BC – Odysseus secrets Greek soldiers inside a Wooden Horse into Troy and successfully takes the city. Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) (13), son of Achilles, slays King Priam.
 
Tisamenus inherits the throne at Thebes.
 
Autesion ascends the throne of Thebes.
 
Trojan refugees from Thrace conquer lands north of Gaul. Their ancestors will found the region of Saxony upon which modern Germany is built and conquer Britain from the Celts, developing later the British Empire.
 
c. 1114 BC – Damasichthon, son of Peneleus, becomes King of Thebes.
 
1050 BC – Samson, defender of the Israelites, topples the temple of Samson down upon himself and 1000 Philistines after being betrayed by his mistress.
 
1000 BC – David slays Goliath and becomes Ruler of Israel.
 
Queen Louhi of Pohjola (now part of modern Finland) holds the wizard Vainamoinen captive in return for the creation of a mystical amulet
 
Legendary King Brutus, great-grandson of Aeneas, becomes founder and the first king of Britain.
 
c. 750 Romulus and Remus are the legendary founders of Rome.
 
660 BC – Jimmu Tenno, grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, begins his rule as Emperor of Japan.
 
Reign of Queen Medb of Ireland
 
c. 605 BC – King Nebuchadnezzar creates the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife, Queen Semiramis.
 
c. 600 BC – Athenian poet first Solon receives the story of Atlantis from Egyptian priests.
 
468 BC – Mycenae is besieged and destroyed by inhabitants of Argos and is never restored.
 
430 BC – A two-year plague begins in Athens.
 
c. 390 BC – Belinus and Brennus, legendary kings of Britain lay siege on the Roman army and sack Rome
 
c. 350 BC – Plato first relates the story of Atlantis.
 
334 BC – Alexander the Great makes a sacrifice to the gods near the ruins of Troy before his siege of Persia.
 
68 BC – Cicilian pirates introduce worship of the Eastern God Mithras to Rome.
 
49 BC – Julius Caesar becomes Ruler of Rome. He leads three expeditions trying to seize Britain, but is defeated by Lud, King of Britain.
 
c. 35 BC – During the reign of Judean ruler Herod the Great, the fortifications at Jericho are strengthened and several structures are rebuilt.
 
c. 8 BC – King Conchobor begins his twelve-year rein of Ancient Eire. Warrior Cu Chulainn is born during his rule.
 
6 BC– Jesus Christ born in Bethlehem, Judea controlled by the Roman Empire. He begins the foundation for Christianity.
 
43 BC – Emperor Claudius of Rome begins conquest of Britain, bringing an end to the rule of legendary King Llud
 
64, July 19 AD – A fire beginning in Circus Maximus claims much of Rome during the reign of King Nero.
 
72 AD – Construction of the Roman Coliseum began under Emperor Vespasian on site of a villa, which belonged to Nero.
 
79 AD – An eruption at Vesuvius buries Pompeii and Herculaneum.
 
80 AD – Emperor Titus dedicates the Coliseum to his father.
 
107 AD – Tarjan, Emperor of Rome, conquers Dacia (modern Romania) and makes it a Roman province.
 
c. 120 AD – Hadrian’s Wall constructed
 
c. 390 AD – King Vortigern meets with Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa, descendants of Odin, in allowing the Saxons into Britain. He slays King Constantine of Britain and takes the throne for himself.
 
c. 395 AD – Merlin commissions the moving of Stonehenge to its present location at Salisbury.
 
c. 400 AD – King Gunther of Burgundy takes over land down river on the Rhine and meets Siegfried, son of King Sigmund, of the Netherlands. In the South Pacific, Polynesians led by Chief Hotu Matua land at Easter Island.
 
Siegfried helps Gunther win the hand of Brynhild.
 
404 AD – Last tournament held in Roman Coliseum
 
410 AD – King Arthur begins his reign as King of Britain.
 
433 AD – Attila the Hun and his armies lay siege to much of Western Europe
 
465 AD – Arthur is slain by his treacherous son, Mordred, at the Battle of Camlann. He bequeaths Excalibur to be returned to the Lady of the Lake.
 
476 AD – The collapse of the Roman Empire
 
534 AD – Burgundy absorbed into the Frank Empire (now part of modern France).
 
c. 600 AD Beowulf slays Grendel
 
613 AD – Queen Brynhilda, Visigoth Warrior Queen, controls parts of Northern Gaul.
 
786 AD – Sindbad travels the Middle East during the reign of King Mihrjan of Persia.
 
800 AD – Charlemagne crowned ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
 
957 – King Hrothgar, future king of the Danes is born.
 
985 – The Vikings build a series of small settlements along Greenland and western North America
 
1000 AD – By now, 887 statues dot Easter Island.
 
Reign of Brian Boru of Ireland
 
1100 AD – Last pagan rituals held at Stonehenge.
 
1157 AD – King Eric of Sweden invades Kalevala (Ancient Finland) and introduces Christianity to the natives.
 
1160 AD – Traditional date of birth of Robin Hood
 
1206 AD Genghis Khan rules the Mongols, leading a siege over much of Eastern Europe
 
1456 – 1462 Reign of Vlad Tepes of Wallachia. A descendant of Genghis Khan, his brutality as a ruler inspires the legend of Dracula
 
1492, October 12 – Christopher Columbus begins his exploration of the New World.
 
1600 – Deforestation and lost top soil force the inhabitants of Easter Island to depart.
 
1614 August – The trial of Elizabeth Bathory, believed responsible for the deaths of over 800 young girls
 
1850 – Marie LaVeau at the height of her popularity in New Orleans
 
1888, Summer – Five prostitutes are slain in White Chapel, an area of London by a figure known only as Jack The Ripper
 
1898 AD – Heinrich Schliemann begins excavation on the site of Ancient Troy.
 
1922, November 26 – Howard Carter breaks in to the tomb of Tutankhamen. A curse supposedly claims the majority of his archeological team. 
 
1929 – Archaeologist Leonard Woolley digging pits near Ur comes upon evidence of a great flood dating back to the Second Millennium BC.
 
Sumerian King List

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Sumerian King List is an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer (ancient southern Iraq) from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of kingship. Kingship was seen as handed down by the gods, and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region.[1] Throughout its Bronze Age existence, the document evolved into a political tool. Its final and single attested version, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, aimed to legitimize Isin’s claims to hegemony when Isin was vying for dominance with Larsa and other neighboring city-states in southern Mesopotamia.[1][2]

Contents

1 Composition
1.1 Sources
2 The list
2.1 Antediluvian rulers
2.2 First Dynasty of Kish
2.3 First Dynasty of Uruk
2.4 First Dynasty of Ur
2.5 Dynasty of Awan
2.6 Second Dynasty of Kish
2.7 Dynasty of Hamazi
2.8 Second Dynasty of Uruk
2.9 Second Dynasty of Ur
2.10 Dynasty of Adab
2.11 Dynasty of Mari
2.12 Third Dynasty of Kish
2.13 Dynasty of Akshak
2.14 Fourth Dynasty of Kish
2.15 Third Dynasty of Uruk
2.16 Dynasty of Akkad
2.17 Fourth Dynasty of Uruk
2.18 Gutian rule
2.19 Fifth Dynasty of Uruk
2.20 Third Dynasty of Ur
2.21 Dynasty of Isin
3 See also
4 References
5 Literature
Composition
The list blends prehistorical, presumably mythical predynastic rulers enjoying implausibly lengthy reigns with later, more plausibly historical dynasties. Although the primal kings are historically unattested, this does not preclude their possible correspondence with historical rulers who were later mythicized. Some Assyriologists view the predynastic kings as a later fictional addition.[1][3] Only one ruler listed is known to be female:Kug-Bau “the (female) tavern-keeper”, who alone accounts for the Third Dynasty of Kish. The earliest listed ruler whose historicity has been archaeologically verified is Enmebaragesi of Kish, ca. 2600 BC. Reference to him and his successor, Aga of Kish in the Epic of Gilgamesh has led to speculation that Gilgamesh himself may have been a historical king of Uruk. Three dynasties are absent from the list: the Larsa dynasty, which vied for power with the (included) Isin dynasty during the Isin-Larsa period; and the two dynasties of Lagash, which respectively preceded and ensued the Akkadian Empire, when Lagash exercised considerable influence in the region. Lagash in particular is known directly from archaeological artifacts dating from ca. 2500 BC. The list is important to the chronology of the 3rd millennium BC. However, the fact that many of the dynasties listed reigned simultaneously from varying localities makes it difficult to reproduce a strict linear chronology.[1]
Sources
The following extant ancient sources contain the Sumerian King List, or fragments:
Apkullu-list (W.20030,7)
Babyloniaca (Berossus)
Dynastic Chronicle (ABC 18)[4] including copies, K 11261+ and K 12054
Kish Tablet (Scheil dynastic tablet)
UCBC 9-1819 (“California Tablet”)
WB 62
WB 444 (Weld-Blundell Prism) [5]
The last two sources (WB) are a part of the “Weld-Blundell collection”, donated by Herbert Weld Blundell to the Ashmolean Museum. WB 62 is a small clay tablet, inscribed only on the obverse, unearthed from Larsa. It is the oldest dated source (c. 2000 BC) containing the list.[6] WB 444 in contrast is a unique inscribed vertical prism,[1][7][8][9] dated c. 1817 BC, although some scholars prefer c. 1827 BC.[10] The Kish Tablet orScheil dynastic tablet is an early 2nd millennium BC tablet which came into possession of Jean-Vincent Scheil; it only contains king list entries for four Sumerian cities.[11] UCBC 9-1819 is a clay tablet housed in the collection of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of California.[12] The tablet was inscribed during the reign of the Babylonian King Samsu-iluna, or slightly earlier, with a minimum date of 1712 BC.[13] The Dynastic Chronicle (ABC 18) is a Babylonian king list written on six columns, beginning with entries for the antideluvian Sumerian rulers. K 11261+[14] is one of the copies of this chronicle, consisting of three joinedNeo-Assyrian fragments discovered at the Library of Ashurbanipal.[15] K 12054 is another of the Neo-Assyrian fragments from Uruk (c. 640 BC) but contains a variant form of the antediluvians on the list. The laterBabylonian and Assyrian king lists, preserved the earliest portions of the list well into the 3rd century BC, when Berossus’ Babyloniaca popularized fragments of the list in the Hellenic world. In 1960, the Apkullu-list (Tablet No. W.20030, 7) or “Uruk List of Kings and Sages” (ULKS) was discovered by German archaeologists at an ancient temple at Uruk. The list, dating to c. 165 BC, contains a series of kings, equivalent to the Sumerian antediluvians called “Apkullu”.[16]
The list
Early dates are approximate, and are based on available archaeological data; for most pre-Akkadian rulers listed, this king list is itself the lone source of information. Beginning with Lugal-zage-si and the Third Dynasty of Uruk (which was defeated by Sargon of Akkad), a better understanding of how subsequent rulers fit into the chronology of the ancient Near East can be deduced. The short chronology is used here.
Antediluvian rulers
None of the following predynastic antediluvian rulers has been verified as historical via archaeological excavations, epigraphical inscriptions, or otherwise. It is possible that they correspond to the Early Bronze AgeJemdet Nasr period culture which ended approximately 2900 BC, immediately preceding the dynasts,[17] if they were not purely mythological inventions.

The antediluvian reigns were measured in Sumerian numerical units known as sars (units of 3600), ners (units of 600), and sosses (units of 60).[18]
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates

Gold-Orb-Being-of-Light
Comments
“After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years.”
Alulim

8 sars (28,800 years)
Between 35th and 30th century BC

Alalngar

10 sars (36,000 years)

“Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira.”
En-men-lu-ana

12 sars (43,200 years)

En-men-gal-ana

8 sars (28,800 years)

Dumuzid, the Shepherd 
“the shepherd”
10 sars (36,000 years)

“Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship was taken to Larag.”
En-sipad-zid-ana

8 sars (28,800 years)

“Then Larag fell and the kingship was taken to Zimbir.”
En-men-dur-ana

5 sars and 5 ners (21,000 years)

“Then Zimbir fell and the kingship was taken to Shuruppag.”
Ubara-Tutu

5 sars and 1 ner (18,600 years)

“Then the flood swept over.”[19]
Excavations in Iraq have revealed evidence of localized flooding at Shuruppak (modern Tell Fara, Iraq) and various other Sumerian cities. A layer of riverine sediments, radiocarbon dated to ca. 2900 BC, interrupts the continuity of settlement, extending as far north as the city of Kish.Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period (3000-2900 BC) was discovered immediately below the Shuruppak flood stratum.[20]
First Dynasty of Kish
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
“After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was inKish.”
Jushur

1200 years
historicity uncertain
names before Etana do not appear in any other known source, and their existence is archaeologically unverified
Kullassina-bel

960 years

Nangishlishma

670 years

En-tarah-ana

420 years

Babum

300 years

Puannum

840 years

Kalibum

960 years

Kalumum

840 years

Zuqaqip

900 years

Atab (or A-ba)

600 years

Mashda
“the son of Atab”
840 years

Arwium
“the son of Mashda”
720 years

Etana
“the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries”
1500 years

Balih
“the son of Etana”
400 years

En-me-nuna

660 years

Melem-Kish
“the son of En-me-nuna”
900 years

Barsal-nuna
(“the son of En-me-nuna”)*
1200 years

Zamug
“the son of Barsal-nuna”
140 years

Tizqar
“the son of Zamug”
305 years

Ilku

900 years

Iltasadum

1200 years

En-me-barage-si
“who made the land of Elamsubmit”
900 years
ca. 2600 BC
the earliest ruler on the List confirmed independently from epigraphical evidence
Aga of Kish
“the son of En-me-barage-si”
625 years
ca. 2600 BC
contemporary with Gilgamesh ofUruk, according to theEpic of Gilgamesh[6] Gilgameš and Aga Translation at ETCSL
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.”
First Dynasty of Uruk
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Mesh-ki-ang-gasherof E-ana
“the son of Utu”
324 years
ca. 27th

“Mesh-ki-ang-gasher entered the sea and disappeared.”
Enmerkar
“the son of Mesh-ki-ang-gasher, the king of Unug, who built Unug (Uruk)”
420 years

Lugalbanda
“the shepherd”
1200 years

Dumuzid (Dumuzi)
“the fisherman whose city was Kuara.”
(“He capturedEn-me-barage-si single-handedly.”)*
100 years
ca. 2600 BC

Gilgamesh
“whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba”
126 years
ca. 2600 BC
contemporary withAga of Kish, according to theEpic of Gilgamesh[21]
Ur-Nungal
“the son of Gilgamesh”
30 years

Udul-kalama
“the son of Ur-Nungal”
15 years

La-ba’shum

9 years

En-nun-tarah-ana

8 years

Mesh-he
“the smith”
36 years

Melem-ana

6 years

Lugal-kitun

36 years

“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).”
First Dynasty of Ur
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Mesh-Ane-pada

80 years
ca. 26th century BC

Mesh-ki-ang-Nuna
“the son of Mesh-Ane-pada”
36 years

Elulu

25 years

Balulu

36 years

“Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.”
Dynasty of Awan[edit]
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Three kings of Awan

356 years
ca. 26th century BC

“Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.”
Second Dynasty of Kish
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Susuda
“the fuller”
201 years
ca. 26th century BC

Dadasig

81 years

Mamagal
“the boatman”
360 years

Kalbum
“the son of Mamagal”
195 years

Tuge

360 years

Men-nuna
“the son of Tuge”
180 years

(Enbi-Ishtar)

290 years

Lugalngu

360 years

“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.”
The First Dynasty of Lagash (ca. 2500 – ca. 2271 BC) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions
Dynasty of Hamazi
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Hadanish

360 years
ca. 2500 BC

“Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).”
Second Dynasty of Uruk
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
En-shag-kush-ana

60 years
ca. 25th century BC
said to have conquered parts of Sumer; then Eannatum of Lagashclaims to have taken over Sumer, Kish, and all Mesopotamia.
Lugal-kinishe-dudu or Lugal-ure

120 years

contemporary with Entemena ofLagash
Argandea

7 years

“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).”
Second Dynasty of Ur
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Nanni

120 years
ca. 25th century BC

Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II
“the son of Nanni”
48 years

(?)

2 years

“Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab.”
Dynasty of Adab
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Lugal-Ane-mundu

90 years
ca. 25th century BC
said to have conquered allMesopotamia from the Persian Gulf to the Zagros Mountains and Elam
“Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari.”
Dynasty of Mari
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Anbu

30 years
ca. 25th century BC

Anba
“the son of Anbu”
17 years

Bazi
“the leatherworker”
30 years

Zizi of Mari
“the fuller”
20 years

Limer
“the ‘gudug’ priest”
30 years

Sharrum-iter

9 years

“Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.”
Third Dynasty of Kish
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Kug-Bau(Kubaba)
“the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish”
100 years
ca. 25th century BC
the only known woman in the King List; said to have gained independence from En-anna-tum Iof Lagash and En-shag-kush-ana ofUruk; contemporary with Puzur-Nirah of Akshak, according to the later Chronicle of the É-sagila
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akshak.”
Dynasty of Akshak
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Unzi

30 years
ca. 25th – 24th century BC

Undalulu

6 years

Urur

6 years

Puzur-Nirah

20 years

contemporary with Kug-Bau of Kish, according to the later Chronicle of É-sagila
Ishu-Il

24 years

Shu-Suen of Akshak
“the son of Ishu-Il”
7 years

“Then Akshak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.”
Fourth Dynasty of Kish
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Puzur-Suen
“the son ofKug-Bau”
25 years
ca. 24th – 23rd century BC

Ur-Zababa
“the son of Puzur-Suen”
400 (6?) years
ca. 2300 BC
according to the king list,Sargon of Akkad was his cup-bearer
Zimudar

30 years

Usi-watar
“the son of Zimudar”
7 years

Eshtar-muti

11 years

Ishme-Shamash

11 years

(Shu-ilishu)*

(15 years)*

Nanniya
“the jeweller”
7 years
ca. 2303-2296 BC (short)

“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).”
Third Dynasty of Uruk
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Lugal-zage-si

25 years
ca. 2296–2271 BC (short)
said to have defeated Urukagina of Lagash, as well as Kish and other Sumerian cities, creating a unified kingdom; he in turn was overthrown by Sargon of Akkad
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Agade (Akkad)”

Dynasty of Akkad
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Sargon of Akkad
“whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade”
40 years
ca. 2270–2215 BC (short)
defeatedLugal-zage-siof Uruk, took over Sumer, and began the Akkadian Empire
Rimush of Akkad
“the son of Sargon”
9 years
ca. 2214–2206 BC (short)

Man-ishtishu
“the older brother of Rimush, the son of Sargon”
15 years
ca. 2205–2191 BC (short)

Naram-Sin of Akkad
“the son of Man-ishtishu”
56 years
ca. 2190–2154 BC (short)

Shar-kali-sharri
“the son of Naram-Sin”
25 years
ca. 2153–2129 BC (short)

“Then who was king? Who was not the king?”
Irgigi
Imi
Nanum
Ilulu
“and the 4 of them ruled for only 3 years”

ca. 2128–2125 BC (short)

Dudu of Akkad

21 years
ca. 2125–2104 BC (short)

Shu-Durul
“the son of Dudu”
15 years
ca. 2104–2083 BC (short)
Akkad falls to theGutians
“Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).”
Fourth Dynasty of Uruk
(Possibly rulers of lower Mesopotamia contemporary with the Dynasty of Akkad)
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Ur-ningin

7 years
ca. 2091? – 2061? BC (short)

Ur-gigir
“the son of Ur-ningin”
6 years

Kuda

6 years

Puzur-ili

5 years

Ur-Utu (or Lugal-melem)
(“the son of Ur-gigir”)*
25 years

“Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium.”
The 2nd Dynasty of Lagash (before ca. 2093–2046 BC (short)) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions.
Gutian rule
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
“In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years.”
Inkishush

6 years
ca. 2147–2050 BC (short)

Zarlagab

6 years

Shulme (or Yarlagash)

6 years

Silulumesh (or Silulu)

6 years

Inimabakesh (or Duga)

5 years

Igeshaush (or Ilu-An)

6 years

Yarlagab

3 years

Ibate of Gutium

3 years

Yarla (or Yarlangab)

3 years

Kurum

1 year

Apilkin

3 years

La-erabum

2 years

mace head inscription
Irarum

2 years

Ibranum

1 year

Hablum

2 years

Puzur-Suen
“the son of Hablum”
7 years

Yarlaganda

7 years

foundation inscription at Umma
(?)

7 years

Si-um or Si-u? — foundation inscription at Umma
Tirigan

40 days

defeated by Utu-hengal of Uruk
“Then the army of Gutium was defeated and the kingship taken to Unug (Uruk).”
Fifth Dynasty of Uruk
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Utu-hengal

conflicting dates (427 years / 26 years / 7 years)
ca. 2055–2048 BC (short)
defeats Tirigan and the Gutians, appoints Ur-Namma governor of Ur
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).”
Third Dynasty of Ur
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Ur-Namma(Ur-Nammu)

18 years
ca. 2047–2030 BC (short)
defeats Nammahani of Lagash; contemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk
Shulgi
“the son of Ur-Namma”
46 years
ca. 2029–1982 BC (short)
possible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC
Amar-Suena
“the son of Shulgi”
9 years
ca. 1981–1973 BC (short)

Shu-Suen
“the son of Amar-Suena”
9 years
ca. 1972–1964 BC (short)

Ibbi-Suen
“the son of Shu-Suen”
24 years
ca. 1963–1940 BC (short)

“Then Urim was defeated. The very foundation of Sumer was torn out. The kingship was taken toIsin.”
Independent Amorite states in lower Mesopotamia. The Dynasty of Larsa (ca. 1961–1674 BC (short)) from this period is not mentioned in the King List.
Dynasty of Isin
Ruler
Epithet
Length of reign
Approx. dates
Comments
Ishbi-Erra

33 years
ca. 1953–1730 BC (short)
contemporary of Ibbi-Suen ofUr
Shu-Ilishu
“the son of Ishbi-Erra”
20 years

Iddin-Dagan
“the son of Shu-ilishu”
20 years

Ishme-Dagan
“the son of Iddin-Dagan”
20 years

Lipit-Eshtar
“the son of Ishme-Dagan (or Iddin-Dagan)”
11 years

contemporary of Gungunum ofLarsa
Ur-Ninurta
(“the son of Ishkur, may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life”)*
28 years

Contemporary of Abisare ofLarsa
Bur-Suen
“the son of Ur-Ninurta”
21 years

Lipit-Enlil
“the son of Bur-Suen”
5 years

Erra-imitti

8 years

He appointed his gardener, Enlil-Bani, substitute king and then suddenly died.
Enlil-bani

24 years

contemporary of Sumu-la-El ofBabylon. He was Erra-imitti’s gardener and was appointed substitute king, to serve as a scapegoat and then sacrificed, but remained on the throne when Erra.imitti suddenly died.
Zambiya

3 years

contemporary of Sin-Iqisham ofLarsa
Iter-pisha

4 years

Ur-du-kuga

4 years

Suen-magir

11 years

(Damiq-ilishu)*
(“the son of Suen-magir”)*
(23 years)*

  • These epithets or names are not included in all versions of the king list.
    See also
    Art-of-the-Past-in-the-Present-Copy
    Ancient Near East portal
    Chronology of the Ancient Near East
    Cities of the ancient Near East
    History of Sumer
    Kings of Assyria
    List of kings of Iraq
    List of lists of ancient kings
    List of Mesopotamian dynasties
    Short chronology timeline
    References
  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Van De Mieroop, Marc (2004). A History of the Ancient Near East. Blackwell. p. 41. ISBN 0-631-22552-8.
  2. Jump up^ The spelling of royal names follows the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
  3. Jump up^ von Soden, Wolfram; Donald G. Schley, translator (1994). The Ancient Orient. Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 47. ISBN 0-8028-0142-0.
  4. Jump up^ translation
  5. Jump up^ translation
  6. Jump up^ Langdon, OECT2 (1923), pl. 6.
  7. Jump up^ [1] Stephen Langdon, Historical inscriptions, containing principally the chronological prism, W-B 444, Oxford University Press, 1923
  8. Jump up^ “WB-444 High Resolution Image from CDLI”.
  9. Jump up^ “WB-444 Line Art from CDLI”.
  10. Jump up^ Ancient Iraq: (Assyria and Babylonia), Peter Roger Stuart Moorey, Ashmolean Museum, 1976; The Sumerian King List, T. Jacobsen, University of Chicago Press, 1939, p. 77.
  11. Jump up^ “The Early Chronology of Sumer and Egypt and the Similarities in Their Culture”, S. Langdon, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 7, No. 3/4, Oct., 1921, p. 133. [2]
  12. Jump up^ “The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet”, J. J. Finkelstein, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1963, p. 39.
  13. Jump up^ Finkelstein, 1963, pp.39-40.
  14. Jump up^ Lambert and Millard, Cuneiform Texts 46 Nr. 5
  15. Jump up^ Bilingual Chronicle Fragments, Irving L. Finkel, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, Apr., 1980, pp. 65-80.
  16. Jump up^ A copy of the tablet appears in Jan van Dijk and Werner R. Mayer, Texte aus dem Rès-Heiligtum in Uruk-Warka, Bagdader Mitteilungen Beiheft 2 (Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1980), text no. 89 (= BaMB 2 89). For an edition of the text, see J. van Dijk, Die Inschriftenfunde, Vorläufiger Bericht über die… Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka 18 (1962), 44-52 and plate 27. [3]
  17. Jump up^ Wright, Henry. “The Earliest Bronze Age in Southwest Asia (3100-2700 BC)” (PDF). Retrieved 2008-07-04.
  18. Jump up^ [4] Christine Proust, Numerical and Metrological Graphemes: From Cuneiform to Transliteration, Cuneiform Digital Library Journal, 2009, ISSN 1540-8779
  19. Jump up^ http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr211.htm
  20. Jump up^ Harriet Crawford (2004), Sumer and the Sumerians, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-53338-6
  21. Jump up^ [5] Gilgameš and Aga Translation at ETCSL
    Literature
    Jacobsen, Thorkild. The Sumerian King List. Oriental Institute, Assyriological Studies 11, University of Chicago Press, 1939
    Rowton, M. B. The Date of the Sumerian King List, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 156–162, 1960
    P. Steinkeller, An Ur III Manuscript of the Sumerian King List. In Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien: Festschrift fur Claus Wilcke, ed. W. Sallaberger et al., Harrassowitz Verlag, pp. 267–92, 2003
    Young, Dwight W. The Incredible Regnal Spans of Kish I in the Sumerian King List, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 23–35, 1991
    Hallo, William W. Beginning and End of the Sumerian King List in the Nippur Recension, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 52–57, 1963
    Vincente, Claudine-Adrienne, “The Tall Leilan Recension of the Sumerian King List”, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 50 (1995), 234–270
    Friberg, Jöran. “The Beginning and the End of the Sumerian King List”, in A remarkable collection of Babylonian mathematical texts: Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection Cuneiform Texts I, Springer, 2007,ISBN 0-387-34543-4
    Michalowski, Piotr. History as Charter Some Observations on the Sumerian King List, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 237–248, 1983
    Jean-Jacques Glassner, Mesopotamian Chronicles, Brill, 2005, ISBN 90-04-13084-5
    J. J. Finkelstein, The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 39–51, 1963
    Albrecht Goetze, Early Kings of Kish, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 105–111, 1961
    Thomas Jacobs, The Sumerian King List, UGent paper, GONO department

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Era Cop Times News created by Theresa J Morris for her friends in cyberspace. Theresa is an author, entrepreneur and parapsychologist. Parapsychology is the branch of psychology that deals with the investigation of purportedly psychic phenomena, as clairvoyance, extrasensory perception, telepathy, and the like. TJ is a psychic medium who shares Consciousness & Soul. Love is the main ingredients as essence and energy of who and what we are as self. TJ is a Tarot Reader Life Coach and Spiritual Counselor. TJ is also an agent, consultant, and organizer and owns a small business in the USA. Theresa J Thurmond Morris, Theresa J Morris shortened her name as a brand to TJ Morris. Born Theresa Janette Thurmond, Monroe, Louisiana, USA, December 26, 1951 married, had four daughters all born in Texas. Became a private investigator, legal investigator, then worked for DOD, DON and GS status for US government. Studied arson, fraud, subrogation, personnel information security, and obtained security certificates before graduating U.S. Naval Hospital Corps School. Became interested in psychology, metaphysics, theology, neuroscience in 1980s and moved to Hawaii. Became a President CEO of a corporation and developed a line of clothing, handbags, small leather goods, shoes, and stationary items in cuercus suber oak as eco fashion 1990-1994. Founded the first Ascension Center and Psychic Network 1989 -1994. Transferred to Fort Hood, Killeen, TX where she met her husband Thomas R Morris, and US Army-Retired. Drove commercial semi 18 wheeler truck over the road all 48 lower states before becoming an author and blogger 2004-2014. Became an UFOlogist 2007 writing for UFO Digest.
Roswell-2BUFO-2BEncounters-2Bby-2BTheresa-2BJ.-2BMorrisAuthor of Books 2007-2014 include Roswell Encounters, Roswell Connection, Taken Up, Enchanted Development, Theresa of Ascension, Knowing Cosmology, ACO Alien Contact Organization. TJ became a Radio Host June 3, 2012 as TJ Morris ET Radio and Cosmos Connection and has panel discussions and interviews authors. TJ is a motivational speaker in paranormal and spiritual communities with ET UFO, OBE, NDE, Dreams, and conscious experience shares. TJ has had many experiences with energy as a receiver of information as a keeper of the flame and became an archivist with her first book as Theresa Keeper of the Flame kept inside the book Ascension Ancient Mystery schools Psychic Awakening Classes which she is caretaker of the only copy as her gremremgremoire to be passed down to her four daughters.. . Ascension Ancient Mysteries shares as ACE Metaphysical Institute and Ascension Center Energetics for ACO and ACE as a joint venture in cyberspace culture sharing a universal world view with TJ Morris at the helm as Commander for radio shows as TJ Morris ET.
Theresa of Ascension – Ascension Ancient Mystery Schools – Psychic Awakening Classes & Oher things for 2012 & Beyond – The Ascension Age – Magic times of the Mind. Soul Essence Consciousness and Neuro Science. Parapsychology has been part of a book of practicing communities online since TJ began sharing the Ascension Center in 1993. TJ knew what she needed to share communication to the world. It was important to share a new world view. This was known as the Ascension Age, Aquarian Age, and Golden Age of Communication & Cosmology.
Books Grimoire
Books of magic and for the operating system term, see Source Mage GNU/Linux.
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Design for an amulet comes from a central source the Black Pullet grimoire.
A grimoire /ɡrɪmˈwɑr/ is a textbook of magic.
Such books typically include instructions on how to create magical objects like talismans and amulets, how to perform magical spells, charms and divination and also how to summon or invoke supernatural entities such as angels, spirits, and demons.
In many cases, the books themselves are also believed to be imbued with magical powers, though in many cultures, other sacred texts that are not grimoires, such as the Bible, have also been believed to have supernatural properties intrinsically; in this manner while all books on magic could be thought of as grimoires, not all magical books should.

While the term grimoire is originally European and many Europeans throughout history, particularly ceremonial magicians and cunning folk, have made use of grimoires, the historian Owen Davies noted that similar books can be found all across the world, ranging from Jamaica to Sumatra, and he also noted that the first grimoires could be found not only in Europe but in the Ancient Near East.
Contents
Etymology
History
Ancient period
Medieval period
Early modern period
18th and 19th centuries
20th and 21st centuries
In popular culture
References
Bibliography
6 External links
Etymology
It is most commonly believed that the term grimoire originated from the Old French word grammaire, which had initially been used to refer to all books written in Latin. By the 18th century, the term had gained its now common usage in France and had begun to be used to refer purely to books of magic, which Owen Davies presumed was because “many of them continued to circulate in Latin manuscripts”.
The term grimoire also later developed into a figure of speech amongst the French indicating something that was hard to understand. It was only in the 19th century, with the increasing interest in occultism amongst the British following the publication of Francis Barrett’s The Magus (1801), that the term entered the English language in reference to books of magic.
History
Ancient period
The earliest known written magical incantations come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), where they have been found inscribed on various cuneiform clay tablets excavated by archaeologists from the city of Uruk and dated to between the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
The ancient Egyptians also employed magical incantations, which have been found inscribed on various amulets and other items. The Egyptian magical system, known as heka, was greatly altered and enhanced after the Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great, invaded Egypt in 332 BCE.
Under the next three centuries of Hellenistic Egypt, the Coptic writing system evolved, and the Library of Alexandria was opened, and this likely had an influence upon books of magic, with the trend on known incantations switching from simple health and protection charms to more specific things, such as financial success and sexual fulfillment.
It was also around this time that the legendary figure of Hermes Trismegistus developed as a conflation of the Egyptian god Thoth and the Greek Hermes; this figure was associated with both writing and magic, and therefore of books on magic.
The ancient Greeks and Romans believed that books on magic were invented by the Persians, with the 1st-century CE writer Pliny the Elder stating that magic had been first discovered by the ancient philosopher Zoroaster around the year 6347 BCE but that it was only written down in the 5th century BCE by the magician Osthanes—his claims are not, however, supported by modern historians.

The ancient Jewish people were also often viewed as being knowledgeable in magic, which, according to legend, they had learned from Moses, who himself had learned it in Egypt. Indeed, amongst many ancient writers, Moses himself was seen as an Egyptian rather than a Jew, and two manuscripts likely dating to the 4th century, both of which purport to be the legendary eighth Book of Moses (the first five being the initial books in the Biblical Old Testament), present him as a polytheist who explained how to conjure gods and subdue demons.
Meanwhile, there is definite evidence of grimoires being used by certain, particularly Gnostic, sects of early Christianity; in the Book of Enoch found within the Dead Sea Scrolls for instance, there is various information on astrology and the angels. In possible connection with the Book of Enoch, the idea of Enoch and his great-grandson Noah having some involvement with books of magic given to them by angels continued in various forms through to the medieval period.
“Many of those in Ephesus who believed in Christianity now came and openly confessed their evil deeds. A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly. When they calculated the value of the scrolls, the total came to fifty thousand drachmas. In this way the word of the Lord spread widely and grew in power.”
Acts 19, c. 1st century
Israelite King Solomon was a Biblical figure also associated with magic and sorcery in the ancient world. The 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian Josephus mentioned a book circulating under the name of Solomon that contained incantations for summoning demons and described how a Jew called Eleazar used it to cure cases of possession. The book may have been the Testament of Solomon but was more probably a different work.
The pseudepigraphic Testament of Solomon is one of the oldest magical texts. It is a Greek manuscript attributed to Solomon and likely written in either Babylonia or Egypt sometime in the first five centuries CE, over a thousand years after Solomon’s death. The work tells of the building of The Temple and relates that construction was hampered by demons until the angel Michael gave the king a magical ring. The ring, engraved with the Seal of Solomon, had the power to bind demons from doing harm. Solomon used it to lock certain demons within jars and commanded others to do his bidding, although eventually, according to the Testament, he was tempted into worshipping “false gods”, such as Moloch, Baal, and Rapha. Subsequently, after losing favor with God, King Solomon wrote the work as both a warning and a guide to the reader.
Notwithstanding the accounts of Biblical figures like Moses, Enoch and Solomon being associated with magical practices, when Christianity became the dominant faith of the Roman Empire, the early Church frowned upon the propagation of books on magic, connecting it with paganism, and burned books of magic. The New Testament records that St. Paul had called for the burning of magic and pagan books in the city of Ephesus; this advice was adopted on a large scale after the Christian ascent to power. Even before Christianization, the Imperial Roman government had suppressed many pagan, Christian, philosophical, and divinatory texts that it viewed as threats to Roman authority, including those of the Greek mystic and mathematician Pythagoras.
Medieval period
In the Medieval period, the production of grimoires continued in Christendom, as well as amongst Jews and the followers of the newly founded Islamic faith. As the historian Owen Davies noted, “while the Christian Church was ultimately successful in defeating pagan worship it never managed to demarcate clearly and maintain a line of practice between religious devotion and magic,” and the use of such books on magic continued.
In Christianized Europe, the Church divided books of magic into two kinds; those that dealt with “natural magic” and those that dealt in “demonic magic”. The former was acceptable, because it was viewed as merely taking note of the powers in nature that were created by God; for instance, the Anglo-Saxon leechbooks, which contained simple spells designed for medicinal purposes, were tolerated. However, the latter, demonic magic was not acceptable, because it was believed that such magic did not come from God, but from the Devil and his demons – these grimoires dealt in such topics as necromancy, divination and demonology. Despite this, “there is ample evidence that the mediaeval clergy were the main practitioners of magic and therefore the owners, transcribers, and circulators of grimoires,” while several grimoires were actually attributed to various Popes.
An excerpt from Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, featuring various magical sigils (or סגולות, seguloth, in Hebrew)
One such Arabic grimoire devoted to astral magic, the 12th-century Ghâyat al-Hakîm fi’l-sihr, was later translated into Latin and circulated in Europe during the 13th century under the name of the Picatrix. Not all such grimoires of this era were based upon Arabic sources; the 13th-century the Sworn Book of Honorius, like the ancient Testament of Solomon before it, largely based upon the supposed teachings of the Biblical king Solomon and also included ideas such as prayers and a ritual circle, with the mystical purpose of having visions of God, Hell, and Purgatory and gaining much wisdom and knowledge as a result. Another was the Hebrew Sefer Raziel Ha-Malakh, translated in Europe as the Liber Razielis Archangeli.
A later book also claiming to have been written by Solomon was originally written in Greek during the 15th century, where it was known as the Magical Treatise of Solomon or the Little Key of the Whole Art of Hygromancy, Found by Several Craftmen and by the Holy Prophet Solomon. In the 16th century, this work had been translated into Latin and Italian, being renamed the Clavicula Salomonis, or the Key of Solomon.
Christendom during the Mediaeval Age, grimoires were written that were attributed to other ancient figures, thereby supposedly giving them a sense of authenticity because of their antiquity.
The German Abbot and occultist Trithemius (1462–1516) supposedly had in his possession a Book of Simon the Magician, based upon the New Testament figure of Simon Magus. Magus had been a contemporary of Jesus Christ’s and, like the Biblical Jesus, had supposedly performed miracles, but had been demonized by the Medieval Church as a devil worshipper and evil individual.
It was commonly believed by mediaeval people that other ancient figures, such as the poet Virgil, astronomer Ptolemy and philosopher Aristotle, had been involved in magic, and grimoires claiming to have been written by them were circulated. There were those who did not believe this; for instance, the Franciscan friar Roger Bacon (c. 1214–94) stated that books falsely claiming to be by ancient authors “ought to be prohibited by law”.
Early modern period
As the early modern period commenced in the late 15th century, many changes began to shock Europe that would have an effect on the production of grimoires; the historian Owen Davies classed the most important of these as being the Protestant Reformation and subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the witch-hunts and the advent of printing. The Renaissance saw the continuation of interest in magic that had been found in the Mediaeval period, and in this period, there was an increased interest in Hermeticism amongst occultists and ceremonial magicians in Europe, largely fueled by the 1471 translation of the ancient Corpus hermeticum into Latin by Marsilio Ficino (1433–99). Alongside this, there was also a rise in interest in a form of Jewish mysticism known as the Kabbalah, which was spread across the continent by Pico Della Mirandola and Johannes Reuchlin.
The most important magician of the Renaissance was Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535), who widely studied various occult topics and earlier grimoires and eventually published his own, the Three Books of Occult Philosophy, in 1533.
A similar figure was the Swiss magician known as Paracelsus (1493–1541), who published Of the Supreme Mysteries of Nature, in which he emphasized the distinction between good and bad magic.
A third such individual at the time was Johann Georg Faust, upon whom several pieces of later literature were written, such as Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus that portrayed him as consulting with demons.
The idea of demonology had remained strong in the Renaissance, and several demonological grimoires were published, including The Fourth Book of Occult Philosophy, which falsely claimed to having been authored by Agrippa, and the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, which listed 69 different demons.
To counter this, the Roman Catholic Church authorized the production of many works of exorcism, the rituals of which were often very similar to those of demonic conjuration. Alongside these demonological works, grimoires on natural magic also continued to be produced, including Magia naturalis, written by Giambattista Della Porta (1535–1615).
Man inscribed in a pentagram, from Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa’s De Occulta Philosophia (Eng., Three Books of Occult Philosophy). The signs on the perimeter are astrological.
The advent of printing in Europe meant that books could be mass-produced for the first time and could reach an ever-growing literate audience. Amongst the earliest books to be printed were magical texts; the nóminas were one example of this, consisting of prayers to the saints used as talismans.
It was particularly in Protestant countries, such as Switzerland and the German states, which were not under the domination of the Roman Catholic Church, where such grimoires were published. Despite the advent of print however, handwritten grimoires remained highly valued, as they were believed to contain inherent magical powers within them, and they continued to be produced.
Increasing availability to people lower down the social scale and women began to have access to books on magic; this was often incorporated into the popular folk magic of the average people, and in particular, that of the cunning folk, who were professionally involved in folk magic.
These works also left Europe and were imported to those parts of Latin America controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese empires and the parts of North America controlled by the British and French empires.
Throughout this period, the Inquisition, a Roman Catholic organization, had organized the mass suppression of peoples and beliefs that they considered heretical.
In many cases, grimoires were found in the heretics’ possessions and destroyed.
In 1599, the church published the Indexes of Prohibited Books, in which many grimoires were listed as forbidden, including several mediaeval ones, such as the Key of Solomon, which were still popular.
In Christendom, there also began to develop a widespread fear of witchcraft, which was believed to be Satanic in nature, and the subsequent hysteria, known as the Witch Hunt, caused the death of around 40,000 people, most of whom were women.
Sometimes, those found with grimoires, particularly of a demonological nature, were prosecuted and dealt with as witches, but in most cases, those accused had no access to such books.
The European nation that proved the exception to this, however, was the highly literate Iceland, where a third of the 134 witch trials held involved people who had owned grimoires.
By the end of the Early Modern period and the beginning of the Enlightenment, many European governments brought in laws prohibiting many superstitious beliefs in an attempt to bring an end to the Witch Hunt; this would invariably affect the release of grimoires.
Meanwhile, Hermeticism and the Kabbalah would influence the creation of a mystical philosophy known as Rosicrucianism, which first appeared in the early 17th century, when two pamphlets detailing the existence of the mysterious Rosicrucian group were published in Germany. These claimed that Rosicrucianism had originated with a medieval figure known as Christian Rosenkreuz, who had founded the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross; however, there was no evidence for the existence of Rosenkreuz or the Brotherhood.
18th and 19th centuries
“Emperor Lucifer, master of all the rebel spirits, I beg you to favor me in the call that I am making to your grand minister LUCIFUGÉ ROFOCALE, desiring to make a pact with him; I beg you also, prince Beelzebub to protect me in my undertaking. O count Astarot! Be favorable to me, and make it so that this night the grand Lucifege appears to me in human form, and without any bad odor, and that he accords to me, by the pact that I am going to present to him, all the riches I need.”
From the Grand Grimoire.
The 18th century saw the rise of the Enlightenment, a movement devoted to science and rationalism, predominantly amongst the ruling classes. However, amongst much of Europe, belief in magic and witchcraft persisted, as did the witch trials in certain areas. Certain governments did try and crack down on magicians and fortune tellers particularly that of France, where the police viewed them as social pests who took money from the gullible, often in a search for treasure. In doing so, they confiscated many grimoires.
It was also in France that a new form of printing developed, the Bibliothèque bleue, and many grimoires published through this circulated amongst an ever-growing percentage of the populace, in particular the Grand Albert, the Petit Albert (1782), the Grimoire du Pape Honorious and the Enchiridion Leonis Papae. The Petit Albert in particular contained a wide variety of different forms of magic, for instance, dealing in both simple charms for ailments along with more complex things such as the instructions for making a Hand of Glory.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, following the French Revolution of 1789, a hugely influential grimoire was published under the title of the Grand Grimoire, which was considered particularly powerful, because it involved conjuring and making a pact with the devil’s chief minister, Lucifugé Rofocale, in order to gain wealth from him. A new version of this grimoire was later published under the title of the Dragon rouge and was available for sale in many Parisian bookstores.
Similar books published in France at the time included the Black Pullet and the Grimoirium Verum. The Black Pullet, probably authored in late-18th-century Rome or France, differs from the typical grimoires in that it does not claim to be a manuscript from antiquity but told by a man who was a member of Napoleon’s armed expeditionary forces in Egypt.
The widespread availability of such printed grimoires in France—despite the opposition of both the rationalists and the church—spread to neighboring countries such as Spain and Germany.
In Switzerland, the city of Geneva was commonly associated with the occult at the time, particularly by Catholics, because it had been a stronghold of Protestantism, and many of those interested in the esoteric travelled from their own Roman Catholic nations to Switzerland to purchase grimoires or to study with occultists.
Soon, grimoires appeared that involved Catholic saints within them; one such example that appeared during the 19th century that became relatively popular, particularly in Spain, was the Libro de San Cipriano, or The Book of St. Ciprian, which falsely claimed to date from c. 1000. Like most grimoires of this period, it dealt with many things including how to discover treasure.
Title page of the 1880 New York edition of The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses
In Germany, with the increased interest in folklore during the 19th century, many historians took an interest in magic and in grimoires. Several published extracts of such grimoires in their own books on the history of magic, thereby helping to further propagate them. Perhaps the most notable of these was the Protestant pastor Georg Conrad Horst (1779–1832), who from 1821 to 1826, published a six-volume collection of magical texts in which he studied grimoires as a peculiarity of the Mediaeval mindset.
Another scholar of the time interested in grimoires, the antiquarian bookseller Johann Scheible, first published the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, two influential magical texts that claimed to have been written by the ancient Jewish figure Moses.
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses were amongst the works that later spread to the countries of Scandinavia, where, in Danish and Swedish, grimoires were known as black books and were commonly found amongst members of the army.
In Britain, new grimoires continued to be produced throughout the 18th century, such as Ebenezer Sibly’s A New and Complete Illustration of the Celestial Science of Astrology.
In the last decades of that century, London experienced a revival of interest in the occult, and this was only further propagated when Francis Barrett published The Magus in 1801.
The Magus contained many things taken from older grimoires, particularly those of Cornelius Agrippa, and while not achieving initial popularity upon release, gradually became a particularly influential text.
One of Barrett’s pupils, John Parkin, created his own handwritten grimoire, The Grand Oracle of Heaven, or, The Art of Divine Magic, although it was never actually published, largely because Britain at the time was at war with France, and grimoires were commonly associated with the French. The only writer to publish British grimoires widely in the early 19th century, Robert Cross Smith, released The Philosophical Merlin (1822) and The Astrologer of the Nineteenth Century (1825), but neither sold well.
In the late 19th century, several of these texts (including the Abra-Melin text and the Key of Solomon) were reclaimed by para-Masonic magical organizations, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and the Ordo Templi Orientis.
20th and 21st centuriesimages-18-2
The Secret Grimoire of Turiel claims to have been written in the 16th century, but no copy older than 1927 has been produced.
A modern grimoire is the Simon Necronomicon, named after a fictional book of magic in the stories of H. P. Lovecraft and inspired by Babylonian mythology and the “Ars Goetia”, a section in the Lesser Key of Solomon that concerns the summoning of demons. The Azoëtia of Andrew D. Chumbley has been described as a modern grimoire.
The neopagan religion of Wicca publicly appeared in the 1940s, and Gerald Gardner introduced the Book of Shadows as a Wiccan grimoire.
In the first decade of the 21st century, an assembly of practitioners of esoteric magic, known as the Grey Council, founded the world’s first recognized school of wizardry in California, USA. Incorporated on 14 March 2004, the Grey School of Wizardry is a non-denominational, secular non-profit educational institution. The school received a 501(c) (3) tax exemption from the Internal Revenue Service on September 27, 2007. The school’s headmaster Oberon Zell-Ravenheart wrote and compiled the school’s Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard (New Page, 2004) and the sequel Companion for the Apprentice Wizard (New Page 2006).
In popular cultureMorris-Publishing-Timely-Manor-Books-Mom-s-Logo-TJ-Morris-and-Tess-Thomas1
The term Grimoire commonly serves as an alternative name for a spell book or tome of magical knowledge in fantasy fiction and role-playing games. The most famous fictional Grimoire is the Necronomicon, a creation of H. P. Lovecraft.
In the film The Sorcerer this type of book was called the Incantus.
In the television series Charmed, the Grimoire is known as the evil equivalent of the Halliwell sisters’ Book of Shadows. In the television series Witches of East End, a Grimoire is a book of spells used by the Beauchamp witches in the show. In the television series The Vampire Diaries and its spin-off The Originals, a Grimoire is a witch’s record of all of her/his spells, rituals, potions, and herbs.
The central book of spells in the Disney animated fantasy adventure series Gargoyles, the Grimorum Arcanorum, is an ancient book of magic used by Demona and David Xanatos in various schemes throughout the series’ storyline. In the video game Nier, one of the main characters is a talking grimoire who is usually referred to as Weiss, despite his protests that his companions should use his full title, Grimoire Weiss.
Rose Lalonde from Homestuck had a Grimoire for Summoning the Zoologically Dubious, which she alchemized together with her Needlewands to create the Thorns of Oglogoth.
In Gregory Maguire’s series of books set in the Land of Oz: Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, Son of a Witch, A Lion Among Men, and Out of Oz referred to together as The Wicked Years, there is a book of spells and other magical arcana called the Grimmerie. The name is an example of Maguire’s subtle changing of familiar words that help to remind readers that while the place they read about is mostly familiar, it is also ever so slightly skewed.
In the 2014 video game Destiny, Grimoire cards are obtained by the player by playing different game modes. The main purpose of the Grimoire is to give player a little bit of background lore relating to the destiny universe.
Levels of Life are being written by historian Theresa J Morris aka TJ Morris to serve others on planet earth. The main reason that Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris shares her information with others is to usher in the Ascension Age as an Era Cop so that others may enjoy health and prosperity for all while on the planet. TJ shares that we are ETs just visiting this planet.
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References
Morris, Theresa J (2009) Ascension Age, 2012 & Beyond, Timely Manor Books, ISBN
Butler, E. M. (1979). “The Solomonic Cycle”. Ritual Magic (Reprint ed.). CUP Archive. ISBN 0-521-295
Davies, Owen (2009). Grimoires: A History of Magic Books. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 9780199204519. OCLC 244766270.53-X.
Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (2006). “Grimoire”. The Encyclopedia of Magic and Alchemy. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1-4381-3000-7.
Malchus, Marius (2011). The Secret Grimoire of Turiel. Theophania Publishing. ISBN 978-1-926842-80-6.
Semple, Gavin (1994) ‘The Azoëtia – reviewed by Gavin Semple’, Starfire Vol. I, No. 2, 1994, p. 194.
Davies, Owen (4 April 2008). “Owen Davies’s top 10 grimoires”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
Myash, Jeff, (March 2, 2011), “This spells trouble! Real-life Dumbledore opens world’s first wizard school”, MailOnline, Retrieved October 13, 2013.
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Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide ISBN 978-0-557-40127-7
ID: 14356281
Category: Religion & Spirituality
Description: A woman ET Contactee shares information that was part of her spiritual path. The Book becomes her book of shadows to remember how that of the past may haunt the future based on information kept for future reference that was life changing.
Publisher: TJ Morris ACO LLC
Copyright Year: © 2014
Language: English
Keywords: aliens, UFO, Contactee, Ascension, Metaphysics, Esoteric, Trance Channel
License: Standard Copyright License

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BIO THERESA J. MORRIS Theresa J Morris, known as TJ Morris ~ Theresa J Morris, author, entrepreneur, radio host, advocate for the working class net citizens.  Theresa’s books are available through many websites including her own theresajmorris.com.  Theresa is a former toastmaster member and speaker on various paranormal phenomena.   TJ Morris shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including branding and product design for entrepreneurs and inventors. Being an Artist and Author TJ began her web presence as a syndicated columnist and graduated to a publisher and webmaster. As a result TJ has launched several brands and associations including the ACE and ACO in the world. TJ has become the advocate for various causes including civil rights while sharing ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. TJ Morris Media is a home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, entrepreneurs, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Theresa’s background is in investigations and getting the unbiased facts as a syndicated columnist. Her passion is ancient history and new conscious thought research of the critical mass mind and internet.  TJ now shares TJ Morris dba ACIR in American Culture Internet Relations in communications, education, and information in various topics including ancient history and forteana (anomalous phenomena). Paranormal Romance based on ancient past and new thought teachings with metaphysics is a passion of her writing interests

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Theresa J Morris on TJ Morris Radio

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Theresa J Morris Biography
BIO THERESA J. MORRIS Theresa J Morris, known as TJ Morris ~ Theresa J Morris, author, entrepreneur, radio host, advocate for the working class net citizens.  Theresa’s books are available through many websites including her own theresajmorris.com.  Theresa is a former toastmaster member and speaker on various paranormal phenomena.   TJ Morris shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including branding and product design for entrepreneurs and inventors. Being an Artist and Author TJ began her web presence as a syndicated columnist and graduated to a publisher and webmaster. As a result TJ has launched several brands and associations including the ACE and ACO in the world. TJ has become the advocate for various causes including civil rights while sharing ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. TJ Morris Media is a home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, entrepreneurs, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Theresa’s background is in investigations and getting the unbiased facts as a syndicated columnist. Her passion is ancient history and new conscious thought research of the critical mass mind and internet.  TJ now shares TJ Morris dba ACIR in American Culture Internet Relations in communications, education, and information in various topics including ancient history and forteana (anomalous phenomena). Paranormal Romance based on ancient past and new thought teachings with metaphysics is a passion of her writing interests

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TOS
When reproducing our materials in whole or in part, a hyperlink to EraCop.Com should be made. The opinions and views of the authors do not always coincide with the point of view of EraCop.Com’s editors.
EraCop.COM All rights reserved. FAIR USE NOTICE: These pages contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. This website distributes this material without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. We believe this constitutes a fair use of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 17 U.S.C $ 107. EraCop.com Privacy Policy. If you would like to sponsor or advertise your link with our trusted friends social network please submit the following information to TJMorrisConsultant@gmail.com. Thank you, tj@tjmorrismedia.com

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Some programs format CSV files differently. You might need to use either Google Drive or Open Office to save your CSV file so that it will upload correctly.
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TJ Morris aka Theresa J Morris, Author-Speaker

BIO THERESA J. MORRIS

TJ Morris ACIR-ACO Media

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Theresa J Morris, known as TJ Morris ~ Theresa J Morris, author, entrepreneur, radio host, advocate for the working class net citizens. Theresa’s books are available through many websites including her own theresajmorris.com. Theresa is a former toastmaster member and speaker on various paranormal phenomena. TJ Morris shares vision and strategy as well as day-to-day operations. Since the beginning TJ has focused on simplicity while inspiring creativity through solving problems with thoughtful guidance and suggestions including branding and product design for entrepreneurs and inventors. Being an Artist and Author TJ began her web presence as a syndicated columnist and graduated to a publisher and webmaster. As a result TJ has launched several brands and associations including the ACE and ACO in the world. TJ has become the advocate for various causes including civil rights while sharing ancient wisdom and new thought teachings. TJ Morris Media is a home for visual storytelling for everyone from brands, artists, authors, co-creators, educators, entrepreneurs, musicians, speakers, radio show hosts, web masters, and people with a creative passion. Theresa’s background is in investigations and getting the unbiased facts as a syndicated columnist. Her passion is ancient history and new conscious thought research of the critical mass mind and internet. TJ now shares TJ Morris dba ACIR in American Culture Internet Relations in communications, education, and information in various topics including ancient history and forteana (anomalous phenomena). Paranormal Romance based on ancient past and new thought teachings with metaphysics is a passion of her writing interests. – See more at: http://aquarianradio.com/2015/07/29/we-the-anunnaki-charlotte-rose-karen-patrick-janet-lessin/#sthash.ddQX98g0.dpuf

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Cosmos Conscious TJ

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TJ’s Life StoryMF ME~I See Aliens & UFOS~Angels?
By: Theresa J Morris

One might wonder where we began as in the munificent omniscience of the beginning. M for Mother and F for Father and ME well for me to explain where we believe we actually came from in the present beginning of what we expect to know in this reality. But what of the matrix of the all that is not reality as we know it to exist with the senses? What about that which lies outside of our very own consciousness? I see aliens, UFOS, and angels. Does that make me a mystic?

One might say that MF is for MotherFxxKing in today’s language in pop culture.

Me, well I say that being me is alien to other people and that is fact. UFOS and angels on the other hand are two separate words that deal with what I speak the most about in life in the paranormal realm of my existence. I have been interested in the cosmos all my life. I was born with mystical experiences as a part of my being. As in being who I am as part of my soul. My soul being that which is the core of my essence. I experience the core of my essence here in this reality like most humanoid sentient intelligent beings, meaning with my senses. That is the main ingredients that make us seem human with sight, smell, hearing, tasting, touch, and also feeling intuitively with my emotional body. However, the oldest part of our very existence is our core that is considered that which drives us all as the core of our soul’s existence as the energy we all manifest both separately and together.

We share attributes biologically of both our father and mother our two parents who are our biological creators on this planet. But what about who made them and so on and so forth all the way back to the beginning of time? Who made us?

This may be a mystical experience of why we are here. The energy as essence at the core of our own belief system that makes up what we experience, what we perceive as our own selves may not be the truth of that which is real in this reality we know we share as life on planet earth. We are all waking up to the fact that there is more than our mother, father, and me. Now we share the fact of the unity in we. We are the consciousness and we share the cosmos which is more than our own self, more than our mother and father, more than our family and friends, and even more than our home, our planet, and our existence of that which we think we control and know.
When we close our eyes at night and we will sooner or later have to close our eyes for we are human after all, what do you see inside at the core of your very own being? Is it you, God, or Goddess, or all three inside you as me or we? The real cosmos experience is this knowing there is always more than MF ME!

 

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STARSEEDS, LIGHTWORKERS, TRUTHSEEKERS, CONTACTEES, EXPERIENCERS FRIENDS
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Office: TJMorrisPublishing@gmail.com, at http://tjmorrismedia.com
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Monday – BTR-Enchanted Development Club 10-11 E
Tuesday – BTR – TJ Morris ET Spirit Guide Tarot Tuesday – 10-11E
Wednesday – BTR – Ascension Center Education Energetic Women TJ Morris Media -10-11 E
Thursday – BTR – ERA Cop -Thur-Men – TJ Morris Media – 10-11 E
Friday – BTR- TJ Morris Treasure Show -BS.TJMorrisRadio.com-10-11E
Saturday – Revolution Radio on Freedomslips.com -Cosmos Connection 6-8E
Saturday Night – TJ Morris ET Radio presents Alien Contact Org 10-11E
Sunday – BTR – ACE Metaphysical Institute – ACE Nonprofit Inc – TJ Morris Media 10-11E
Agent (A) Consultant (C) Organizer (O) as ACO for Each agent, consultant, organizer in our social networkinf-social media online community we share http://acenonprofitinc.com ACE Nonprofit Inc
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CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION FOR THE RECEIVER FROM THE SENDER OF TJ MORRIS dba ACIR- ACO – ACE Community Online Practicing Skills as COPS. ERACOP.com, Theresa J Morris known as TJ Morris ET Experiencer Intuitive Tarot Reader-Life Coach TJ Morris dba ACIR – ACE Paranormal Spirit Club, http://theresajmorris.com, EMAIL: TJMorrisRadio@gmail.com, SKYPE: TJMorrisET, PHONES: 270-274-6707/270-955-2055, Office: TJ Morris dba ACIR DISCLAIMER: – The contents of this e-mail and any attachment(s) are confidential and intended for the named recipient(s) only. It shall not attach any liability on the originator or. Any views or opinions presented in this email are solely those of the author and may not necessarily reflect the opinions. Any form of reproduction, dissemination, copying, disclosure, modification, distribution and / or publication of this message without the prior written consent of the author of this e-mail is strictly prohibited. If you have received this email in error please delete it and notify the sender immediately. Before opening any mail and attachments please check them for viruses and defect. Confidential based as proprietary from sender to receiver. TJ Morris MEDIA, TJ Morris dba ACIR, ACO, TJ Morris Publishing – News – Media – Hosting. Members Publishing Objective Unbiased Reporting – ACIR in the USA. TJ Morris dba ACIR. Author Investigative Journalism.  We offer Sponsored Posts Separate for our Newsletter for funding purposes. © TJ Morris ACIR Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Protected by copyright laws of the United States and international treaties. This website may be used pursuant to the subscription agreement and any reproduction, copy, or redistribution (electronic or otherwise, including on the World Wide Web). In whole or in part, is strictly prohibited without the express written permission of TJ Morris dba ACIR – TJ Morris Media-TJ Morris Hosting, 

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