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ACE FOLKLIFE
LIGHTWORKERS GUIDE
ASCENSION
Cosmology
GOLDEN AGE OF COSMOLOGY
By: Theresa J. Morris COPYRIGHT PAGE
Printing by Lulu Enterprises Inc., Raleigh, NC 27607 US,
TJ MORRIS tm ACIR sm TJ Thurmond Morris products and services © Applicable content copyright 2011 perpetually. One in a Series of Books
ISBN# 978-1-105-18977-7

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Recommended and endorsed by the TJ Morris.org, and Ascension Center.org for art, culture, education.
Historical with locales noted on the North American Continent including Canada, and USA.
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Published simultaneously in Canada
August 2011
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www.AscensionCenter.Org, www.tjmorris.org,acir.org,etspirit.org,theresamorris.net,timelymanorbooks.com,tjmorris.us, www.tjthurmondmorris.com, http://www.AmericanNewsmagazine.com, www.socialparanormal.com, theresajmorris.wordpress.com, and/or www.theresamorris.com. Images presented here are believed to be in the public domain unless a copyright notice is given, if we have made an error please contact me with information. I will accredit the image or have it removed.
In an effort to better serve our readers and visitors of TJ Morris tm ACIR sm products and services of owner Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris, aka Theresamorris.com we hope to share art, culture, education, science, and technology in the ascension age of awareness.
For more information, read our Internet websites. Social or public policy is highly political and is created based upon a mixture of interest group activity, public opinion, and values held by politicians at the time of the making of public policy. Administration on the other hand is made to not be political because of the fact that bureaucratic administration is strictly the execution of laws and policy that has already been enacted. Political Science is the study of both of these areas. Introduction
I would like to introduce that expansion of our minds we may regard as outside of the ALIEN ET BOX. That which we can share as outside of this Omniverse as the ET Creator Deities also known as ALPHA and OMEGA or the Beginning and End. We have all heard of the seven (7) heavens or have we? Universe, Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse, Omniverse, Alphaverse, Omegaverse. The Golden Age of Cosmology is shared with the ACE Folklife common folk of the world.
One may have noticed that the “COMMON FOLK” are those who are in the streets these days uniting for common causes. It is said that there are only 10% classed as the wealthiest in the world while the other 90% is not. Does that mean that there is no middle ground for the middle class?
We share the planet as humanoid sentient intelligent beings and we are all considered one species. Why is it that there has been allowed in the past the corporations with their investors to believe that their CEO should make 550 times that of the common employee? It is not fair and there has to be some changes made in the world of corporate power and greed.
We believe in the social entrepreneurs of the social networks. We also know that it is entrepreneurs of the world that learn to find their passion, go out to create a better world with products and services, find their teams and groups to work on their new projects to be called corporations then go out and find their investors as angels for their investment capital. This is the way it has always been since the world decided to revolve around corporations and then came the stock markets.
Now, we can share the future Ascension Age as the Golden Age of Cosmology and the NEW AGE ACE FOLKLIFE will share our cultural refinements that include the changes to be made in politics and religions. We are seeing a major change among the common folk all over the world.
We are now going to be able to assist the third world countries and many of our churches are about feeding the hungry and educating those who are unable to find education in their lives. This is a time that our fellowship organizations can step up and be counted as the good Samaritans and ask themselves for real what would Jesus do? ALPHA & OMEGA SYNERGY ENERGY
ASCENSION AGE
(Golden Age Cosmology)
We all are experiencing our past, present, future as the IMMORTALS of our SOULS!
Those who I am finding out on earth that are humanoids have large holes in their education about who they are, why there are here, what they are to explore, and what will happen to them when they leave earth.
Therefore, I am inclined to share what was sent to me as inspired thoughts about the ASCENSION CENTER and the symbol. For those who believe in ALIENS and ET one might believe that I am a messenger.
I believe I am based on my past life and death experiences in this lifetime and my memories of reincarnation. I share what I can as what is now referred to as a Spiritual Teacher or Spiritual Guide.
Some believe that Avatars are reincarnated spirits and I tend to agree. There are spiritual avatars and internet avatars and in some ways we are similar. Please share this article with those who believe in the Alien ET Ascension Age. Some of us don’t only believe but we know of our existence as those who are to share parts of ourselves. We know that something wonderful is happening and occurring right now today as in the PRESENT!
We who are called PSYCHICS and REMOTE VIEWERS have all learned to astral travel in a manner of speaking. We can share the various time frames and dimensions we share in space that we call the cosmos. I shall end this with a quote of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos but please take the time to read this article and copy it to your “Hidden Archive Treasure FILES”.
We are all “IMMORTAL SOULS” – Ascension Center Organization teachers the continuous process of the expansion of our souls creations. Theresa (Tara) J. Thurmond Morris – Founder of Ascension, ET Spirit, TJ
Alien to our own way of thinking is that which we call the God force also known as the God Particle or ET particle in the cosmos. We of the world that are sharing the word “FUTURISTS” as “SEERS” also enjoy knowing that we can use our “Screen of the mind” or our “PSYCHE”.
I have shared a part of me in three (3) as that which has my signature on what we call creation of websites on the Internet Online which is our cyberspace reality in the cosmos.
1. AscensionCenter.org, 2. ETSpirit.org, 3. TJMorris.org as my contribution to our future Esprit de Corps. I am choosing to share that which I would normally place on these websites as that which also should be welcomed by Dirk Vander Ploeg of UFO Digest.com.
We share our thoughts and creations on earth and welcome all others who desire to link to us and our creations as websites in cyberspace. Virtual reality is one layer of our existence.
as what is now referred to as a Spiritual Teacher or Spiritual Guide. Some believe that Avatars are reincarnated spirits and I tend to agree. There are spiritual avatars and internet avatars and in some ways we are similar. Please share this article with those who believe in the Alien ET Ascension Age. Some of us don’t only believe but we know of our existence as those who are to share parts of ourselves. We know that something wonderful is happening and occurring right now today as in the PRESENT!
We who are called PSYCHICS and REMOTE VIEWERS have all learned to astral travel in a manner of speaking. We can share the various time frames and dimensions we share in space that we call the cosmos. I shall end this with a quote of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos but please take the time to read this article and copy it to your “Hidden Archive Treasure FILES”. We are all “IMMORTAL SOULS” .
Alien to our own way of thinking is that which we call the God force also known as the God Particle or ET particle in the cosmos. We of the world that are sharing the word “FUTURISTS” as “SEERS” also enjoy knowing that we can use our “Screen of the mind” or our “PSYCHE”.
I have shared a part of me in three (3) as that which has my signature on what we call creation of websites on the Internet Online which is our cyberspace reality in the cosmos.
1. AscensionCenter.org, 2. ETSpirit.org, 3. TJMorris.org as my contribution to our future Esprit de Corps.
I am choosing to share that which I would normally place on these websites as that which also should be welcomed by Dirk Vander Ploeg of UFO Digest.com.
We share our thoughts and creations on earth and welcome all others who desire to link to us and our creations as websites in cyberspace. Virtual reality is one layer of our existence.
It is time we all gravitate toward our other selves as real-time Avatars in Cyberspace in the WEB online. We are all now realizing we are much more than our physical selves. We can create our thoughts into websites and blogs in space that is electronically engineered in cyberspace that we call the Web on the Internet online. Things are changing and so are we.
Please READ the FOLLOWING in it’s entirety in order to understand more about the PAST-PRESENT-FUTURE of all of us!
That which claims to be both politics and religion are changing in this world and we the people as the common folk are the reason. We can see that the world we live that includes television and the entertainment media is changing along with us. We have interests and now the Internet is recording our interests and our involvement with our Internet is now being archived not only as common groups with similar interests but as individuals. This is also done in space by those we call “ALIENS” and “ET”.
GET READY FOR THE ASCENSION AGE!
THE COSMOS
“I am that I AM” is a famous saying. We can all say and know that as the God Particle Energy in each and everyone of us. However, can we all agree that there is an outside force that flows inside of us all as that which is also called the “I AM”?
Alpha and Omega in Greek is the same as in English saying A and Z in the literal translation of thought and the way we think and surmise on earth. However, we are now learning to accept the new age we call the “ASCENSION AGE” in which we call our way of knowing and becoming awake and aware of our own “Mortality”. Just as Steven Jobs passed on or died at the young “Baby-boomer” age of 57 years, this has left us all confronting our own “Mortality” and “Immortality”. ACE FOLKLIFE – Alien Civilizations Exist as we preserve Art, Culture, Education in our own folklife, folklore, and traditions that we learned in our own families and communities. Here is a brief history of HALLOWEEN -We are all here as body-mind-spirits celebrating the birth-life-death experience before our spirits return back to our souls.
Ace Folklife is about the “Common Folk” and what makes this planet and the humanoid sentient intelligent beings on this planet great and should become awakened and aware of all that we are seeking in our past-present-future memories.
Memories are wonderful things and the only energy of our existence that we take with us in our spiritual souls essence when we die! Therefore, it is only appropriate that we pay homage to all those souls who have passed on from this earth to the other dimensions in time and space.
We all can share in the celebration of life and death on a day we call Halloween.
This seems an odd thing to say about festive occasions that is why we should all begin to appreciate the changes that have occurred over time on earth.
I was always one to celebrate Halloween since I can remember being a Fairy Princess and stepping in a mud puddle one night I was trick or treating about five years old. Many of us may remember the times we share and these memories can assist us in knowing who we are and where we were in time in our lives when the celebration of Halloween was part of our childhood or young adult lives. I ask you now to go back in time and remember those times and write them down in your journal as your own personal celebration of yourself each Halloween that you can recall. I enjoy celebrations and most of all learning about the history of our cultural traditions. This is a passion I have always had and what also influenced me to become a writer. I knew in the third grade I would become a writer someday. It was being a small child that I can now see influenced my future adult choices. I plan on sharing ACE FOLKLIFE with others and I do hope that all of you will continue to keep our history in our celebrations alive on earth. We are all here as body-mind-spirits celebrating the birth-life-death experience before our spirits return back to our souls.
We preserve our ancient traditions while creating some of our own in modern culture. Today, we shall begin creating our history of the time prior to 12-21-12 which was pre-ascension age or the golden age of cosmology…
Halloween has become one of the holidays that children and adults like to celebrate a festive occasion in costume. We also have a history to go with all this frolic and celebration. While many of us are of Baby Boomer Age born 1946-1966, and those to follow as the X, Y, Z generations we also share our Indigo, and Crystal Children in twenty year increments of years on earth. We each will have memories and times that relate to the October 31st day also known as Halloween.
Halloween is considered by most in the United States as a fun holiday, mostly for children, but it has roots in ancient religions and folklore, including paganism, ancient Roman religions, early Catholic Christianity, Irish folklore, and even British politics! Pope Gregory the First of the sixth century AD was particularly adept at this.
Still, the Christian clergy regarded the old pagan belief systems as “evil” and “demonic.”
With its focus on ghosts, witches, warlocks, goblins, skulls, horror, death, and the supernatural etc., Halloween would appear to be almost completely incompatible with the tenets of Christianity.
Children and adults alike enjoy this holiday today, with funny costumes, candy, and parties, while some countries observe this time as a remembrance of departed loved ones and religious saints. Many of the pagan holy days were arbitrarily (and conveniently) reconstituted as “Christian” holidays – with a fairly seamless transformation.
Halloween Traditions
Many traditions are observed for Halloween.
Costumes: Dressing in costumes has its roots in the Pagan Celtic roots of Samhain. One theory is they dressed as ghouls to fool evil spirits let loose on October 31, so they would not be possessed by these spirits.
Another theory is they dressed in costume just for fun, and to make mischief.
Yet another theory is that faeries would dress as beggars asking for food, which would also be the origins of the “trick or treat” practice.
After the Catholic Church replaced Samhain with All Saints Day, people would dress as dead Saints and devils for their festivities.
Trick or Treat: This practice might have had it’s start in the legend from Celtic days that faeries would dress as beggars going from door to door asking for food, and those that did not show hospitality would be harshly dealt with by these magical faeries.
On All Souls Day, the poor would beg for “Soul Cakes” (sweet pastries) in exchange for prayers for their departed loved ones, expediting their passage to heaven. Sometimes costumed groups would sing and perform in exchange for food, ale, or money. In the United Kingdom, Guy Fawkes effigies to be burned were prepared by children, going door to door, asking for a penny for Guy, on Guy Fawkes Day.
Bonfires: These have two origins.
The first is the sacred ritual of extinguishing home fires, and one sacred bonfire is lit in each town for the end of the New Year. Some say the reason home fires were extinguished is to scare away evil spirits from homes, while others say that home fires were supposed to be lit from embers from the sacred bonfire to start the New Year.
The second origin was from Guy Fawkes Day in the United Kingdom to burn effigies of the Catholic pope, and later of Guy Fawkes himself.
Apples: A seasonal fruit, and also the symbol of the Roman goddess Pomona, commonly thought at the time to possess qualities of knowledge, resurrection, and immortality. Bobbing for apples, peeling a long apple peel, and other manipulations of the fruit were thought to foretell the future, on this night of Samhain.
Jack o’lanterns: From the Irish folk tale of Jack, who tricked the devil, but was not allowed in heaven or in hell. The devil, taking pity of Jack, gave him an ember to light his way on his eternal walks on Earth, carried in a hollowed out turnip. Because of their size and availability, pumpkins were substituted for turnips in the United States. The Celtics did use a hollowed out rutabaga to carry an ember from the sacred Samhain bonfire home to light their home fires, but the significance and relation to the Irish tale of Jack is unknown.
Ghost Stories: Ghost stories probably have their roots in the original Celtic belief that the spirits of the dead (both good and bad) wandered the Earth on October 31 (Samhain).
Later, when the church replaced Samhain with All Saints Day and All Souls Day, the dead were remembered, and spoken about.
In the United States today, they are used to amuse and scare children (and some adults) to get them in the “spirit” of Halloween.
Celts History
Halloween is a holiday with ancient roots that had a much greater meaning than the boisterous, costume-filled holiday that we know today.
Around 2,000 years ago, the Celts, who lived in what is now the United Kingdom, Ireland, and northern France, had a festival commemorating the end of the year.
Celts New Year was November 1, and this festival was called Samhain, pronounced sow-en.
The end of their year signaled the end of summer, the end of the harvest season, and the beginning of a long, hard winter that often caused many deaths of animals and people. Weaker livestock were often killed and eaten during this holiday, since most likely, they would not survive the winter anyway. Because of this, and the cruel winter to come, this time of year signified death to the Pagan Celtics.
They believed the night before the New Year, that the wall between the living and the dead was open, allowing spirits of the dead, both good and bad, to mingle among the living. Some of these spirits were thought to possess living people, cause trouble, ruin crops, or to search for passage to the afterlife.
Samhain was considered a magical holiday, and there are many stories about what the Celtics practiced and believed during this festival. Some say the spirits that were unleashed were those that had died in that year, and offerings of food and drink were left to aid the spirits, or to ward them away. Other versions say the Celts dressed up in outlandish costumes and roamed the neighborhoods making noise to scare the spirits away. Many thought they could predict the future and communicate with spirits as well during this time.
Some think the heavily structured life of the Pagan Celtics was abandoned during Samhain, and people did unusual things, such as moving horses to different fields, moving gates and fences, women dressing as men, and vice versa, and other trickeries now associated with Halloween. Another belief is that the Celtics honored, celebrated, and feasted the dead during Samhain.
A sacred, central bonfire was always lit to honor the Pagan gods, and some accounts say that individual home fires were extinguished during Samhain, either to make their homes unattractive to roving spirits, or for their home fires to be lit following the festival from the sacred bonfire.
Fortunes were told, and marked stones thrown into the fire. If a person’s stone was not found after the bonfire went out, it was believed that person would die during the next year. Some Celts wore costumes of animal skulls and skins during Samhain.
Faeries were believed to roam the land during Samhain, dressed as beggars asking for food door to door. Those that gave food to the faeries were rewarded, while those that did not were punished by the faeries. This is reported to be the first origin of the modern “trick or treat” practice.
In the First century A.D., the Roman Empire had taken over most of the Celtic lands. The Romans had two festivals also celebrated at the same time of year as Samhain. One was Feralia, also in late October, was the Roman day honoring the dead. The second festival was for Pomona, the Roman goddess of trees and fruit. Pomona’s symbol was the apple. These two festivals were combined with Samhain in the Celtic lands during the four hundred years the Roman Empire ruled over the Celts. The goddess Pomona’s apple might be the root of the Halloween tradition of bobbing for apples.
Over the next several hundred years, Christianity had spread to include the lands inhabited by the Celtics and the Romans, but the festival of Samhain was still celebrated by the people. The Christian church reportedly did not like a festival with Pagan roots practiced by Christians, so a replacement was needed. Pope Boniface IV designated May 13 as All Saints Day to honor dead church saints and martyrs. Samhain continued to be celebrated, so in 835 A.D., Pope Gregory IV moved the holiday to November 1, probably to take attention away from the Pagan Samhain festival and replace it. Since All Saints Day was sanctioned by the church, and related to the dead, the church was happy, but many Pagan traditions of Samhain continued to be practiced, including bonfires, parades, and dressing up in costume. All Saints Day was also known as All Hallows, or All Hallowmas
(Hallowmas is Old English for All Saints Day).
Since Samhain was celebrated the night before November 1, the celebration was known as All Hallows Eve, and later called Halloween. In the year 1000 A.D., the church designated November 2 as All Souls Day, to honor the dead who were not saints, and they eventually became combined and celebrated as Hallowmas.
On All Souls Day in England, the poor would “go a-souling”. They would go door to door asking for food, and in return, would pray for the souls of their dead relatives. It was widely believed at the time that the souls of the dead would await passage into heaven until enough people prayed for their souls. The Christian church encouraged this practice to replace the old Pagan tradition of leaving cakes and wine out for the spirits of the dead. The poor would be given “soul cakes”, which were pastries made for those who promised to pray for their dead relatives. In some cultures, soul cakes would be given in exchange for a performance or song as well. Children eventually adopted this practice, and were given food, ale, or money.
Jack O’ Lanterns are a Halloween staple today, with at least two historical roots.
The early Pagan Celtic peoples used hollowed out turnips, gourds, or rutabagas to hold an ember from the sacred bonfire, so they could light their home fires from the sacred bonfire. Another tale from folklore gives jack o’lanterns their name.
Irish myth
In Irish myth, a man known as “Stingy Jack”, who was a swindler and a drunk, who asked the devil to have drink with him. Jack convinced the devil to change himself into a coin so he could pay for the drink, but Jack put the coin in his pocket next to a silver cross, which trapped the devil, preventing him from changing himself back. Jack agreed to free the devil on the condition that the devil would not bother Jack for a year. Next year, Jack tricks the devil into climbing a tree to fetch a piece of fruit. While the devil is up the tree, Jack carves a cross into the trunk, preventing him from climbing back down the tree. In order to get out of the tree, the devil promised Jack not to seek his soul any more. When Jack died, he was not allowed into heaven, because of his drunken and swindling ways, but he was not allowed into hell either, because the devil kept his word. Taking pity on Jack, the devil gave him an ember to light his way in the dark, putting it into a hollowed out turnip for Jack to carry on his lonely, everlasting roamings around the Earth. People from Ireland and Scotland would make “Jack o’lanterns” during this season to scare away Stingy Jack and other evil spirits wandering about.
Over the next several centuries, superstitions about witches and black cats were added to the folklore and legends of Halloween. Cats were thought of as evil, especially black cats, and were killed by the thousands in Medieval times, possibly contributing to the Black Plague, due to the shortage of the rat’s natural enemy, the cat. During this time, the church created the belief that evil witches existed.
In the 1500’s, Martin Luther created the Protestant Church, which had no saints, so no All Hallows Day was allowed.
On November 5, 1606, Guy Fawkes was executed for attempting to blow up England’s Parliament. Fawkes, along with an extremist Catholic organization he belonged to, wanted to remove the Protestant King James from his throne. The English wasted no time to have a celebration to replace All Hallows Day, so Guy Fawkes Day was celebrated from then on. Many traditions of All Hallows Day were practiced, such as bonfires, and children asking for money, but the reasons why were different. Bonfires were known as “bone fires” originally, because they were lit in order to burn an effigy of the Catholic pope, burning his “bones”. Two hundred years later, the effigy of the pope was replaced by an effigy of Guy Fawkes, prompting children to go door to door, asking for a “penny for Guy”, so they could make their effigy to burn. In the New World, the colonists celebrated Guy Fawkes Day for a while, but as the colonies became the United States of America, Guy Fawkes Day fell by the wayside.
In the United States
Halloween was not a popular observance in early United States history, as most of the early settlers were Protestant. At the time, Halloween was considered mostly a Catholic, Episcopalian, and Pagan holiday, and therefore largely ignored.
In the southern colonies, such as Virginia and Maryland, there were some Halloween customs observed.
The first common events were called “play parties”.
These parties got neighborhoods together to celebrate the harvest, dance, sing, tell stories of the dead, tell fortunes, and have pageants for children in costume. By the mid 1800’s, immigration increased, and many Irish immigrants, mostly Catholics fleeing the potato famine, brought many Halloween traditions with them. Jack o’lanterns found a new face, the pumpkin, which was very plentiful in the New World.
Catholics and Episcopalians sought to preserve their traditions, so started an effort in the late 1800’s to popularize and make their holidays known to the general population.
By campaigning to put these holidays (Halloween and All Saints Day) on public calendars, magazines and newspapers started to publicize these holidays, and soon became popular in the United States more as a community and family holiday, rather than one of great religious and supernatural importance.
By the mid twentieth century, Halloween turned into a secular holiday, community centered with parties city-wide, parades, and great costumes. Halloween is mostly aimed to children, but young and old enjoy this holiday, with events and parties for both children and adults.
Charity – Non-profits
Starting in 1950, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) started a campaign for children to collect money at Halloween for underprivileged children around the world. Halloween is the United States’ second largest commercial holiday, spending approximately $6.9 billion a year.
In Other Countries
Mexico, Latin America, and Spain observe All Saints Day and All Souls Day with a three day celebration starting on the evening of October 31, through November 2. In most areas of Mexico, November 1 is set aside to honor dead children, and November 2 to honor those who died as adults. Starting in mid October, shops are filled with decorations, flowers, toys made like skeletons and other macabre shapes, sweets, pastries, and candies shaped like bones, coffins, and dead bodies in preparation for the festivities.
Day of the Dead
Called “Day of the Dead”, the spirits of relatives are supposed to visit their families homes. An area of the home is cleared away, and an altar is erected decorated with flowers, photographs of the deceased, candies and pastries shaped like skulls inscribed with their name, candles, and a selection of the deceased’s favorite foods and drinks. Even after dinner cigarettes and liquors are provided for the dear departed after dinner enjoyment. Incense is burning to help the spirits find their way home.
In preparation for November 2, the graves of the deceased are cleaned, painted, and decorated for the occasion. Families gather November 2 for a festive family reunion. Food, drinks, and tequila are brought along, along with sometimes even a mariachi band. In some areas, fireworks announce an open-air mass, the most solemn time of the Day of the Dead. Many customs vary depending on the particular city, town, or culture, but all over Mexico, Latin American, and Spain, the Day of the Dead is considered a celebration of their departed family.
Eastern Europe’s celebration of All Saints Day are usually spent by praying most of the day, praying to the Saints and thanking God. Often, they visit their departed family members at the cemeteries. Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Poland observe All Saints Day as a public holiday, but unlike Mexico and the United States, this day is a somber day of remembrance and reflection. France, Italy, and Germany are celebrating Halloween, American style, as does Canada. Ireland celebrates American style, but a common town bonfire, a remnant of Celtic days is still lit. England still celebrates Guy Fawkes Day on November 5 with bonfires, burning effigies of Guy Fawkes, and fireworks.
Halloween Traditions
Halloween or Samhain had its beginnings in an ancient, pre-Christian Celtic festival of the dead. The Celtic peoples, who were once found all over Europe, divided the year by four major holidays. According to their calendar, the year began on a day corresponding to November 1st on our present calendar. The date marked the beginning of winter. Since they were pastoral people, it was a time when cattle and sheep had to be moved to closer pastures and all livestock had to be secured for the winter months.
Crops were harvested and stored. The date marked both an ending and a beginning in an eternal cycle.
Halloween or Samhain had its beginnings in an ancient, pre-Christian Celtic festival of the dead. The Celtic peoples, who were once found all over Europe, divided the year by four major holidays. According to their calendar, the year began on a day corresponding to November 1st on our present calendar. The date marked the beginning of winter. Since they were pastoral people, it was a time when cattle and sheep had to be moved to closer pastures and all livestock had to be secured for the winter months. Crops were harvested and stored. The date marked both an ending and a beginning in an eternal cycle.
Samhain
The festival observed at this time was called Samhain (pronounced Sah-ween). It was the biggest and most significant holiday of the Celtic year. The Celts believed that at the time of Samhain, more so than any other time of the year, the ghosts of the dead were able to mingle with the living, because at Samhain the souls of those who had died during the year traveled into the otherworld. People gathered to sacrifice animals, fruits, and vegetables. They also lit bonfires in honor of the dead, to aid them on their journey, and to keep them away from the living. On that day all manner of beings were abroad: ghosts, fairies, and demons–all part of the dark and dread.
How Samhain Became Halloween
Samhain became the Halloween we are familiar with when Christian missionaries attempted to change the religious practices of the Celtic people. In the early centuries of the first millennium A.D., before missionaries such as St. Patrick and St. Columcille converted them to Christianity, the Celts practiced an elaborate religion through their priestly caste, the Druids, who were priests, poets, scientists and scholars all at once. As religious leaders, ritual specialists, and bearers of learning, the Druids were not unlike the very missionaries and monks who were to Christianize their people and brand them evil devil worshippers.
Pope Gregory the First
As a result of their efforts to wipe out “pagan” holidays, such as Samhain, the Christians succeeded in effecting major transformations in it. In 601 A.D. Pope Gregory the First issued a now famous edict to his missionaries concerning the native beliefs and customs of the peoples he hoped to convert. Rather than try to obliterate native peoples’ customs and beliefs, the pope instructed his missionaries to use them: if a group of people worshipped a tree, rather than cut it down, he advised them to consecrate it to Christ and allow its continued worship.
In terms of spreading Christianity, this was a brilliant concept and it became a basic approach used in Catholic missionary work. Church holy days were purposely set to coincide with native holy days. Christmas, for instance, was assigned the arbitrary date of December 25th because it corresponded with the mid-winter celebration of many peoples. Likewise, St. John’s Day was set on the summer solstice.
Good Vs Evil – Druids, Christians, and Samhain
Samhain, with its emphasis on the supernatural, was decidedly pagan. While missionaries identified their holy days with those observed by the Celts, they branded the earlier religion’s supernatural deities as evil, and associated them with the devil. As representatives of the rival religion, Druids were considered evil worshippers of devilish or demonic gods and spirits. The Celtic underworld inevitably became identified with the Christian Hell.
The effects of this policy were to diminish but not totally eradicate the beliefs in the traditional gods. Celtic belief in supernatural creatures persisted, while the church made deliberate attempts to define them as being not merely dangerous, but malicious. Followers of the old religion went into hiding and were branded as witches.
Feast of All Saints
The Christian feast of All Saints was assigned to November 1st. The day honored every Christian saint, especially those that did not otherwise have a special day devoted to them. This feast day was meant to substitute for Samhain, to draw the devotion of the Celtic peoples, and, finally, to replace it forever. That did not happen, but the traditional Celtic deities diminished in status, becoming fairies or leprechauns of more recent traditions.
Samhain
The festival observed at this time was called Samhain (pronounced Sah-ween). It was the biggest and most significant holiday of the Celtic year. The Celts believed that at the time of Samhain, more so than any other time of the year, the ghosts of the dead were able to mingle with the living, because at Samhain the souls of those who had died during the year traveled into the otherworld. People gathered to sacrifice animals, fruits, and vegetables. They also lit bonfires in honor of the dead, to aid them on their journey, and to keep them away from the living. On that day all manner of beings were abroad: ghosts, fairies, and demons–all part of the dark and dread.
How Samhain Became Halloween
Samhain became the Halloween we are familiar with when Christian missionaries attempted to change the religious practices of the Celtic people. In the early centuries of the first millennium A.D., before missionaries such as St. Patrick and St. Columcille converted them to Christianity, the Celts practiced an elaborate religion through their priestly caste, the Druids, who were priests, poets, scientists and scholars all at once. As religious leaders, ritual specialists, and bearers of learning, the Druids were not unlike the very missionaries and monks who were to Christianize their people and brand them evil devil worshippers.
Pope Gregory the First
As a result of their efforts to wipe out “pagan” holidays, such as Samhain, the Christians succeeded in effecting major transformations in it. In 601 A.D. Pope Gregory the First issued a now famous edict to his missionaries concerning the native beliefs and customs of the peoples he hoped to convert. Rather than try to obliterate native peoples’ customs and beliefs, the pope instructed his missionaries to use them: if a group of people worshipped a tree, rather than cut it down, he advised them to consecrate it to Christ and allow its continued worship.
In terms of spreading Christianity, this was a brilliant concept and it became a basic approach used in Catholic missionary work. Church holy days were purposely set to coincide with native holy days. Christmas, for instance, was assigned the arbitrary date of December 25th because it corresponded with the mid-winter celebration of many peoples. Likewise, St. John’s Day was set on the summer solstice.
Good Vs Evil – Druids, Christians, and Samhain
Samhain, with its emphasis on the supernatural, was decidedly pagan. While missionaries identified their holy days with those observed by the Celts, they branded the earlier religion’s supernatural deities as evil, and associated them with the devil. As representatives of the rival religion, Druids were considered evil worshippers of devilish or demonic gods and spirits. The Celtic underworld inevitably became identified with the Christian Hell.
The effects of this policy were to diminish but not totally eradicate the beliefs in the traditional gods. Celtic belief in supernatural creatures persisted, while the church made deliberate attempts to define them as being not merely dangerous, but malicious. Followers of the old religion went into hiding and were branded as witches.
Feast of All Saints
The Christian feast of All Saints was assigned to November 1st. The day honored every Christian saint, especially those that did not otherwise have a special day devoted to them. This feast day was meant to substitute for Samhain, to draw the devotion of the Celtic peoples, and, finally, to replace it forever. That did not happen, but the traditional Celtic deities diminished in status, becoming fairies or leprechauns of more recent traditions.
The old beliefs associated with Samhain never died out entirely.
The powerful symbolism of the traveling dead was too strong, and perhaps too basic to the human psyche, to be satisfied with the new, more abstract Catholic feast honoring saints. Recognizing that something that would subsume the original energy of Samhain was necessary, the church tried again to supplant it with a Christian feast day in the 9th century.
This time it established November 2nd as All Souls Day -a day when the living prayed for the souls of all the dead. But, once again, the practice of retaining traditional customs while attempting to redefine them had a sustaining effect: the traditional beliefs and customs lived on, in new guises.
All Saints Day – All Hallows
All Saints Day, otherwise known as All Hallows (hallowed means sanctified or holy), continued the ancient Celtic traditions. The evening prior to the day was the time of the most intense activity, both human and supernatural. People continued to celebrate All Hallows Eve as a time of the wandering dead, but the supernatural beings were now thought to be evil. The folk continued to propitiate those spirits (and their masked impersonators) by setting out gifts of food and drink. Subsequently, All Hallows Eve became Hallow Evening, which became Hallowe’en–an ancient Celtic, pre-Christian New Year’s Day in contemporary dress.
Many supernatural creatures became associated with All Hallows.
In Ireland fairies were numbered among the legendary creatures who roamed on Halloween. An old folk ballad called “Allison Gross” tells the story of how the fairy queen saved a man from a witch’s spell on Halloween.
Allison Gross
O Allison Gross, that lives in yon tower
the ugliest witch in the North Country…
She’s turned me into an ugly worm
and gard me toddle around a tree…
But as it fell out last Hallow even
When the seely [fairy] court was riding by,
the Queen lighted down on a gowany bank
Not far from the tree where I wont to lie…
She’s change me again to my own proper shape
And I no more toddle about the tree.
In old England cakes were made for the wandering souls, and people went “a’ soulin'” for these “soul cakes.” Halloween, a time of magic, also became a day of divination, with a host of magical beliefs: for instance, if persons hold a mirror on Halloween and walk backwards down the stairs to the basement, the face that appears in the mirror will be their next lover.
Halloween – Celtic Day of the Dead
Virtually all present Halloween traditions can be traced to the ancient Celtic day of the dead. Halloween is a holiday of many mysterious customs, but each one has a history, or at least a story behind it. The wearing of costumes, for instance, and roaming from door to door demanding treats can be traced to the Celtic period and the first few centuries of the Christian era, when it was thought that the souls of the dead were out and around, along with fairies, witches, and demons. Offerings of food and drink were left out to placate them. As the centuries wore on, people began dressing like these dreadful creatures, performing antics in exchange for food and drink. This practice is called mumming, from which the practice of trick-or-treating evolved. To this day, witches, ghosts, and skeleton figures of the dead are among the favorite disguises. Halloween also retains some features that harken back to the original harvest holiday of Samhain, such as the customs of bobbing for apples and carving vegetables, as well as the fruits, nuts, and spices cider associated with the day.
Modern Halloween
Today Halloween is becoming once again and adult holiday or masquerade, like Mardi Gras. Men and women in every disguise imaginable are taking to the streets of big American cities and parading past grinningly carved, candlelit jack o’lanterns, re-enacting customs with a lengthy pedigree. Their masked antics challenge, mock, tease, and appease the dread forces of the night, of the soul, and of the otherworld that becomes our world on this night of reversible possibilities, inverted roles, and transcendency. In so doing, they are reaffirming death and its place as a part of life in an exhilarating celebration of a holy and magic evening. Brain Mysteries
When you compare the brain’s detectives, neuroscientists, to other detectives, the neuroscientists seem to fall short in solving mysteries.
After all, Agatha Christie’s Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple needed only about 250 pages each to get to the bottom of their cases. Ditto for Nancy Drew.
On television, Jessica Fletcher and Kojak were all able to find their answers in an hour or less, while Veronica Mars needed only about the length of a television season. Even the pride of South Florida, Encyclopedia Brown, was able to solve his cases with little more than a casebook, his trusty sneakers and a wide variety of miscellaneous factoids. If Encyclopedia Brown only required 25 cents per day (plus expenses) to solve his cases, then what’s taking neuroscientists so long to unravel the mysteries of the brain?
The brain is a bit more complex than Encyclopedia Brown’s nemesis, Bugs Meany.
But with the brain only weighing in at 3 pounds (1.4 kg), you could be forgiven for wondering if neuroscientists are just big slackers. As it is, mysteries galore abound in those 3 pounds, and until fairly recently, scientists lacked the equipment to accurately study the brain. With the advent of brain imaging technology, it’s possible that they’ll continue to learn more.
The workings of the brain, however, determine such fundamental questions about personhood that we may never know everything about what’s going on. That doesn’t mean we can’t speculate, though. While we may not be able to solve these capers with clues that point to Colonel Mustard in the library with a revolver, we can dive into the current thinking on some of the brain’s famous unsolved mysteries. Get your casebook ready and go to the next page for our first puzzler.
Nature vs. Nurture
Twins — when Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie have them, it’s fascinating. When they appear to Jack Nicholson in the corridors of the Overlook Hotel in the film “The Shining,” it’s freaky. When Arnold Schwarzenegger and Danny DeVito claim to be them, it’s comedy gold. And while multiple births represent one of the great wonders of life in their own right, they provide important clues in the mysterious case of nature versus nurture.
This case is concerned with how much of our personhood is due to what we came into the world with — our genes. Do our genes determine how smart we’ll be? Who we’ll love? What we’ll prefer to eat for dinner? Or does what happens once you’re in the world make a bigger difference? Will parents or peers or pop stars ultimately shape the person you become? One way for researchers to figure out where genes end and where environment begins is in the study of identical twins, who share the same genes. Scientists have been studying twins to figure out the impact of genes on everything from math ability to predisposition for breast cancer. Twins represent such a rich research minefield for neuroscientists that an annual festival in Twinsburg, Ohio serves as a recruitment party of sorts [source: Revill, Asthana].
The separation of twins is when scientists may be able to really examine nature versus nurture. So far, however, only one study has ever looked at separated twins from infancy through adulthood, and we won’t know the results of that study until 2066. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, child psychiatrist Peter Neubauer and child psychologist Viola Bernard led a study in which twins and triplets that were given up for adoption at a certain New York adoption agency were separated and studied throughout the duration of their lives [source: Wright].
When the siblings were placed with their respective families, the parents were told that the child was part of an ongoing research study that would require regular interviews and evaluations. No one, however, was told that the child was a twin or triplet, or that the study involved the influence of nature versus nurture. In 1981, the state of New York began requiring that siblings be kept together in the adoption process, and Neubauer realized that the public might not be receptive to a study that used this separation method [source: Richman]. The results were sealed and placed at Yale University until 2066.
The memoir “Identical Strangers” is the story of Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein, who were a part of the study. The sisters were reunited when they were both 35 years old; all but four subjects of the 13-child study have found their missing sibling [source: Richman]. In promoting the book, Bernstein and Schein may provide a sneak peek at Neubauer and Bernard’s results. Bernstein and Schein say it’s undeniable that genetics play a major role; Bernstein puts the number at more than 50 percent [source: Sunday Herald Sun]. The women discovered they had things in common that included a habit of sucking on the same fingers and the same major in college [source:Sunday Herald Sun]. As for other matters, the women report that they are, as Bernstein put it in an interview with National Public Radio, “different people with different life histories” [source: Richman].
For now, it seems we’re at a stalemate, so go to the next page to see if we can solve “The Puzzle of Why the Brain Stops Working.”
Why the Brain Stops Functioning
The disordered brain tells no tales.
When a killer is on the loose in novels or on the silver screen, there’s a special urgency for the detective on the case. It’s a race against time to capture the culprit before he or she strikes again. The mystery of how braincells are killed off by degenerative neurological diseases is no different. As millions of individuals and their families can attest, a brain disorder or injury can be frightening, frustrating and ultimately fatal.
One thing that makes these disorders especially fearsome is just how little is known about why they happen or what you can do about them. Take, for example, the case of Alzheimer’s. This disorder leaves behind two very important clues: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. But what do these clues mean? Does their presence begin the process of Alzheimer’s, or do they develop as a result? And if these two features are the perps, what can be done about keeping them off the scene of the brain? As of yet, there’s no magic bullet that can restore brain function or re-grow brain cells after they’re lost.
In 1990, President George H.W. Bush declared that the last decade of the 20th century would be known as the “Decade of the Brain.” Bush’s proclamation regarding the brainy decade acknowledged the advances that had been made in understanding how the brain works while pointing out just how much more needed to be learned about what happens up there [source:Bush]. The president cited a number of neurological disorders he hoped to understand further, including Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, schizophrenia, autism, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and muscular dystrophy.
As you might guess, just one decade of the brain was not enough to solve all of the problems that plague the lump atop our spinal cord. To understand how the brain stops working, researchers need to do more work on how the brain actually functions. While scientists know the general function of various parts of the brain, there’s only a very basic sense of how the brain’s systems work together, especially with all of the functions a person requires of it in a single day. How does it work so fast? What other systems in the body does it use or rely upon?
All these questions might make you tired, and you’re more than welcome to take a nap, but set an alarm clock so that you don’t sleep through the next mystery on our list.
Secrets of Sleep and Dreams
Why do babies need so much sleep? Another mystery!
“Sweet dreams are made of this,” sang Annie Lennox during her stint in the Eurythmics in the 1980s. But you might notice that Lennox is suitably vague about what exactly “this” is. And really, no one knows what sweet dreams are made of, why we have them or even what we’re doing sleeping our life away anyway.
Can you believe that? Every night we carve out a few hours of shut-eye, and scientists don’t even know why! They do know that it’s extremely damaging if a person doesn’t get enough sleep, and it’s possible that sleep once served some sort of evolutionary benefit. Sleep would be an extremely beneficial distraction if early man had wanted to take a midnight stroll at the time when saber-tooth tigers were on the prowl [source: BBC]. On the other hand, it’s not a particularly advantageous trait to carry forward in this age of electricity as the process takes up a lot of time (about a third of our life) and renders the dreamer defenseless against predators [source: Eagleman].
There are a few theories as to why we need so much sleep. One idea is that sleep is restorative to the body, giving it an opportunity to rest. But if rest is the goal, why does our brain remain hard at work? It’s possible that while we sleep, the brain is practicing and running problem-solving drills before completing actions in the real world. There are several studies that show that learning can’t take place without sleep to reinforce the knowledge [source:Schaffer].
Some of these studies may have real implications for students. One researcher claims that it would be better for students to review information until they were tired, then slept, as opposed to pulling an all-nighter [source: BBC]. Some schools have changed the time of that first bell so that middle and high school students can get a little more snooze time [source: Boyce, Brink].
So let’s say these students actually go to sleep, as opposed to engaging in more nefarious behaviors. What happens then? When the dreaming state of REM sleep was discovered in 1951, it was described as a “new continent in the brain” [source: Schaffer]. Though scientists have tried to make inroads on this uncharted continent, mysteries remain about its topography. Like sleep, dreaming may represent some sort of personal gym time for the brain, with dreams allowing a person to work out emotional issues and solidify thoughts and memories.
Or, it’s possible that life is but a dream, as the song “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” taught us. When you’re asleep, you’re experiencing a ton of visual stimuli that the brain is somehow processing. In an awake state, there may be additional stimuli for different senses, but the brain may be doing the same thing with them. If the brain works just as hard sleeping as it is when we’re awake, then maybe life is a waking dream [source: Eagleman].
Let’s row our boat over to the next page and investigate the mysterious case of human memory.
Questions of Memory
This detective writes down all her clues so she won’t forget them.
In the 2004 film “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind,” the characters played by Jim Carrey and Kate Winslet undergo a process to erase all memories of their relationship from their minds. The film uses a variety of methods to show how the memories disintegrate and disappear, and it becomes a race against time when Carrey’s character decides he doesn’t want to complete the process. He tries to protect his memories about Winslet’s character by hiding them in unrelated memories.
Good luck, Jim. Not even scientists are completely sure how memories are formed, how we retrieve them or how they disappear. There are many types of memory; we humans are pack rats who file away information ranging from how to make our grandmother’s favorite pie to how to solve algebra equations. But which things does the braindecide to save? Where does it put this information, and why can’t we get to some of that information when we really want it?
Scientists have been able to pinpoint where certain types of memory are stored. They’ve also discovered how neurons fire and synapses are strengthened when storing these memories. But they don’t know exactly what goes into that neuron to store the memory, or how to dissolve that synaptic connection if you want to forget something. In September 2008, new clues about memory emerged that may eventually help us crack this cold case. In one study, researchers found that the neurons activated in the recall of a memory are likely the ones that fired when the event originally occurred [source: Carey]. So when you talk about reliving old memories, you actually are, because the brain is doing the exact same thing it did the first time.
But what if there wasn’t a first time? One of the problems of getting to the bottom of memory is that it seems to play tricks on the brain sometimes. For example, we often create false memories. On July 7, 2005, London experienced a series of bombings. A follow-up study found that four out of 10 people have false memories of the event because they claimed to have seen nonexistent television footage [source: Randerson]. If we’re storing things that are unreliable, does memory serve any purpose at all? According to thinkers as ancient as Aristotle, we might only need memories as a way to predict and anticipate the future [source: Eagleman].
The question of what we’ve experienced and how we experienced it is leading into our next unsolved brain mystery — the age-old question of consciousness. Read more about this riddle of the brain on the next page.
Conundrum of Consciousness
Baby Sherlock Holmes tries to determine if he’s attained consciousness yet.
This section might just “blow your mind,” to use a common expression. But do you even have a mind? Scientists don’t know where the brain ends and the mind begins. Are they the same thing? What about souls? Are these located in our brains? What is responsible for all of the unique thoughts and feelings that make us who we are? Everyone from philosophers to physicists has taken up this question of consciousness and come up empty.
For a long time, the study of consciousness was considered too far out to study. How do you scientifically study something so subjective? How can what one person feels become something that another person can quantify? But now, in their relentless pursuit to understand every single thing about the world, scientists are trying to figure out what exactly is going on with consciousness.
Though deep metaphysical questions about the nature of a soul, a mind and brain leave questions as to whether this issue is in the realm of scientists, the brain is likely involved in some way with our conscious thoughts. With the help of brain imaging, scientists can watch different parts of the brain light up, and they know they can alter the brain and our consciousness with surgeries or chemicals [sources: Eagleman, Pinker]. But what scientists don’t know is at what stage of the process a firing neuron becomes a conscious thought. The things that make up consciousness may be scattered all over the brain, with different cranial parts responsible for different pieces of a person. But, as we’ve mentioned, there are tons of other brain mysteries about how these parts might work together.
Scientists are also trying to figure out the relationship between conscious and unconscious experiences. There are some things — like breathing and maintaining a regular heart beat — that we don’t have to think about. How are these unconscious actions wired differently than the conscious ones? Is there any difference at all? We like to think we make our own decisions, but one recent study shows that we may not even do that. This study found that by using brain scanners, researchers could predict how a person was going to act a full seven seconds before the person knew that a decision had been made [source Keim]. Our consciousness might just be an illusion.
It’s possible that something like free will could enter into the equation at the last possible moment, overriding the decision made by the brain. The researchers in the study also admitted that this test was best suited to a simple laboratory test that involved pushing a button, as opposed to a more important decision like taking a job [source:Keim].
Will we ever solve these brain mysteries?
Who knows — our instrument for doing so is the very one we’re trying to figure out. But you could start combing the scene for overlooked clues by reading the stories and links:
Watch Full EpisodesTurn Your Computer into a TV! Watch Full TV Episodes Online.www.TelevisionFanatic.comAlbert Einstein LawsuitHourly Hospital Employees- Not Paid for Lunch? Visit:www.alberteinsteinclassaction.comTraumatic Brain InjuryRequest free information on how to win back your walk from TBIwww.Bioness.com
Source of Article:http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/5-brain-mysteries5.htm
Darren WrayThe best way to study something so subjective is to take advice from people who have had *meaningful* subjective experience instead of treating them with contempt. A subjective problem can be turned into an objective problem if the evidence is treated with respect.
Despite popular opinion you can’t observe thought processes by taking images of the brain.
Conscious Living
The peaceful, balanced person lurking somewhere within you, just waiting to get out. Get more tips with staying healthy pictures.
When we look past matters of politics, material goods, romantic partners and other life choices, most of us share a desire to achieve a sense of wholeness, to enhance our spiritual nature and to experience personal growth. Another way of putting it is to say that, somewhere in our brainsbeyond the worries about credit card bills and looming layoffs at work, many of us want to live a more conscious life. Ideally, we’d be balanced, aware of ourselves and others, and present in each moment.
So why waste any more time? It’s not a pipe dream — there are ways that we can increase our awareness of the aspects of life that affect our actions, thoughts, contentment and values. And once you do that, you can use the awareness to make positive changes in your life.
Profile Yourself
What do you see when you put yourself under a magnifying glass?
There’s been lots of debate over the merits and shortcomings of criminal profiling. Regardless, just as a criminal task force may develop a list of traits and behaviors commonly found in perpetrators, you can develop a profile of your own life and glean useful information about yourself in doing so. By examining your habits, thoughts and actions, a picture may begin to form of the life you’re currently leading. Noting differences between the life you want to be living and the life you actually are living is one way to take a step toward living a more conscious life.
Look for self-destructive behaviors in your life, such as substance abuse. Try to identify actions that are hurtful or detrimental to others. Pinpoint what sets off your temper, and what makes you anxious.
But this isn’t just about creating a negative profile. Identify the positive things you do as well. What brings out the best in you? What life-affirming activities do you include in your life? In what ways do you help others or work to make the world a better place? Ask yourself: Am I doing what I want to be doing and, if so, is that what I should be doing? Determine the patterns of your own behaviors and you just may be able to change them and enable a more mindful life experience.
Meditate or Pray
Living Consciously in Our Relationships Not only should we seek to live more conscious lives, but in doing so, we should attempt to be more conscious in our personal and professional relationships as well. According to Lisa Oz’s book, “Us: Transforming Ourselves and the Relationships that Matter Most,” for the most mutually beneficial relationship, both partners should attempt to approach it always in a way that aligns with their personal values.
If you want to live a more conscious life, you may want to take a moment to do … nothing. Well, not exactly nothing. Meditation and prayer are excellent ways to move yourself toward conscious living, as meditation and prayer are themselves affirmations that you’ll live consciously.
No matter what you call it (“taking a moment to myself” suffices), it doesn’t have to take much time — you just need a few minutes of solitude once or twice a day.
Meditation involves breath control, focus and blocking out external stimuli in an attempt to reconnect with your most basic essence. Many people believe that it helps them be more conscious of the moment, more mindful for the rest of the day, and that it helps them “reset” themselves.
It doesn’t matter what your religious beliefs are, because all of them provide the opportunity to take a moment to express gratitude, reconnect with your spiritual beliefs, and ask for or reaffirm intentions to overcome a fault or obstacle.
Look at Your Life with New Eyes
Is your life in need of repair?
When we drive down an unfamiliar street in a foreign city, our senses detect everything and we take everything in: thecolors and shapes of homes and businesses, the darkness of each alleyway, and the sounds of urban life. But when we drive down the street we live on, we see and sense very little because we know what’s there — it’s almost like we’re seeing our memory of the street rather than the street itself.
Likewise, when we look at our own lives, it’s hard to see what’s really going on. It’s not a skill you’re lacking — think about a friend’s life for a moment and you’ll come up with all sorts of things to fix. It’s just harder to do when you turn your focus on yourself, but it’s possible. Try to consider your physical, emotional and situational surroundings for the first time all over again. What would a stranger see if they walked into your life? Does your life look like it’s going forward, or is it in a state of disrepair? Even if the conditions of your life have seemingly remained the same for some length of time, you’ve still changed and may discover that you view things differently than when you last took a “first look” around.
Be Grateful
It’s easy to focus on the things in life that bug you, whether they’re political, professional or personal issues. Many times, we feel overwhelmed by health issues, money troubles or other crisis situations. While these problems are very real, it’s important to identify and appreciate the things in your life that are good. Fostering this sense of gratitude can keep us grounded when it seems like life is trying to sweep us away. It also takes our focus away from just the negative things in our lives, and broadens it to take in the entire picture.
Take time to appreciate the things that are good in your life. Try to take a moment each day to appreciate your loved ones, to honor your achievements and to cherish the blessings in your life. If you have children, keep in mind how quickly they grow and cherish the joys they have brought into your life (and allow yourself to forget for the moment all the other things they do).
Think about how far you’ve come in your life’s journey and the good deeds along the way that you’ve performed for others, as well as the good deeds others have performed for you. Reminding yourself of these positive things will make you more conscious of bringing more positive experiences into your life.
Change Your Game
Change is scary, but it’s vital to grow.
While all of us would like to live more consciously, the reality is that we spend most of our time living, well, somewhat mindlessly. Perhaps we made life decisions long ago that we’re still acting upon, even though we (or the conditions in and around our lives) have changed.
Also, sometimes we’ve been doing something so long that it becomes nearly impossible to objectively view the validity, effectiveness or goodness of that activity or situation. Sometimes old friends bring with them old habits or prejudices. Or maybe the traditional way you’ve spent every Saturday night for the last decade isn’t really cutting it anymore, but tradition continues to schedule your weekends.
By changing even the simple patterns and habits we’ve accumulated in life, we can re-engage with our surroundings and bring a sense of new awareness to our days.
Bring new foods, activities, music and entertainment into your life. Go somewhere you’ve never been before (this can be in your own ZIP code). Seek out opportunities to meet new people with different perspectives, cultural backgrounds or personal experiences who will bring with them the opportunity to be exposed to new ways of thinking and living.
When making a decision, remind yourself to do things differently or in a different way than you normally do them. While this in itself isn’t necessarily conscious living, the fresh perspective it brings will make us give consideration to what we’re doing while we do it.
Looking for more ways to live a more conscious life?
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Reference -Resources: Links
Samhain – The History of Halloween or Samhain
inventors.about.com/od/sstartinventions/a/Samhain.htmHalloween or Samhain had its beginnings in an ancient, pre-Christian Celtic … The festival observed at this time was called Samhain (pronounced Sah-ween). …
Samhain – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SamhainThe date of Samhain was associated with the Catholic All Saints’ Day (and …. In modern Ireland and Scotland, the name by which Halloween is known in the …
Etymology – History – Related festivals – Neopaganism
Halloween – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HalloweenAccording to the Oxford Dictionary of English folk lore: “Certainly Samhain …
Show more results from wikipedia.org
Halloween or Samhain as Witches call it.
www.witchway.net/halloween.htmlSamhain(pronounced Sow-in, Sah-vin, or Sahm-hayn), known most popularly as Halloween, marks the end of the third and final harvest, is a day to commune …
Samhain
www.chalicecentre.net/samhain.htmSamhain (Scots Gaelic: Samhuinn) literally means “summer’s end.” In Scotland and Ireland, Halloween is known as O che Shamhna, while in Wales it is Nos …
The Grizzly: THE HISTORY OF HALLOWEEN
Isles out of the Pagan Celtic celebration of Samhain. Origins of Halloween? – The New
:my.hsj.org – But the most plausible theory is that Halloween originated in the British Isles out of the Pagan Celtic celebration of Samhain. Origins of Halloween? – The New Age Online
Why Do Christians Celebrate Halloween?? -International Business Times
Samhain – Witchvox Article
www.witchvox.com/holidays/samhain.htmlINDEX: Samhain (Halloween) Author: Witchvox Central Posted: January 27th …
Samhain – Asiya’s Shadows
www.asiya.org/sabbats/samhain.html… of the Underworld. Samhain is also known as Halloween, All Hallow’s Eve, Hallowmas, Day of the Dead, Third Harvest, Hallowstide, and Celtic New Year. …
Samhain (Halloween) Index (The Cauldron: A Pagan Forum)
www.ecauldron.net › HolidaysSamhain, mundanely known as Halloween, is the Celtic New Year. It’s one of the great Wiccan sabbats, opposite Beltane in the Wiccan Wheel of the Year. …
Halloween/Samhain Special 10/28 by thevioletsanctuaryspa | Blog …
www.blogtalkradio.com/…/2011/10/28/halloweensamhain-specialJoin me your spiritual consultant to discuss the very celebrated day of October 31st better known as Halloween or Samhain pronounced Sow-in or Sau-in.
Samhain – Super-wiki
www.supernaturalwiki.com/index.php?title=SamhainOct 8, 2011 – Samhain, also known as the origin of Halloween, is a special type of demon. When he reigned on Earth on Halloween night, people kept their …
Samhain (Halloween) Celebration as presented by Church of the … events.nbc4i.com › Columbus Events › Columbus Religion EventsSat, Oct 29, 2011 – Griggs Reservoir, Columbus, OH, 43220
Following Celtic and Pagan traditions of honoring the dead and ancestors, we celebrateSamhain, known today as Halloween. Weather permitting, there will be …
Astrology on the Web: Halloween
www.astrologycom.com/halloween.htmlSamhain (pronounced: “so-wuhn”), now known as Halloween, began on the night of October 31, All Hallows’ Eve, because ancient days were reckoned from …
The Seasonal Hearth – Samhain
brigidshearth.org/seasonal_hearth.html – Halloween-batsml3.gif (2063 bytes) Samhain, also known as Halloween, All Hallow’s Eve, and Hallowmas, is celebrated on October 31 – November 1, and is the …
Samhain, Lord of Darkness – Holiday Insights
www.holidayinsights.com/halloween/samhain.htmSamhain was known in Ireland as the “Lord of Darkness”. … Certainly, Halloween took aspects of darkness , black color, evil spirits, and people rising from the …
Halloween on the Net – The History of Samhain
www.holidays.net/halloween/samhain.htmMost people know of October 31st as Halloween. But long before kids were dressing up as pirates and princesses, Halloween was called Samhain. Celebrated …
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Samhain/Halloween | Facebook
www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.10150402554487975…1Also known as: Halloween, Ancestor Night, Feast of the Dead, All Hallows Eve, …Samhain (SOW-in or SAV-ayn) marked the beginning of the old Celtic new …
Samhain | Halloween
www.avalonvisions.com/samhain.htmlSamhain (pronounced sow-en) is the Celtic word for the time of year known as Halloween, Hallowmas, The Day of the Dead or All Souls Night, and is …
Samhain (Samain) – The Celtic roots of Halloween www.newgrange.com/samhain.htmThe Hindu Diwali (Divali, Deepavali) Festival known as the Festival of Lights occurs about the same time as Samhain. Diwali marks the Hindu New Year just as …
From Samhain to Halloween – Faerie Faith
www.faeriefaith.net/Samhain.htmlThe Halloween fires, called Samhnagan by the Scots, were still lit at dusk, although they were not for Samhain, the Celtic god, but for Halloween gaiety and a …
Hallowe’en (Halloween), Samhain, Events, Parties, Rituals and …
www.witchology.com/contents/october/halloween/events.phpKnown as Hallowe’en (UK spelling), Halloween (US spelling), or Samhain, the 31st of October is a traditional Pagan holy day and Witches’ Sabbath. Explore the …
Bettina Arnold — Halloween Lecture https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/barnold/www/lectures/holloween.htmlUWM Center for Celtic Studies Halloween Inaugural Celebration … So Samhain was known in some, but not all, Celtic regions as the feast of peace and …
Halloween – History – Information – Projects
halloween.whipnet.net/Halloween’s origins date back some 2000 years to the ancient Celtic festival ofSamhain. Samhain, or Halloween, is also known as All Hallow’s Eve, Hallowmas, …
Samhain, Pagan Hallowe’en (Halloween) Festival
www.witchology.com/contents/october/halloween/samhain.phpKnown as Hallowe’en (UK spelling), Halloween (US spelling), or Samhain, the 31st of October is a traditional Pagan holy day and Witches’ Sabbath. Explore the …
Halloween: The Pagan Festival of Samhaintaramiller.tripod.com/halloween.html Contains information of the origins of Samhain, and how today’s Pagans celebrate this Sabbat.
Celebrating Samhain
princessa.hubpages.com › … › Paganism and WitchcraftSamhain marks one of the two great doorways of the Celtic year. … so the night before became popularly known as Halloween, All Hallows Eve, or Hollantide. …
Samhain – Paranormal Encyclopedia
www.paranormal-encyclopedia.com › Religion & SpiritualityThey consider that the new day starts from the night. Samhain is today better known as Halloween, although some consider Halloween to be a different culture. …
What’s Samhain? | Halloween History, Celtic Traditions & Folklore …
www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/whats-samhain-101030-1132/Oct 30, 2010 – Halloween was originally called Samhain and marked the beginning of the Celtic New Year. Learn more about Samhain at Life’s Little …
Goddess Persephone(Greek Mythology)…What is Samhain..also known …www.cafemom.com/…/Goddess_Persephone_Greek_Mythology_Wh…Oct 7, 2007 – Cafemom Journal – Greek Mythology of Goddess Persephone…What is Samhain.. also known as Halloween? Goddess Persephone …
Halloween History — Infoplease.com
www.infoplease.com/spot/halloween1.htmlHalloween is known and loved today as a time to wear costumes, go door to door …Along the way, it has also picked up traditions from Samhain, a Celtic festival …
The History of Halloween
www.halloween-history.org/Since Samhain was celebrated the night before November 1, the celebration wasknown as All Hallows Eve, and later called Halloween. In the year 1000 A.D., …
Blessed Samhain – Medea’s Lair ( www.medeaslair.net/samhain.htmlThe Samhain holiday is more commonly known to us as Halloween. It originated in the Celtic lands of Northern Europe many centuries before the birth of Christ. …
The Origins of Halloween Part 1: Samhain and the Celtic Time of …
ancientweb.org/…/the_origins_of_halloween_part_1_samhain_and_t…Oct 31, 2010 – The term “Samhain” is still used as the name of November in Irish …The night before became popularly known as Halloween, All Hallows Eve. …
Whatis Halloween & Samhain? www.positivearticles.com/Article/What…Halloween…Samhain/31495What is Halloween & Samhain? By: Donna Oxley. If you were to ask someone just what it is we celebrate on Halloween, very few will know the exact answer and …
Samhain (Halloween) – A Celebration – Witchvox Article www.witchvox.com/holidays/samhain/1031_quikhistory.htmlThe Halloween Witch: Sense of Humor or Sense of Ire … The Celtic peoples called the time between Samhain (pronounced “SOW-in” in Ireland, SOW-een in …
Samhain and Halloween
www.starbreezes.com/11/samhain.htmlThe tradition of celebrating Halloween stems from an ancient pagan holiday called Samhain. Samhain is one of the 8 sabbats in paganism. It is a cross quarter …
SAMHAIN/HALLOWMAS/HALLOWEEN – Angelfire
www.angelfire.com/empire/serpentis666/Samhain.htmlThe holiday known as “Halloween” was originally called “Samhain” a Celtic word meaning “Summer’s End.” In ancient times, religions were based upon nature, …
Halloween — History.com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts
www.history.com/topics/halloweenIt is thought to have originated with the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain, when … The evening before was known as All Hallows’ Eve and later Halloween. …
ALPHA and OMEGA
ALPHA and OMEGA CREATOR DIETIES of the Alphaverse, and Omegaverse home to our own Omniverse I have been impressed or inspired to share that which has come to me due to questions that I have been asked about our Creator Deities and the Omniverse in which we live. The fact that I thought that I was not allowed to venture further our of my known conscious existence as that of the Omniverse has changed in the last week. I should point out to my readers that if one challenges their minds to look back in the history of my writings on UFO Digest of which I am a contributing syndicated columnist one will find a history of how I have grown in my own particles and waves flux and flows. I am very happy to report that I now have the awakened awareness that we have that of which I have known in the furthest solar core of my own soul as the Alpha and Omega. The Alphaverse and Omegaverse to show those who are only into the physical reality of science that there can be seven (7) levels and dimensions to our souls eternal source and life force we presently address as energy and essence. Our energy and essence is expressed in this lifetime as our SPIRIT! We have learned that we all share something in common besides our own physical makeup as humanoids with a head, trunk, and limbs. We have a brain that allows us to think for ourselves. Inside our brain and inside our mind also exists our own awareness of life that we call our conscious awareness of the fact that we are alive. Some of us are only thinking about that which we can see, feel, touch, taste, hear, and smell with what we are told are our five (5) senses.
We now know that our emotional state of being with our nervous system intact allows us to also understand and react to the outside stimulus we encounter on a daily basis. It has now come to the attention of this one person also known as a humanoid sentient intelligent being that we are much, much more than what we perceive.
We are all the creations that are here to explore our way back to the creator deities of both Alpha and Omega.
Alpha is the male energy and Omega is the female energy that we are all created with and sent in tachyon energy as the strongest force that is now not understood. The Alpha wraps around the Omniverse. The Omega is the entire womb of that which we call Alphaverse and Omniverse in one manner of thinking in the Physical Cosmology. In the Religious Cosmology the Alphaverse is the outer creation of the Omniverse, as well as, the Omega is the outer creation of the Omniverse.
We now are in the quandary as to which came first the chicken or the egg. We need both in order to understand the other. Therefore we are now at the crossroads in Quantum Physics and the study of Quantum Entanglement with what we call the Higgs-Boson Theory which is only one of many new theories of everything.
(The theoretical ‘God’ particle might have a mass between 120 and 140GeV – looked much less conclusive among new statistics received from the experiment. Guido Tonelli, spokesman for the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector, a huge particle detector at CERN employing 3,600 scientists, told the BBC’s Today programme this week, ‘If we exclude the existence of the Higgs this will be a major discovery – it would completely review our vision of nature.’) One of the biggest questions in science – does ‘the God particle’ exist? – is likely to be answered by the end of next year, it was claimed yesterday.
The Higgs boson, nicknamed the God particle, is theoretically responsible for mass, without which there would be no gravity and no universe. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2037722/God-particle-goes-missing-Higgs-boson-exist-say-Hadron-Collider-scientists.html#ixzz1bdNjmchW
No one being can create that which gives us the spirit and soul. We can clone animals but do they have the same soul content makeup of the humanoids? Please begin updating your information on our COMMON and PRACTICAL history of the past way we have been programmed. We will now all be able to become more as we learn to receive divine revelations from that which we call the alpha and omega forces direct.
Father Alpha and Mother Omega which is inside us all as both a male and female energy entity.
We will learn some new ways to be, do, have, think, exist, and what we thought in the past will now become history in various forms. We share our Metaphysical, Physical, and Religious Cosmology in our ACE FOLKLIFE on earth.
The Alpha and Omega allows us to now know that “ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS EXIST!”
CDM or Lambda-CDM is an abbreviation for Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, which is also known as the cold dark matter model with dark energy. It is frequently referred to as the standard model of big bang cosmology, since it attempts to explain: the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave background the large scale structure of galaxy clusters the distribution of hydrogen, helium, deuterium and lithium the accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovae.
It is the simplest model that is in general agreement with observed phenomena. Creator Deity -Metaphysical Cosmology(Physical Cosmology & Religious Cosmology)Main article: Cosmology (metaphysics)In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos.
However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:
What is the origin of the Universe?
What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)
What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)
What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths?
A creator deity is a deity responsible for the creation of the world (or universe). In monotheism, the single God is necessarily also the creator deity, while polytheistic traditions may or may not have creator deities. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator.
Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe or a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe .Cosmologists study the universe as a whole: its birth, growth, shape, size and eventual fate. Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics.
Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s (Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. (See Cosmogony for the study of origins of the Universe and Cosmography for the features of the Universe.) Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution.
For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.
These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.
Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory, astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe.
We now are in the quandary as to which came first the chicken or the egg. We need both in order to understand the other.
Therefore we are now at the crossroads in Quantum Physics and the study of Quantum Entanglement with what we call the Higgs-Boson Theory which is only one of many new theories of everything. (The theoretical ‘God’ particle might have a mass between 120 and 140GeV – looked much less conclusive among new statistics received from the experiment. Guido Tonelli, spokesman for the Compact Muon Solenoid Detector, a huge particle detector at CERN employing 3,600 scientists, told the BBC’s Today programme this week, ‘If we exclude the existence of the Higgs this will be a major discovery – it would completely review our vision of nature.’) One of the biggest questions in science – does ‘the God particle’ exist? – is likely to be answered by the end of next year, it was claimed yesterday.
The Higgs boson, nicknamed the God particle, is theoretically responsible for mass, without which there would be no gravity and no universe. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2037722/God-particle-goes-missing-Higgs-boson-exist-say-Hadron-Collider-scientists.html#ixzz1bdNjmchW No one being can create that which gives us the spirit and soul. We can clone animals but do they have the same soul content makeup of the humanoids? Please begin updating your information on our COMMON and PRACTICAL history of the past way we have been programmed. We will now all be able to become more as we learn to receive divine revelations from that which we call the alpha and omega forces direct.
Father Alpha and Mother Omega which is inside us all as both a male and female energy entity. We will learn some new ways to be, do, have, think, exist, and what we thought in the past will now become history in various forms. We share our Metaphysical, Physical, and Religious Cosmology in our ACE FOLKLIFE on earth. The Alpha and Omega allows us to now know that “ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS EXIST!” CDM or Lambda-CDM is an abbreviation for Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, which is also known as the cold dark matter model with dark energy.
It is frequently referred to as the standard model of big bang cosmology, since it attempts to explain:
the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave
Background:
The large scale structure of galaxy clusters
The distribution of hydrogen, helium, deuterium and lithium
The accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovae
It is the simplest model that is in general agreement with observed phenomena. Creator Deity -Metaphysical Cosmology(Physical Cosmology & Religious Cosmology)Main article: Cosmology (metaphysics)In philosophy and metaphysics, cosmology deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Modern metaphysical cosmology tries to address questions such as:
What is the origin of the Universe? What is its first cause? Is its existence necessary? (see monism, pantheism, emanationism and creationism)
What are the ultimate material components of the Universe? (see mechanism, dynamism, hylomorphism, atomism)What is the ultimate reason for the existence of the Universe? Does the cosmos have a purpose? (see teleology)Does the existence of consciousness have a purpose? How do we know what we know about the totality of the cosmos? Does cosmological reasoning reveal metaphysical truths?
A creator deity is a deity responsible for the creation of the world (or universe). In monotheism, the single God is necessarily also the creator deity, while polytheistic traditions may or may not have creator deities. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator.
Cosmology is the discipline that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe or a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe .Cosmologists study the universe as a whole: its birth, growth, shape, size and eventual fate. Modern cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics.
Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff’s (Cosmologia Generalis), the study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, metaphysics, and religion. (See Cosmogony for the study of origins of the Universe and Cosmography for the features of the Universe.) Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws.
Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects. These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.
Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory, astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe.
History of physical cosmology.(See also: Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists)
Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation.
In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, physicists believed in a perfectly static universe that had no beginning or end. Einstein added a cosmological constant to his theory in order to force it to model a static universe containing matter. This so-called Einstein universe is, however, unstable; it will eventually start expanding or contracting. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann, whose equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, which may expand or contract.
In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects.
One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this. Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications.
In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”—which was later called the Big Bang.
In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître’s theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance.
This fact is now known as Hubble’s law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing at the time about different types of Cepheid variables. Given the cosmological principle, Hubble’s law suggested that the universe was expanding. There were two primary explanations put forth for the expansion of the universe. One was Lemaître’s Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow.
The other possibility was Fred Hoyle’s steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.
For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state.
The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s.Light elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created in the Big Bang. These light elements were spread too fast and too thinly in the Big Bang process (see nucleosynthesis) to form the most stable medium-sized atomic nuclei, like iron and nickel.
This fact allows for later energy release, as such intermediate-sized elements are formed in our era. The formation of such atoms powers the steady energy-releasing reactions in stars, and also contributes to sudden energy releases, such as in novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes is also thought to power the most energetic processes, generally seen at the centers of galaxies (see quasars and in general active galaxies).
Cosmologists are still unable to explain all cosmological phenomena purely on the basis of known conventional forms of energy, for example those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, and therefore invoke a yet unexplored form of energy called dark energy[2] to account for certain cosmological observations. One hypothesis is that dark energy is the energy of virtual particles (which mathematically must exist in vacuum due to the uncertainty principle).
There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity. As a result it remains controversial whether one can meaningfully say that total energy is conserved in an expanding universe. For instance, each photon that travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the redshift effect.
This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost. Nevertheless some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense.
Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study to explore which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles which are referred to as matter. The former are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their energy, and therefore move at the speed of light or very close to it; the latter are particles whose kinetic energy is much lower than their rest mass and therefore move much slower than the speed of light.
As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted. However, the universe also cools down, meaning that the average energy per particle is getting smaller with time. Therefore the radiation becomes weaker, and dilutes faster than matter. Thus with the expansion of the universe radiation becomes less dominant than matter. In the very early universe radiation dictates the rate of deceleration of the universe’s expansion, and the universe is said to be ‘radiation dominated’. At later times, when the average energy per photon is roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be ‘matter dominated’.
The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe’s expansion. History of the UniverseSee also: Timeline of the Big Bang Theory.
The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the CDM
CDM Model. Equations of Motion
Main article: Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric
The equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant.
The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion the radiation and matter in the universe are cooled down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation due to the radiation and matter content of the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this has already happened, billions of years ago.
Particle physics in cosmology
Main article: Particle physics in cosmology
Particle physics is important to the behavior of the early universe, since the early universe was so hot that the average energy density was very high. Because of this, scattering processes and decay of unstable particles are important in cosmology.
As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain cosmological epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller or comparable to the time scale of the expansion of the universe, which is 1 / H with H being the Hubble constant at that time. This is roughly equal to the age of the universe at that time.
Timeline of the Big Bang
Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang
Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago. Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth.
Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics.
This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters formed.
The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the CDM model it will continue expanding forever.
Areas of Study:
Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang.
The very early universe
While the early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10-33 seconds onwards, there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, to expect the universe to be flat, homogeneous and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found.
These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smooths out anisotropies and in homogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles. The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, however it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory. Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation.
Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain more particles than antiparticles. Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma rays produced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed.
This problem is called the baryon asymmetry, and the theory to describe the resolution is called baryogenesis. The theory of baryogenesis was worked out by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. Particle accelerators, however, measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists are trying to find additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry.
Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Main article:
Big bang nucleosynthesis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe. It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produced deuterium, helium-4 and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman. It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth “sterile” species of neutrino.
Cosmic Microwave Background
Main article: Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum.
It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight inhomogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang). One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The recent measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses.
Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, such as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background. Formation and evolution of large-scale structure
Main articles:
Large-scale structure of the cosmos, Structure formation, and Galaxy formation and evolution.
Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.
Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids. Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies. Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy.
Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:
The Lyman alpha forest, which allows cosmologists to measure the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the early universe, by measuring the absorption of light from distant quasars by the gas.
The 21 centimeter absorption line of neutral atomic hydrogen also provides a sensitive test of cosmology.
Weak lensing, the distortion of a distant image by gravitational lensing due to dark matter.
These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe.
Dark Matter
Main article: Dark matter
Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and structure formation suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter.
The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology.
Dark energy
Main article: Dark energy
If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate.
Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed. Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have used this as evidence for the anthropic principle, which suggests that the cosmological constant is so small because life (and thus physicists, to make observations) cannot exist in a universe with a large cosmological constant, but many people find this an unsatisfying explanation.
Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy’s equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology.
A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse.
Other areas of inquiry:
Cosmologists also study:
Whether primordial black holes were formed in our universe, and what happened to them.
The GZK cutoff for high-energy cosmic rays, and whether it signals a failure of special relativity at high energies the equivalence principle, whether or not Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravitation, and if the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe.
See also:
Physics portal String Cosmology
Physical ontology
List of cosmologists
References^ For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. pp. 1183ff. arXiv:astro-ph/0602280. ISBN 0444515607.^ Science 20 June 2003:Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914 – 1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Accessed December 2006^ e.g. Liddle, A.. An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84835-9. This argues cogently “Energy is always, always, always conserved.”^ P. Ojeda and H. Rosu (Jun 2006). “Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies”. Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. (Springer) 45: 1191–1196.arXiv:gr-qc/0510004. Bibcode 2006IJTP…45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2.. Polytheism
In polytheistic creation myths, the world often comes into being organically, e.g. sprouting from a primal seed, sexually, by miraculous birth(sometimes by parthenogenesis), by hierosgamos, violently, by the slaying of a primeval monster, or artificially, by a divine demiurge or “craftsman”. Sometimes, a god is involved, wittingly or unwittingly, in bringing about creation.
Examples include:
African contexts:
Mbombo of Bakuba mythology, who vomited out the world upon feeling a stomach ache;
Egyptian mythology
Atum in Ennead, whose semen becomes the primal components of the universe.
Ptah creating the universe by speaking Unkulunkulu in Zulu mythology American contexts:
Nanabozho (Great Rabbit,) Ojibway deity, a shape-shifter and a cocreator of the world.
The goddess Coatlique in Aztec mythology; Viracocha in Inca mythology;
A trickster deity in the form of a Raven in Inuit mythology;
Asian contexts:
El or the Elohim of Canaanite mythology (see Genesis creation myth)Esege Malan in Mongolian mythology, king of the skies Kamuy in Ainu mythology, who built the world on the back of a trout; Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology, who churned the ocean with a spear, creating the islands of Japan
Marduk killing Tiamat in the Babylonian Enuma Elish Vishvakarman in Vedic mythology, responsible for the creation of the universe (while in later Puranic period, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are for creation, maintenance and destruction, respectively)European contexts:
The sons of Borr slaying the primeval giant Ymir in Norse mythology Rod in Slavic mythology.
Oceanic contexts:
Ranginui, the Sky Father, and Papatuanuku, the Earth Mother in Maori mythology
Platonic demiurge
Main article:
Demiurge
Further information: Neoplatonism and Gnosticism and Great Architect of the Universe
Plato, in his dialogue Timaeus, describes a creation myth involving a being called the demiurge (“craftsman”). This concept was continued in Neoplatonism and Gnosticism. In Neoplatonism, the demiurge represents the second cause or dyad, after the monad. In Gnostic dualism, the demiurge is an imperfect spirit and possibly evil being, transcended by divine Fullness (Pleroma). Unlike the Judeo-Christian God, Plato’s demiurge is unable to create ex-nihilo.
Monolatrism
See also:
Brahma Monolatristic traditions would separate a secondary creator from the primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator. According to Gaudiya Vaishnavas, Brahma is the secondary creator and not the supreme. Vishnu is the primary creator. According to Vaishnavabelief Vishnu creates the basic universal shell and provides all the raw materials and also places the living entities within the material world, fulfilling their own independent will. Brahma works with the materials provided by Vishnu to actually create what are believed to be planets in Puranic terminology, and he supervises the population of them.
Monism
Main article: Monism
Monism has its origin in Hellenistic philosophy as a concept of all things deriving from a single substance or being. Following a long and still current tradition H.P. Owen (1971: 65) claimed that:
“Pantheists are ‘monists’…they believe that there is only one Being, and that all other forms of reality are either modes (or appearances) of it or identical with it.” Although, like Baruch Spinoza, some pantheists may also be monists, and monism may even be essential to some versions of pantheism (like Spinoza’s), not all pantheists are monists. Some are polytheists and some are pluralists; they believe that there are many things and kinds of things and many different kinds of value.[
Not all monists are pantheists. Exclusive monists believe that the universe, the God of the pantheist, simply does not exist. In addition, monists can be Deists, pandeists, theists or panentheists; believing in a monotheistic God that is omnipotent and all-pervading, and both transcendent and immanent. There are monist pantheists and panentheists in Hinduism(particularly in Advaita and Vishistadvaita respectively), Judaism (monistic panentheism is especially found in Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy), in Christianity (especially among Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglicans) and in Islam (among the Sufis, especially the Bektashi).In Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is the abstract notion of “the Absolute” from which the universe takes its origin and at an ultimate level, all assertions of a distinction between Brahman, other gods and creation are meaningless (monism). Buddhism
The Buddha explicitly rejects a creator, denies endorsing any views on creation and states that questions on the origin of the world are worthless.
Some gods in Buddhism have the view that they are creators of the world. For example, Baka Brahma. However, Buddha pointed out to them that they do not know the whole extent of the universe (he said they have no knowledge of some of the highest heavens), and further, the spiritual power of the Buddha was greater than the spiritual power of these gods who thought they created the world. One of the Suttasdealing with this subject is the Kevaddha Sutta.
The Buddha said (in DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta or The Net of Views) that their view of being the creator of the world is a misconception, and that these Brahma-gods actually have a cause which lead their origination (taking birth as a Brahma-god). Buddha even tells how the views concerning ‘creator gods’ originate in the world – through junior Brahma-gods (with a more limited life-span) who, on their passing away, get reborn as a human, and through practicing meditation are able to remember their previous life as a junior god to a Brahma god. Then, he starts to preach this view of a ‘creator god’ to others (see DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta) starts to preach this view of a ‘creator god’ to others (see DN1 – the Brahmajala Sutta).
Hinduism
Main article: Hindu creationism
Hinduism includes a range of viewpoints about the origin of life, creationism and evolution. The accounts of the emergence of life within the universe vary in description, but classically the god Brahma, from a Trimurti of three gods also including Vishnu and Shiva, is described as performing the act of creation, or more specifically of “propagating life within the universe” with the other two deities being responsible for preservation and destruction (of the universe) respectively.
Most Hindu schools do not regard the scriptural creation myth as a literal truth, and often the creation stories themselves do not go into specific detail, thus leaving open the possibility of incorporating at least some theories in support of evolution. Some Hindus find support for, or foreshadowing of evolutionary ideas in scriptures, namely the Vedas. An exception to this acceptance is the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), which includes several members who actively oppose “Darwinism” and the modern evolutionary synthesis.
Jainism
Main article: Jainism and non-creationism
Jainism does not support belief in a creator deity. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents – soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion have always existed (a static universe similar to that of Epicureanism and steady state cosmological model). All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws. It is not possible to create matter out of nothing and hence the sum total of matter in the universe remains the same (similar to law of conservation of mass). Similarly, the soul of each living being is unique and uncreated and has existed since beginningless time.
The Jain theory of causation holds that a cause and its effect are always identical in nature and therefore a conscious and immaterial entity like God cannot create a material entity like the universe. Furthermore, according to the Jain concept of divinity, any soul who destroys its karmas and desires, achieves liberation. A soul who destroys all its passions and desires has no desire to interfere in the working of the universe. Moral rewards and sufferings are not the work of a divine being, but a result of an innate moral order in the cosmos; a self-regulating mechanism whereby the individual reaps the fruits of his own actions through the workings of the karmas.
Through the ages, Jain philosophers have adamantly rejected and opposed the concept of creator and omnipotent God and this has resulted in Jainism being labeled as nastika darsana or atheist philosophy by the rival religious philosophies. The theme of non-creationism and absence of omnipotent God and divine grace runs strongly in all the philosophical dimensions of Jainism, including its cosmology, karma,moksa and its moral code of conduct. Jainism asserts a religious and virtuous life is possible without the idea of a creator god.
Monotheism
Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism teach that creation is the origin of the universe by the action of God.
Among monotheists it has historically been most commonly believed that living things are God’s creations, and are not the result of a process inherent in originally non-living things, unless this process is designed, initiated, or directed by God; likewise, sentient and intelligent beings are believed to be God’s creation, and did not arise through the development of living but non-sentient beings, except by the intervention of God. Baha’I
Bahá’í teachings state that God is too great for humans to fully comprehend, or to create a complete and accurate image of, by themselves. Therefore, human understanding of God is achieved through his revelations via his Manifestations. In the Bahá’í religion God is often referred to by titles and attributes (e.g. the All-Powerful, or the All-Loving), and there is a substantial emphasis on monotheism.
Chinese Mythology
Pangu can be interpreted as another creator deity. In the beginning there was nothing in the universe except a formless chaos.
However this chaos began to coalesce into a cosmic egg for eighteen thousand years. Within it, the perfectly opposed principles of yin and yang became balanced and Pangu emerged (or woke up) from the egg. Pangu is usually depicted as a primitive, hairy giant with horns on his head (like the Greek Pan) and clad in furs. Pangu set about the task of creating the world: he separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. This task took eighteen thousand years, with each day the sky grew ten feet higher, the Earth ten feet wider, and Pangu ten feet taller. In some versions of the story, Pangu is aided in this task by the four most prominent beasts, namely the Turtle, the Qilin, the Phoenix, and the Dragon.
Shangdi is another creator deity, possibly prior to Pangu sharing concepts similar to abrahamic faiths.
After the eighteen thousand years had elapsed, Pangu was laid to rest. His breath became the wind; his voice the thunder; left eye the sun and right eye the moon; his body became the mountains and extremes of the world; his blood formed rivers; his muscles the fertile lands; his facial hair the stars and milky way; his fur the bushes and forests; his bones the valuable minerals; his bone marrows sacred diamonds; his sweat fell as rain; and the fleas on his fur carried by the wind became human beings all over the world.
The distance from Earth and Sky at the end of the 18,000 years would have been 65,700,000 feet, or over 12,443 miles.
The first writer to record the myth of Pangu was Xu Zheng during the Three Kingdoms period.
Christianity
See also: Christ the Logos
It is a tenet of Christian faith (Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant) that God is the creator of all things from nothing but by his word, and has made human beings in the Image of God, who by direct inference is also the source of the human soul. Within this broad understanding, however, there are a number of views regarding exactly how this doctrine ought to be interpreted.
Some Christians, mainly evangelical Protestants, particularly Young Earth creationists and Old Earth creationists, interpret Genesis as a historical, accurate, and literal account of creation. Others, in contrast, may understand these to be, not statements of historic fact, but rather spiritual insights more vaguely defined.
While the synoptic gospels do not address the question of creation, the Gospel of John famously begins:
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being … And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth” .The Epistle to the Hebrews, a book of the New Testament, contains another reference to creation:
“For by faith we understand the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible” .Thus, in Chalcedonian Christology, Jesus is the Word of God, which was in the beginning and, thus, is uncreated, and hence is God, and consequently identical with the Creator of the world ex nihilo.
The Catholic Church allows for either a literal or allegorical interpretation of Genesis, so as to allow for the possibility of Creation by means of an evolutionary process over great spans of time, otherwise known as theistic evolution. It believes that the creation of the world is a work of God through the Logos, the Word (idea, intelligence, reason and logic).The New Testament claims that God created everything by the eternal Word, Jesus Christ his beloved Son.
In him “all things were created, in heaven and on earth.. . all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Surrounded by a pervasive culture of rationalism, relativism and secularism, the Catholic Church has asserted the primacy of reason in Christian Theology.
In a 1999 lecture at the University of Paris, then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger said:
“The question is … whether reason, being a chance by-product of irrationality and floating in an ocean of irrationality, is ultimately just as meaningless; or whether the principle that represents the fundamental conviction of Christian faith and of its philosophy remains true: “In principio erat Verbum” — at the beginning of all things stands the creative power of reason. Now as then, Christian faith represents the choice in favor of the priority of reason and of rationality. […] there is no ultimate demonstration that the basic choice involved in Christianity is correct. Yet, can reason really renounce its claim to the priority of what is rational over the irrational, the claim that the Logos is at the ultimate origin of things, without abolishing itself?””Even today, by reason of its choosing to assert the primacy of reason, Christianity remains “enlightened,” and I think that any enlightenment that cancels this choice must, contrary to all appearances, mean, not an evolution, but an involution, a shrinking, of enlightenment.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Followers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and others within Mormonism, believe that “the elements are eternal” (Doctrine & Covenants § 93:33), and that God (our Father in Heaven–the Creator, Sustainer, and Governor of the Universe)–organized or wrought the creation of the Earth through His Son, Jesus Christ (known as YHWH “Jehovah” of the Old Testament), Who was with Him in the beginning (John 1:1-2, 14): “And by the word of my power have I created them [i.e., the Earth and its many inhabitants], which is mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace and truth” (Moses 1:32).
God, the Father, had His Son fashion the eternal elements into the Earth upon which we live over the course of six creative periods that He called “days” (yom in Hebrew, Genesis 1:5)(note, however, that there is nothing to suggest that these six days were either immediately contiguous or of 24 hours duration (indeed, as to the latter, the data suggests that these “days” were rather longer)).
“We will go down,” said Jehovah, “for there is space there, and we will take of these [already existing] materials, and we will make an earth whereon these [i.e., us] may dwell” (Abraham 3:24). But Latter-day Saint theology does not perceive God as the Creator of our Earth alone, but of countless worlds: “worlds without number have I created; and I also created them for mine own purpose; and by the Son I created them, which is mine Only Begotten” (Moses 1:33), ” By him, and through him, and of him, the worlds are and were created, and the inhabitants thereof are begotten sons and daughters unto God” (Doctrine & Covenants 76:24).In short, the Creator is an architect and organizer of pre-existing matter and energy, who constructed our original Earth and other worlds out of this raw material according to the laws and principles He has decreed shall govern such things.
Creationism
Main article: Creationism
Christian fundamentalism in the USA since the 1930s has pursued Biblical literalist doctrines of “Creationism” as a counter-hypothesis opposing the scientific community, with concepts such as flood geology, creation science and intelligent design proposed as syntheses of Christian creation beliefs and scientific method.
Judaism
Further information: Genesis creation myth
Orthodox Judaism historically affirms that one incorporeal God (self-identified to Moses as Yahweh) is the creator of all things (many references available, see Job 38-41, for example), and that this same one created Adam and Eve personally (directly). They affirm that this Being is an indivisible one, incomparable to any created thing, and immutable.
Islam
Main article: Islamic creationism
According to Islam, God, known in Arabic as Allah, is the all-powerful and all-knowing Creator, Sustainer, Ordainer, and Judge of the universe. Islam puts a heavy emphasis on the conceptualization of God as strictly singular (tawhid). God is unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent. According to tradition there are 99 Names of God (al-asma al-husna lit. meaning: “The best names”) each of which evoke a distinct attribute of God. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are “the Compassionate” (al-rahman) and “the Merciful” (al-rahim).Creation is seen as an act of divine choice and mercy, one with a grand purpose: “And We did not create the heaven and earth and that between them in play.”Rather, the purpose of humanity is to be tested: “Who has created death and life, that He may test you which of you is best in deed. And He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving; “Those who pass the test are rewarded with Paradise: “Verily for the Righteous there will be a fulfillment of (the heart’s) desires;
“According to the Islamic teachings, God exists above the heavens and the creation itself. The Qur’an mentions, “He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything. “At the same time, God is unlike anything in creation: “There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” and nobody can perceive God in totality: “Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.” God in Islam is not only majestic and sovereign, but also a personal God: “And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein (by Our Knowledge).”Allah commands the believers to constantly remember Him (“O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remembrance”) and to invoke Him alone (“And whoever invokes besides Allah another deity for which he has no proof – then his account is only with his Lord. Indeed, the disbelievers will not succeed.”)Islam teaches that God as referenced in the Qur’an is the only god and the same God worshipped by members of other Abrahamic religions
such as Christianity and Judaism. (29:46).
Sikhism
Main article: Sikh beliefs
One of the biggest responsibilities in Sikhism is to worship God as “The Creator”, termed Waheguru who is shapeless, timeless, and sightless, i.e., Nirankar, Akal, and Alakh Niranjan. The religion only takes after the belief in “One God for All” or Ik Onkar.
MYTHOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY also RELIGIOUS COSMOLOGY
A Religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition. Religious cosmologies usually include an act or process of creation by a creator deity or a larger pantheon.
Buddhism
Main article: Buddhist cosmology
In Buddhism, the universe comes into existence dependent upon the actions (karma) of its inhabitants. Buddhists posit neither an ultimate beginning or final end to the universe, but see the universe as something in flux, passing in and out of existence, parallel to an infinite number of other universes doing the same thing.
The Buddhist universe consists of a large number of worlds which correspond to different mental states, including passive states of trance, passionless states of purity, and lower states of desire, anger, and fear. The beings in these worlds are all coming into existence or being born, and passing out of existence into other states, or dying. A world comes into existence when the first being in it is born, and ceases to exist, as such, when the last being in it dies. The universe of these worlds also is born and dies, with the death of the last being preceding a universal conflagration that destroys the physical structure of the worlds; then, after an interval, beings begin to be born again and the universe is once again built up. Other universes, however, also exist, and there are higher planes of existence which are never destroyed, though beings that live in them also come into and pass out of existence.
As well as a model of universal origins and destruction, Buddhist cosmology also functions as a model of the mind, with its thoughts coming into existence based on preceding thoughts, and being transformed into other thoughts and other states.
Hebrew Bible
Further information: Biblical cosmology and Genesis creation myth
The main Judeo-Christian religious text, the Bible, opens with a story of creation. The first two chapters of the Book of Genesis describe the creation of heaven and earth by God (called both Elohim and Yhvh) in six successive days.
First day: God creates light (“Let there be light!”)[Gen 1:3]—the first divine command. The light is divided from the darkness, and “day” and “night” are named.
Second day: God creates a firmament (“Let a firmament be…!”)[Gen 1:6–7]—the second command—to divide the waters above from the waters below. The firmament is named “heaven” (shamayim).
Third day: God commands the waters below to be gathered together in one place, and dry land to appear (the third command).[Gen 1:9–10]”earth” and “sea” are named. God commands the earth to bring forth grass, plants, and fruit-bearing trees (the fourth command).
Fourth day: God creates lights in the firmament (the fifth command)[Gen 1:14–15] to separate light from darkness and to mark days, seasons and years. Two great lights are made and the stars.
Fifth day: God commands the sea to “teem with living creatures”, and birds to fly across the heavens (sixth command)[Gen 1:20–21] He creates birds and sea creatures, and commands them to be fruitful and multiply.
Sixth day: God commands the land to bring forth living creatures (seventh command); He makes wild beasts, livestock and “every thing that creepeth upon the earth”.[Gen 1:24–25] He then creates humanity in His “image” and “likeness” (eighth command).[Gen 1:26–28] They are told to “be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it.” The totality of creation is described by God as “very good.”
Seventh day: God, having completed the heavens and the earth, rests from His work, and blesses and sanctifies the seventh day. [Gen 2:2]
Christianity:
See also: Biblical cosmology, Ex nihilo, and Creationism
It is a tenet of Christian faith (Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant) that God is the creator of all things from nothing, and has made human beings in the Image of God, who by direct inference is also the source of the human soul. In Chalcedonian Christology, Jesus is the Word of God, which was in the beginning and, thus, is uncreated, and hence is God, and consequently identical with the Creator of the worldex nihilo.
The New Testament claims that God created everything by the eternal Word, Jesus Christ his beloved Son. In him “All things were created, in heaven and on earth.. . all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Mormon
Main article: Mormon cosmology
Mormon cosmology draws from Biblical cosmology, but has many unique elements provided by Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith, Jr.
According to Mormon cosmology, there was a pre-existence, better described as a pre-mortal life, in which human spirits were literal children of heavenly parents.
Though their spirits were created, the essential “intelligence” of these spirits is considered eternal, and without beginning. During this pre-existence, two plans were said to have been presented, one championed by Lucifer (Satan) that would have involved loss of moral agency, and another championed by God the Father. When his plan was not accepted, Lucifer is said to have rebelled and taken a third of the hosts of heaven with him to the earth to serve as tempters. According to a plan of salvation as described by God the Father, Jesus would create the earth, under the direction of God the Father, as a place where humanity would be tested.
After the resurrection all men and women except spirits that followed Lucifer and the sons of perdition would be assigned one of three degrees of glory.
Within the highest degree, the Celestial Kingdom, there are three divisions, and those in the highest of these divisions would become gods and goddesses through a process called exaltation or “eternal progression”. Celestial Kingdom, Terrestrial Kingdom, and Telestial Kingdom are the three divisions of the three degrees of glory.
This would involve having spirit children and populating new worlds.
The Earth’s creation, according to Mormon scripture, was not ex nihilo, but organized from existing matter.
The faith teaches that this earth is just one of many inhabited worlds, and that there are many governing heavenly bodies, including a planet or star Kolob which is said to be nearest the throne of God. According to some Mormon sources, God the Father himself was once like a human, and lived on a planet with his own higher god.
Hindu
Main article: Hindu cosmology
The Hindu cosmology and timeline is the closest to modern scientific timelines and even more which might indicate that the Big Bang is not the beginning of everything but just the start of the present cycle preceded by an infinite number of universes and to be followed by another infinite number of universes.
The Rig Veda questions the origin of the cosmos in: “Neither being (sat) nor non-being was as yet. What was concealed? And where? And in whose protection?…Who really knows? Who can declare it? Whence was it born, and whence came this creation? The devas were born later than this world’s creation, so who knows from where it came into existence? None can know from where creation has arisen, and whether he has or has not produced it. He who surveys it in the highest heavens, he alone knows-or perhaps does not know.” (Rig Veda 10. 129) Large scale structure of the Universe according to one Hindu cosmology. Intermediate neighborhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology.
We have the neighborhood of the Earth according to one Hindu cosmology. The Rig Veda’s view of the cosmos also sees one true divine principle self-projecting as the divine word, Vaak, ‘birthing’ the cosmos that we know, from the
monistic Hiranyagarbha or Golden Womb. The Hiranyagarbha is alternatively viewed as Brahma, the creator who was in turn created by God, or as God (Brahman) himself.
The universe is considered to constantly expand since creation and disappear into a thin haze after billions of years.
An alternate view is that the universe begins to contract after reaching its maximum expansion limits until it disappears into a fraction of a millimeter
The creation begins anew after billions of years (Solar years) of non-existence.
The puranic view asserts that the universe is created, destroyed, and re-created in an eternally repetitive series of cycles. In Hindu cosmology, a universe endures for about 4,320,000,000 years (one day of Brahma, the creator or kalpa) and is then destroyed by fire or water elements. At this point, Brahma rests for one night, just as long as the day. This process, named pralaya (Cataclysm), repeats for 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Human Years) that represents Brahma’s lifespan. It must be noted that Brahma is the creator but not necessarily regarded as God in Hinduism. He is mostly regarded as a creation of God / Brahman.
We are currently believed to be in the 51st year of the present Brahma and so about 156 trillion years have elapsed since He was born as Brahma. After Brahma’s “death”, it is necessary that another 100 Brahma years (311 Trillion, 40 Billion Years) pass until a new Brahma is born and the whole creation begins anew. This process is repeated again and again, forever. Brahma’s day is divided in one thousand cycles (Maha Yuga, or the Great Year).Maha Yuga, during which life, including the human race appears and then disappears, has 71 divisions, each made of 14 Manvantara (1000) years. Each Maha Yuga lasts for 4,320,000 years. Manvantara is Manu’s cycle, the one who gives birth and governs the human race.
Each Maha Yuga consists of a series of four shorter yugas, or ages. The yugas get progressively worse from a moral point of view as one proceeds from one yuga to another. As a result, each yuga is of shorter duration than the age that preceded it.
The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar.
Space and time are considered to be maya (illusion).
What looks like 100 years in the cosmos of Brahma could be thousands of years in other worlds, millions of years in some other worlds and 311 trillion and 40 billion years for our solar system and earth.
Islam
Main articles: Islamic cosmology and Sufi Cosmology
Islam preaches that God, or Allah, created the universe, including Earth’s physical environment and human beings. The highest goal is to visualize the cosmos as a book of symbols for meditation and contemplation for spiritual upliftment or as a prison from which the human soul must escape to attain true freedom in the spiritual journey to God. Islam elaborates on cosmology in many instances. A modern English translation of the Quran describes the creation of the universe as follows:”We have built the heaven with might, and We are Steadily Expanding it.”51:47 Earlier English translations like for example Ahmed Ali, The Noble Qur’an, Pickthal, Shakir and Yusuf Ali never specify the expansion as a process that is still going on so it seems to be an addition after the expansion of the universe became a generally accepted scientific fact.
Below here there are some other citations from the Quran on cosmology.
“Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” 21:30 Yusuf Ali translation
“The Day that We roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books (completed),- even as We produced the first creation, so shall We produce a new one: a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfil it.” 21:104 Yusuf Ali translation
Jainism
Main article: Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology considers the loka, or universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having no beginning or an end. Jain texts
describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is narrow at the top, broad at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom.
Mahapura’a of Acarya Jinasena is famous for this quote: “Some foolish men declare that a creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material?
If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression.”
Taoism
Main articles: Chinese creation myth and Tian
The cosmology of Taoism beliefs is a complex mixture of different beliefs. There is a “primordial universe” Wuji (philosophy), and Hongjun Laozu, water or qi. It transformed into Taiji and multiplied into everything.
The Pangu legend tells a formless chaos coalesced into a cosmic egg. Pangu emerged (or woke up) and separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, Pangu stood between them and pushed up the Sky. After Pangu died, he became everything. See also Bahá’í cosmology
Raelian cosmology
Zoroastrian cosmology
References:^ CCC Search Result – Paragraph # 291^ LDS Church (1995) (“Each [human] is a beloved spirit son or daughter of heavenly parents.”); LDS Church (1997, p. 11) (“Man, as a spirit, was begotten and born of heavenly parents, and reared to maturity in the eternal mansions of the Father.”).^ http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e459?_hi=10&_pos=2^ “This universe is not created nor sustained by anyone; It is self sustaining, without any base or support” “Nishpaadito Na Kenaapi Na Dhritah Kenachichch Sah Swayamsiddho Niradhaaro Gagane Kimtvavasthitah” [Yogasastra of Acarya Hemacandra 4.106] Tr by Dr. A. S. Gopani^ See Hemacandras description of universe in Yogasastra “…Think of this loka as similar to man standing akimbo…”4.103-6
See Also:
Biblical Cosmology,
Brahma Cosmogony,
Cosmological argument,
Cosmology Dating Creation,
Day-Age Creationism
Deism Existence, Gap Creationism,
Great Spirit,
Intelligent designer,
Jainism and non-creationism,
Old Earth Creationism
Tzimtzum
Young Earth Creationism
The term Alpha and Omega comes from the phrase “I am the alpha and the omega” (Koiné Greek: an appellation of Jesus in the Book of Revelation (verses 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13). In the Book of Revelation, it reads “I am the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last.”The first part of this phrase (“I am the Alpha and Omega”) is first found in Chapter 1 verse 8, and is found in every manuscript of Revelation that has 1v8. Several later manuscripts repeat “I am the Alpha and Omega” in 1v11 too, but it does not receive support here from most of the oldest manuscripts, including the Alexandrine, Sinaitic, and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus. It is, therefore, omitted in some modern translations. Scholar Robert Young stated, with regards to “I am the Alpha and Omega” in 1v11, that the “oldest MSS. omit” it.
Its meaning is found in the fact that alpha (?) and omega (O) are respectively the first and last letters of the Classical (Ionic) Greek alphabet. This would be similar to referring to someone in English as the “A and Z”. Thus, twice when the title appears it is further clarified with the additional title “the beginning and the end” (21:6, 22:13).
Though many commentators and dictionaries apply this title both to God and to Christ, some secular sources argue otherwise. Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament (1974) claims: “It cannot be absolutely certain that the writer meant to refer to the Lord Jesus specifically here… There is no real incongruity in supposing, also, that the writer here meant to refer to God as such.” However, most Christian denominations teach that it does apply to Jesus and God as they are one; Revelation Chapter 22 has Jesus himself saying the words: “I am the Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last”.Therefore the letters Alpha and Omega in juxtaposition are often used as a Christian visual symbol (see examples).
The letters were shown hanging from the arms of the cross in Early Christian art, and some crosses in precious metal have formed letters hanging in this way. In fact, despite always being in Greek, the letters became more common in Western than Eastern Orthodox Christian art. They are often shown to the left and right of Christ’s head, sometimes within his halo, where they take the place of the christogram used in Orthodox art.
This symbol was suggested by the Apocalypse, where many believe that Christ, as well as the Father, is “the First and the Last” (ii, 8); “the Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” (cf., xxii, 13; i, 8). Clement of Alexandria (2nd century, philosopher and commentator on pagan and Christian information) speaks of the Word as “the Alpha and the Omega of Whom alone the end becomes beginning, and ends again at the original beginning without any break” (Stromata, IV, 25).
Tertullian (lawyer, theologian) also alludes to Christ as the Alpha and Omega (De Monogamiâ, v), and from Prudentius (Cathemer., ix, 10) we learn that in the fourth century the interpretation of the apocalyptic letters was still the same: “Alpha et Omega cognominatus, ipse fons et clausula, Omnium quae sunt, fuerunt, quaeque post futura sunt.” It was, however, in the monuments of early Christianity that the symbolic Alpha and Omega had their greatest vogue.
This phrase is interpreted by many Christians to mean that Jesus existed from eternity (as the second person of the Trinity), and will exist eternally. Alpha and omega are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, signifying that God is “the beginning and the end,” or eternal. The symbols were used in early Christianity and appear in the Roman catacombs.
The Alpha and Omega symbols are often combined with the cross, chi rho, or other Christian symbols.
Judaism
In Rabbinic literature, the word emet (meaning “truth”), one of the names of God in Judaism, has been interpreted as consisting of the first, middle and final letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Islam
The Qur’an gives al’Awwal meaning “The First” and al’Akhir , meaning “The Last” as two of the names of God: 57:3. Babylonian cosmology
Babylonian literature (1900-1200 BC) Plurality of heavens and earths The Earth and Heavens are a “spatial whole, even one of round shape,” revolving around the “cult-place of the deity”[clarification needed] rather than the Earth,[6] and there is a plurality of heavens and earths. Brahmanda (Hindu Cosmology) Hindu Rigveda(1700–1100 BC) Cyclical or oscillating, Infinite in time The universe sustains for around 311,040,000,000,000 years, or 100 Years of Brahma. There is a smaller period of unmanifestation in around 4 billion years, that is, one Day of Brahma. The universe cycles between expansion and total collapse.
After one cycle of the life of Brahma another universe follows for infinity, each of which exists for a time period of 311 trillion 40 billion years. It also speaks of an infinite number of universes at one given point of time.
The Universe expanded from a concentrated form, a point called a Bindu. The universe, as a living entity, is bound to the perpetual cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Atomist universe Anaxagoras (500-428 BC) & later.
Epicurus Infinite in extent – The universe contains only two things: an infinite number of tiny seeds, or atoms, and the void of infinite extent. All atoms are made of the same substance, but differ in size and shape. Objects are formed from atom aggregations and decay back into atoms. Incorporates Leucippus’ principle of causality: “nothing happens at random; everything happens out of reason and necessity.” The universe was not ruled by gods.
Pythagorean universe Philolaus (d. 390 BC) Existence of a “Central Fire” at the center of the Universe. At the center of the Universe is a central fire, around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and planets revolve uniformly.
The Sun revolves around the central fire once a year, the stars are immobile. The earth in its motion maintains the same hidden face towards the central fire, hence it is never seen. This is the first known non-geocentric model of the Universe.[8]Stoic universe Stoics(300 BC – 200 AD) Island universe
The Cosmos is finite and surrounded by an infinite void. It is in a state of flux, as it pulsates in size and periodically passes through upheavals and conflagrations.
Aristotelian universe Aristotle (384-322 BC) Geocentric, static, steady state, finite extent, infinite time Spherical earth is surrounded by concentric celestial spheres. Universe exists unchanged throughout eternity. Contains a fifth element, called aether (later known as quintessence), added to the four Classical elements. Aristarchean universe Aristarchus(circa 280 BC) Heliocentric Earth rotates daily on its axis and revolves annually about the sun in a circular orbit. Sphere of fixed stars is centered about the sun. Seleucian universe Seleucus of Seleucia(circa 190 BC)
Heliocentric Modifications to the Aristarchean universe, with the inclusion of the tide phenomenon to explain heliocentrism.
Ptolemaic model (based on Aristotelian universe) Ptolemy(2nd century AD) Geocentric Universe orbits about a stationary Earth. Planets move in circular epicycles, each having a center that moved in a larger circular orbit (called an eccentric or a deferent) around a center-point near the Earth. The use of equants added another level of complexity and allowed astronomers to predict the positions of the planets.
The most successful universe model of all time, using the criterion of longevity. Almagest (the Great System).
Aryabhatan model Aryabhata (499) Geocentric or Heliocentric The Earth rotates and the planets move in elliptical orbits, possibly around either the Earth or the Sun. It is uncertain whether the model is geocentric or heliocentric due to planetary orbits given with respect to both the Earth and the Sun. Abrahamic universe Medieval philosophers (500-1200) Finite in time.
A universe that is finite in time and has a beginning is proposed by the Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, who argues against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Logical arguments supporting a finite universe are developed by the early Muslim philosopher Alkindus, the Jewish philosopher Saadia Gaon and the Muslim theologianAlgazel.
Multiversal cosmology Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209)
Multiverse, multiple worlds & universes There exists an infinite outer space
e beyond the known world, and God has the power to fill the vacuum with an infinite number of universes.
Maragha models Maragha school(1259–1528) Geocentric Various modifications to Ptolemaic model and Aristotelian universe, including rejection ofequant and eccentrics at Maragheh observatory, and introduction of Tusi-couple by Al-Tusi. Alternative models later proposed, including the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir, a model rejecting stationary Earth in favour of Earth’s rotation by Ali Kusçu, and planetary model incorporating “circular inertia” by Al-Birjandi. Nilakanthan model Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544)
Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the later Tychonic system. Copernican universe Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) Heliocentric The geocentric Maragha model of Ibn al-Shatir adapted to meet the requirements of the ancient heliocentric Aristarchean universe in his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.
Tychonic system Tycho Brahe(1546–1601) Geocentric and Heliocentric A universe in which the planets orbit the Sun and the Sun orbits the Earth, similar to the earlier Nilakanthan model. Static Newtonian Sir Isaac Newton(1642–1727) Static(evolving), steady state, infinite Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle. Matter on the large scale is uniformly distributed. Gravitationally balanced but unstable.
Cartesian Vortex universe René Descartes 17th Century Static (evolving), steady state, Infinite
A system of huge swirling whirlpools of aethereal or fine matter produces what we would call gravitational effects. His vacuum was not empty. All space was filled with matter that swirled around in large and small vortices.
Hierarchical universe Immanuel Kant,
Johann Lambert 18th century Static (evolving), steady state, infinite Matter is clustered on ever larger scales of hierarchy. Matter is endlessly being recycled. Einstein Universe with a cosmological constant Albert Einstein1917 Static (nominally). Bounded (finite) “Matter without motion.” Contains uniformly distributed matter. Uniformly curved spherical space; based on Riemann’s hypersphere. Curvature is set equal to ?. In effect ? is equivalent to a repulsive force which counteracts gravity. Unstable. De Sitter universe Willem de Sitter1917 Expanding flat space.
Steady state. ? > 0 “Motion without matter.” Only apparently static. Based on Einstein’s General Relativity. Space expands with constant acceleration. Scale factor (radius of universe) increases exponentially, i.e. constant inflation. MacMillan universe William Duncan MacMillan 1920s Static &steady state.
New matter is created from radiation. Starlight is perpetually recycled into new matter particles.
Friedmann universe of spherical space Alexander Friedmann 1922 Spherical expanding space. k= +1 ; no ? Positive curvature. Curvature constant k = +1Expands then recollapses. Spatially closed (finite).Friedmann universe of hyperbolic space Alexander Friedmann 1924 Hyperbolic expanding space.
k= -1 ; no ? Negative curvature. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). Unbounded. Expands forever.
Dirac large numbers hypothesis Paul Dirac 1930s Expanding Demands a large variation in G, which decreases with time. Gravity weakens as universe evolves.
Friedmann zero-curvature, a.k.a. the Einstein-DeSitter universe Einstein & DeSitter 1932 Expanding flat space.
k= 0 ; ? = 0 Critical density Curvature constant k = 0. Said to be infinite (but ambiguous). ‘Unbounded cosmos of limited extent.’ Expands forever. ‘Simplest’ of all known universes. Named after but not considered by Friedmann. Has a deceleration term q =½ which means that its expansion rate slows down.
BIG BANG THEORY = Only One Theory!
The original Big Bang. a.k.a. Friedmann-Lemaître Model Georges Lemaître1927-29 Expansion? > 0 ? > |Gravity| ? is positive and has a magnitude greater than Gravity. Universe has initial high density state (‘primeval atom’). Followed by a two stage expansion. ? is used to destabilize the universe. (Lemaître is considered to be the father of the big bang model.)Oscillating universe(a.k.a. Friedmann-Einstein; was latter’s 1st choice after rejecting his own 1917 model) Favored by Friedmann 1920s Expanding and contracting in cycles Time is endless and beginningless; thus avoids the beginning-of-time paradox.
Perpetual cycles of big Bang followed by the big Crunch. Eddington Arthur Eddington 1930 First Static then Expands Static Einstein 1917 universe with its instability disturbed into expansion mode; with relentless matter dilution becomes a DeSitter universe.
Dominates gravity.
Milne universe of kinematic relativity Edward Milne, 1933, 1935;William H. McCrea, 1930s Kinematic expansion with NO space expansion Rejects general relativity and the expanding space paradigm. Gravity not included as initial assumption. Obeys cosmological principle & rules of special relativity. The Milne expanding universe consists of a finite spherical cloud of particles (or galaxies) that expands WITHIN flat space which is infinite and otherwise empty.
It has a center and a cosmic edge (the surface of the particle cloud) which expands at light speed. His explanation of gravity was elaborate and unconvincing. For instance, his universe has an infinite number of particles, hence infinite mass, within a finite cosmic volume.
Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker class of models Howard Robertson, Arthur Walker, 1935 Uniformly expanding Class of universes that are homogenous and isotropic. Spacetime separates into uniformly curved space and cosmic time common to all co-moving observers. The formulation system is now known as the FLRW or Robertson-Walker metrics of cosmic time and curved space.
Steady-state expanding (Bondi & Gold) Herman Bondi,Thomas Gold1948 Expanding, steady state, infinite Matter creation rate maintains constant density. Continuous creation out of nothing from nowhere.
Exponential expansion.
Deceleration term q = -1.Steady-state expanding (Hoyle) Fred Hoyle 1948 Expanding, steady state; but unstable Matter creation rate maintains constant density. But since matter creation rate must be exactly balanced with the space expansion rate the system is unstable. Ambiplasma Hannes Alfvén1965 Oskar Klein Cellular universe, expanding by means of matter-antimatter annihilation Based on the concept of plasma cosmology.
The universe is viewed as meta-galaxies divided by double layers —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic matter-antimatter annihilations keep the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting. Brans-Dicke Carl H. Brans; Robert H. Dicke Expanding Based on Mach’s principle. G varies with time as universe expands. “But nobody is quite sure what Mach’s principle actually means.”
Cosmic inflation
Alan Guth 1980 Big Bang with modification to solve horizon problem and flatness problem. Based on the concept of hot inflation. The universe is viewed as a multiple quantum flux —hence its bubble-like nature. Other universes are formed from other bubbles. Ongoing cosmic expansion kept the bubbles separated and moving apart preventing them from interacting. Eternal Inflation (a multiple universe model) Andreï Linde 1983 Big Bang with cosmic inflation
A multiverse, based on the concept of cold inflation, in which inflationary events occur at random each with independent initial conditions; some expand into bubble universes supposedly like our entire cosmos.
Bubbles nucleate in a spacetime foam.
Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion.
Cosmology
Cosmology considered an actual science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those laws. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects. These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed scientists to establish the Big Bang Theory as the leading cosmological model. Some researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; however, cosmologists generally agree that the Big Bang theory best explains observations.
Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, including string theory, astrophysics, general relativity, and plasma physics. Thus, cosmology unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with the physics of the smallest structures in the universe. Universal Disciplines In recent times, physics and astrophysics have played a central role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. What is known as physical cosmology shaped through both mathematics and observation the analysis of the whole universe. It is generally understood to begin with the Big Bang combined with cosmic inflation – an expansion of space from which the universe is thought to have emerged ~13.7±0.2×109 (roughly 13.5-13.9 billion) years ago.
Physical cosmologists propose that the history of the universe has been governed entirely by physical laws. Such theories of an impersonal universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by Roger Bacon.
Between the domains of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw intuitive conclusions about the nature of the universe, man, a supernatural creator and/or their relationships based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from spiritual experience and/or observation. Metaphysical Cosmology
Metaphysical cosmology has also been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exampled by the observation made by Marcus Aurelius of a man’s place in that relationship: “He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, and he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is.”
Cosmology is often an important aspect of the creation myths of religions that seek to explain the existence and nature of reality. In some cases, views about the creation (cosmogony) and destruction (eschatology) of the universe play a central role in shaping a framework of religious cosmology for understanding humanity’s role in the universe.
A more contemporary distinction between religion and philosophy, esoteric cosmology is distinguished from religion in its less tradition-bound construction and reliance on modern “intellectual understanding” rather than faith, and from philosophy in its emphasis on spirituality as a formative concept. History of Physical Cosmology. See also: Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists.
Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation. In 1915, Albert Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, physicists believed in a perfectly static universe that had no beginning or end. Einstein added a cosmological constant to his theory in order to force it to model a static universe containing matter. This so-called Einstein universe is, however, unstable; it will eventually start expanding or contracting. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann, whose equations describe the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, which may expand or contract.
In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects. One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this.
Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law.
Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications.
In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the “explosion” of a “primeval atom”—which was later called the Big Bang.
In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître’s theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds directly proportional to their distance. This fact is now known as Hubble’s law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing at the time about different types of Cepheid variables.
Given the cosmological principle, Hubble’s law suggested that the universe was expanding. There were two primary explanations put forth for the expansion of the universe. One was Lemaître’s Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow. The other possibility was Fred Hoyle’s steady state model in which new matter would be created as the galaxies moved away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time.
For a number of years the support for these theories was evenly divided.
However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos.
One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s.
Light elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created in the Big Bang.
These light elements were spread too fast and too thinly in the Big Bang process (see nucleosynthesis) to form the most stable medium-sized atomic nuclei, like iron and nickel. This fact allows for later energy release, as such intermediate-sized elements are formed in our era.
The formation of such atoms powers the steady energy-releasing reactions in stars, and also contributes to sudden energy releases, such as in novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes is also thought to power the most energetic processes, generally seen at the centers of galaxies (see quasars and in general active galaxies).Cosmologists are still unable to explain all cosmological phenomena purely on the basis of known conventional forms of energy, for example those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, and therefore invoke a yet unexplored form of energy called dark energy to account for certain cosmological observations.
One hypothesis is that dark energy is the energy of virtual particles (which mathematically must exist in vacuum due to the uncertainty principle).There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity. As a result it remains controversial whether one can meaningfully say that total energy is conserved in an expanding universe.
For instance, each photon that travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the redshift effect. This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost. Nevertheless some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense.
Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study to explore which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles which are referred to as matter. The former are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their energy, and therefore move at the speed of light or very close to it; the latter are particles whose kinetic energy is much lower than their rest mass and therefore move much slower than the speed of light.
As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted. However, the universe also cools down, meaning that the average energy per particle is getting smaller with time. Therefore the radiation becomes weaker, and dilutes faster than matter. Thus with the expansion of the universe radiation becomes less dominant than matter. In the very early universe radiation dictates the rate of deceleration of the universe’s expansion, and the universe is said to be ‘radiation dominated’.
At later times, when the average energy per photon is roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be ‘matter dominated’. The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe’s expansion. History of the UniverseSee also: Timeline of the Big Bang
The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the CDM model?
CDM Model.
CDM model, Equations of motion
Main article: Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric.
The equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant.
The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion the radiation and matter in the universe are cooled down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation due to the radiation and matter content of the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this has already happened, billions of years ago.
Particle physics in cosmology
Main article: Particle physics in cosmology
Particle physics is important to the behavior of the early universe, since the early universe was so hot that the average energy density was very high. Because of this, scattering processes and decay of unstable particles are important in cosmology.
As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain cosmological epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller or comparable to the time scale of the expansion of the universe, which is 1 / H with H being the Hubble constant at that time. This is roughly equal to the age of the universe at that time. Big Bang Timeline
Timeline of the Big Bang
Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang
Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago. Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth.
Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics.
This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters formed. The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the CDM model it will continue expanding forever.
Areas of study
Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang. The very early universe.
While the early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10-33 seconds onwards, there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, to expect the universe to be flat, homogeneous and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found.
These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smooths out anisotropies and inhomogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles.
The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, however it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory. Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation.
Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain more particles than antiparticles. Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma rays produced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed. This problem is called the baryon asymmetry, and the theory to describe the resolution is called baryogenesis.
The theory of baryogenesis was worked out by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. Particle accelerators, however, measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists are trying to find additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry.
Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Main article: Big bang nucleosynthesis
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe.
It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produced
deuterium, helium-4 and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher and Robert Herman. It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth “sterile” species of neutrino.
Cosmic Microwave Background
Main article: Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum. It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight inhomogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang).
One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The recent measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses.
NEWER
Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, such as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background.
Formation and evolution of large-scale structure
Main articles: Large-scale structure of the cosmos, Structure formation, and Galaxy formation and evolution
Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.
Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids. Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies. Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy.
Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:
The Lyman alpha forest, which allows cosmologists to measure the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in the early universe, by measuring the absorption of light from distant quasars by the gas.
The 21 centimeter absorption line of neutral atomic hydrogen also provides a sensitive test of cosmology.
Weak lensing, the distortion of a distant image by gravitational lensing due to dark matter.
These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe.
Dark Matter
Main article: Dark matter
Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and structure formation suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter. The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology.
Dark Energy
Main article: Dark energy
If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate.
Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed. Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have used this as evidence for the anthropic principle, which suggests that the cosmological constant is so small because life (and thus physicists, to make observations) cannot exist in a universe with a large cosmological constant, but many people find this an unsatisfying explanation.
Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy’s equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology.
A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse.
Other areas of inquiry
Cosmologists also study:
whether primordial black holes were formed in our universe, and what happened to them.
The GZK cutoff for high-energy cosmic rays, and whether it signals a failure of special relativity at high energies the equivalence principle, whether or not Einstein’s general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravitation, and if the fundamental laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe.
See Also:
Physics portal String cosmology
Physical Ontology List of Cosmologists
References:
For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”. In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. pp. 1183ff. arXiv:astro-ph/0602280. ISBN 0444515607.^ Science 20 June 2003:Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914 – 1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Accessed December 2006^ e.g. Liddle, A.. An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-84835-9. This argues cogently “Energy is always, always, always conserved.”^ P. Ojeda and H. Rosu (Jun 2006). “Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies”. Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. (Springer) 45: 1191–1196.arXiv:gr-qc/0510004. Bibcode 2006IJTP…45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2.
Further Reading:
Popular-
Brian Greene (2005). The Fabric of the Cosmos. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101111-4.Alan Guth (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Random House. ISBN 0-224-04448-6.Hawking, Stephen W. (1988). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-38016-8.Hawking, Stephen W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.Simon Singh (2005).
Big Bang: the origins of the universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-716221-9.Steven Weinberg (1993; 1978). The First Three Minutes. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02437-8.clic model Paul Steinhardt;
Neil Turok 2002 Expanding and contracting in cycles; M theory. Two parallel orbifold planes or M-branes collide periodically in a higher dimensional space. With quintessence or dark energy
Cyclic model Lauris Baum;
Paul Frampton 2007 Solution ofTolman’s entropy problem Phantom dark energy fragments universe into large number of disconnected patches. Our patch contracts containing only dark energy with zero entropy. Table notes: the term “static” simply means not expanding and not contracting. Symbol G represents Newton’s gravitational constant;
(Lambda) is the cosmological constant.
Physical Cosmology
Main article: Physical cosmology
Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It also includes the study of the nature of the Universe on its very largest scales. In its earliest form it was what is now known as celestial mechanics, the study of the heavens.
The Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. This is known as one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology.
With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved. Newton provided a physical mechanism for Kepler’s laws and his law of universal gravitation allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton’s cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies. This was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology.
Modern Scientific Cosmology
Modern scientific cosmology is usually considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein’s publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper “Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity,” (although this paper was not widely available outside of Germany until the end of World War I). General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild and Arthur Eddington to explore the astronomical consequences of the theory, which enhanced the growing ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Prior to this (and for some time afterwards), physicists assumed that the Universe was static and unchanging.
In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax. Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only ; while Heber D. Curtis argued for the idea that spiral nebulae were star systems in their own right – island universes. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate at the meeting of the (US) National Academy of Sciences in Washington on 26 April 1920.
The resolution of this debate came with the detection of novae in the Andromeda galaxy by Edwin Hubble in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way and has galaxies of their own.
Subsequent modeling of the universe explored the possibility that the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein in his 1917 paper may result in an expanding universe, depending on its value. Thus the big bang model was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 which was subsequently corroborated by Edwin Hubble’s discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964. These findings were a first step to rule out some of many alternative physical cosmologies.
Recent observations made by the COBE and WMAP satellites observing this background radiation have effectively, in many scientists’ eyes, transformed cosmology from a highly speculative science into a predictive science, as these observations matched predictions made by a theory called Cosmic inflation, which is a modification of the standard big bang model. This has led many to refer to modern times as the “Golden age of cosmology.”(Source: Wikipedia)
Further reading
History of First Corporation that changed the way we now do business in the world:
The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world,
the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, Sweden, obtained a
Charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. Many European nations
chartered corporations to lead colonial ventures, such as the
Dutch East India Company or the Hudson’s Bay Company, and these corporations came to play a large part in the history of corporate colonialism. Popular Books
Brian Greene (2005). The Fabric of the Cosmos. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101111-4.Alan Guth (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Random House. ISBN 0-224-04448-6.Hawking, Stephen W. (1988). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-38016-8.Hawking, Stephen W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books, Inc. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.Simon Singh (2005). Big Bang: the origins of the universe. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-716221-9.Steven Weinberg (1993; 1978). The First Three Minutes. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02437-8
See also:
Astronomy portal Absolute time and space
Astrology
Astronomy List of astrophysicists
Non-standard cosmology
TaijiTaoMahapurana (Jainism)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mahapurana is a major Jain text composed largely by Acharya Jinasena during the rule of Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarshaand completed by his pupil Gunabhadra in the 9th century CE. The section composed by Gunabhadra is called “Uttarapurana”. The completed and edited text was released by Lokasena, pupil of Gunabhadra in a celebration at Bankapura in the court of Vira-Bankeyarasa in 898 CE. The first 42 Parvans of this text were written by Jinasena, while remaining 34 Parvans were composed by Gunabhara.
This text gives an encyclopedic account of the Jain tradition.
—————-The text is widely quoted. A widely used quote from Carl Sagan’s Cosmos, page 140 is:
“Some foolish men declare that Creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill-advised, and should be rejected. If god created the world, where was he before creation? If you say he was transcendent then, and needed no support, where is he now?”,
A number of Jain and non-Jain texts have been influenced by the Mahapurana. Mahapurana was the model for Saiva SiddhantaPeriyapuranam which gives biographies of the sixty-three individuals. Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit – Earth Tectonic Economics
We have Current Tectonic Plates on Earth that will share in the future Geographic Power Status.
In Global Tectonic Economics, those who are extraterrestrial in origin share their “Bird’s Eye View from Above on how to govern the planet while in the Working Class Planet Status.”
The Seven Major Powers on Earth will share in deciding who the Global Commerce Trade Agents shall be for the future Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit (EIS).
We shall use the “Current Tectonic Plates in Tectonic Economics.”
The Future Global Powers will be recognized as those who control the Economics based on their Tectonic Plate Control Power. As Above So Below…
UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL
At present China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States are sometimes referred to as great powers, although there is no unanimous agreement among authorities as to the current status of these powers or what precisely defines a “great” power.
These five nations are the only states to have permanent seats on the UN Security Council. They are also the recognized “Nuclear Weapons States” under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sources have at times referred to China, France, and the UK[ as “middle powers”. In addition, despite the lack of a permanent seat at the UN Security Council, Germany and Japan are occasionally considered to be great powers, although Germany and Japan are referred to by others as middle powers or economic great powers.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, its UN Security Council permanent seat was transferred to the Russian Federation in 1991, as its successor state. The newly-formed Russian Federation emerged on the level of a great power, leaving the United States as the only remaining global superpower (although some support a multipolar world view).
With continuing European integration, the European Union is increasingly being seen as a great power in its own right, most notably in areas where it has exclusive competence (i.e. economic affairs), and with representation at the WTO and at G8 and G-20 summits. The European Union, however, is not a sovereign state and has limited scope in the areas of foreign affairs and defense policy, which remain with the union’s member states, which include great powers France, Germany and the United Kingdom.
TECTONIC PLATES – Dealing in the Future Tectonic Economics of Earth
JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF (7) – Seven Main Tectonic Plates Representatives
Tectonic Economics will have Seven Major Upper Echelons for the Directors of the Chief Agents who will share in the Global Summit of Tectonic Economics with the entire list of plates including the Secondary and Tertiary plates for future reference and administration for Global Trade and Commerce.
China, France, Russia, United Kingdom , Untied States
(5) -POWERS
Great powers (with Security Council vetoes): China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and United States. Great powers without Security Council vetoes: Germany and Japan.
(2) Germany and Japan
EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATORS (8) – The Second Eight in Command are the Administrators who answer directly to the Seven Major Directors as the Joint Chiefs in Command of the Global Trade and Commerce.
TECTONIC PLATES ECONOMIC CONGRESS (60)
This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth. Tectonic plates are pieces of the Earth’s crust and uppermost mantle, together referred to as the lithosphere.
The plates are around 100 km (60 miles) thick and consist of two principal types of material: oceanic crust (also called sima fromsilicon and magnesium) and continental crust (sial from silicon and aluminium).
The composition of the two types of crust differs markedly, with basaltic rocks (“mafic”) dominating oceanic crust, while continental crust consists principally of lower density granitic rocks (“felsic”).
Primary plates
These seven plates comprise the bulk of the seven continents and the Pacific Ocean.
African Plate
Antarctic Plate
Eurasian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
North American Plate
Pacific Plate
South American Plate
Secondary plates
These smaller plates are generally shown on major plate maps, but with the exception of the Arabian and Indian plates do not comprise significant land area.
Arabian Plate
Caribbean Plate
Cocos Plate
Indian Plate
Juan de Fuca Plate
Nazca Plate
Philippine Sea Plate
Scotia Plate
Tertiary plates
Tertiary plates are grouped with the major plate that they would otherwise be shown as part of on a major plate map. Mostly these are tiny micro plates.
An exception is in the case of the Nubian-Somalian and Australian-Capricorn-Indian plates these are major plates that are rifting apart.
Some models identify more minor plates within current orogens like the Apulian, Explorer, Gorda, and Philippine Mobile Belt plates.
The remainder of the tertiary plates are the dwindling remains of much larger ancient plates.
There may or may not be scientific consensus as to whether a tertiary plate is a separate plate yet, is still a separate plate, or should be considered a separate plate, thus new research could change this list below:
African Plate
Madagascar Plate
Nubian Plate
Seychelles Plate
Somali Plate
Antarctic Plate
Kerguelen microcontinent
Shetland Plate
South Sandwich Plate
Caribbean Plate
Panama Plate
Gonâve Microplate
Cocos Plate
Rivera Plate
Eurasian Plate
Adriatic or Apulian Plate
Aegean Sea Plate (or Hellenic Plate)
Amurian Plate
Anatolian Plate
Banda Sea Plate
Burma Plate
Iberian Plate
Iranian Plate
Molucca Sea Plate
Halmahera Plate
Sangihe Plate
Okinawa Plate
Pelso Plate
Sunda Plate
Timor Plate
Tisza Plate
Yangtze Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
Australian Plate
Capricorn Plate
Futuna Plate
Indian Plate
Kermadec Plate
Maoke Plate
Niuafo’ou Plate
Sri Lanka Plate
Tonga Plate
Woodlark Plate
Juan de Fuca Plate
Explorer Plate
Gorda Plate
North American Plate
Greenland Plate
Okhotsk Plate
Pacific Plate
Balmoral Reef Plate
Bird’s Head Plate
Caroline Plate
Conway Reef Plate
Easter Plate
Galapagos Plate
Juan Fernandez Plate
Kula Plate
Manus Plate
New Hebrides Plate
North Bismarck Plate
North Galapagos MicroPlate
Solomon Sea Plate
South Bismarck Plate
Philippine Sea Plate
Mariana Plate
Philippine Microplate
South American Plate
Altiplano Plate
Falklands Microplate
North Andes Plate ANCIENT HISTORY OF PLATES
HISTORY:
In the history of Earth many tectonic plates have come into existence and have over the intervening years either accreted onto other plates to form larger plates, rifted into smaller plates, or have been crushed by or subducted under other plates (or have done all three).
Ancient supercontinents
A supercontinent is a landmass consisting of multiple continental cores. The following list includes the supercontinents known or speculated to have existed in the Earth’s past:
Columbia
Euramerica
Gondwana
Kenorland
Laurasia
Nena
Pangaea
Pannotia
Proto-Gondwana
Proto-Laurasia
Rodinia
Ur
Vaalbara
^ Even though the book: The Economics of World War II lists 7 great powers at the start of 1939 (the British Empire, the Empire of Japan, France, the Kingdom of Italy, Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the United States) This book focuses only on 6 of the 7 great powers that fought during World War II. This is because France surrendered shortly after the war began.
^ The 1956 Suez Crisis suggested that the United Kingdom, financially weakened by two world wars, could not then pursue its foreign policyobjectives on an equal footing with the new superpowers without sacrificing convertibility of its reserve currency as a central goal of policy. – from superpower cited by Adam Klug and Gregor W. Smith, ‘Suez and Sterling’, Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 36, No. 3 (July 1999), pp. 181–203.
^ Germany is presented by Chancellor Angela Merkel, former president Johannes Rau, and leading media of the country, as a “middle” political power in Europe.
Robert Birnbaum. “Porträt: Angela Merkel” (in German). Tagesspiegel online. Retrieved 2007-01-31. “Weichenstellungen in der Außen– und ihrem Unterkapitel, der Sicherheitspolitik sind zugleich von großer Bedeutung für die Zukunft der Mittelmacht Deutschland
^ The fall of the Berlin wall and the breakup of the Soviet Union left the United States as the only remaining superpower in the 90’s.
^ “the prime minister of Canada (during the Treaty of Versailles) said that there were “only three major powers left in the world the United States, Britain and Japan” … (but) The Great Powers could not be consistent. At the instance of Britain, Japan’s ally, they gave Japan five delegates to the Peace Conference, just like themselves, but in the Supreme Council the Japanese were generally ignored or treated as something of a joke.” from MacMillan, Margaret (2003). Paris 1919. United States of America: Random House Trade. p. 306. ISBN 0-375-76052-0
^ After the Statute of Westminster came into effect in 1931 the United Kingdom no longer represented the British Empire in world affairs.
UBS Investment Research Tectonic Economics Long-term currency fundamentals
The Aim
The aim of this note is to offer perspectives on likely trends in foreign exchange markets in the coming decade. We begin with a review of prevailing currency valuations for developed and developing economies. We then incorporate additional factors that ought to determine currency trends over the medium term.
Major misalignments
Currency misalignment today is significant and is a manifestation of still-large imbalances in the world economy. The unwinding of these misalignments suggests considerable exchange adjustments over the next decade.
Developed economy exchange rates are over-valued
Valuations based on relative prices suggest that most developed economy exchange rates are over-valued, most notably in Europe. Other considerations, such as balance sheet fundamentals and trend growth rates also suggest that developed economy real exchange rates are relatively high and will lose value over the coming years.
China’s re-balancing potential
Most Asian exchange rates remain under-valued, including the Chinese renminbi. When combined with the potential to harness high domestic savings and boost domestic demand, we believe the renminbi could appreciate significantly over the next decade. Other Asian currencies in a similar albeit less extreme position include those of India, Indonesia and Thailand. More Articles by Author on www.UFODigest.com
Aliens and UFOS – TAKEN DOWN – Natural and Manmade Caves – Sub-Global TerrainsReligious Tolerance Requested – Extraterrestrial UFO Nuclear PoweredAlien ET Contact Experiences Lifetime Sustainabilities – We Are Not Alone!Tectonic Economics – 8.9 Earthquake and 500 mph Tsunami hit Japan – Friday, March 11, 2012Hell On Earth Or Heaven Is Here Beginning The Alien Vs ET Controversy
Authors Biography
Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris is an Author/Entrepreneur. TJ specializes in paranormal/super natural phenomenon. TJ was a professional consultant and expert witness on legal investigations and has prior military and government service in the USA 1980-1993. Professionally she uses her initials TJ. TJ has written several paranormal books including Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Alien UFO Story by TJ, Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide, Roswell Connection, Roswell UFO Encounters, UFOS & Extraterrestrials, and Uplifting the Soul. All books are in print available. TJ shares her life with TJ Morris & Friends and is an Ambassador of Goodwill with American Culture International Relations and ACIR. TJ Morris is her trademark ACIR her service mark.
TJ also edits books for her friends and publishes books such as mysteries and paranormal romance. Professional History in corporate international marketing, manufacturing, legal investigations, newspaper columnist, and magazine publisher. TJ lives in Kentucky USA with husband who is also an author. TJ is a speaker, spiritual consultant, producer, publisher. TJ spends much of her time assisting others as a consultant in business and with building websites. TJ’s are ACIR.us, AmericanNewsMagazine.com, TJMorris.org, ETSpirit.org, ASCENSIONcenter.org, and many others as media online press including TimelyManorBooks.com. Tj’s books available on Amazon and Lulu under Theresa J Morris and TJ Thurmond Morris. TJ has been interested in the Alien ET UFO Community all her life with a strong research history in the metaphysics, ontology, and is founder of the ACE Folklife Historical Society and Ascension Center.org. TJ is also a natural born leader as a Capricorn with Aquarius rising and promotes expos, seminars, and her friends and their business interests. TJ attracts others who desire to share similar interests in social networks and is a social entrepreneur. TJ writes about what interests her including her friends and their businesses. TJ loves people, places, things, and having a near death experience learned the power of meditation and prayer for all those who believe as she does in Ascension Vertical Lifestyles for body-mind-spirit. TJ has been a Life Coach to those who request her services as a mentor. TJ is a known planner organizer since she founded Psychic Network in Hawaii 1990-1993 and has worked in seminars and expos in the USA.
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Introduction
ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION
Those above are those who from the heavens came in our ancient prophecies and in our ancient history.
What is Ascension?
Ascension is positive, practical Christianity.
We teach the effective daily application of the principles of Truth taught and exemplified by Jesus Christ.
We promote a way of life that leads to health, prosperity, happiness and peace of mind.
Ascension Center Spiritual Healing Ministries has established centers of study and worship throughout the world where people discover and practice the Ascension way of life.
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Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC/BCE – 30–36 AD/CE), commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity.
Most Christian denominations venerate him as God the Son incarnated and believe that he rose from the dead after being crucified. This is called Ascension.
The principal sources of information regarding Jesus are the four canonical gospels, and most biblical scholars find them useful for reconstructing Jesus’ life and teachings. Some scholars believe apocryphal texts such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of the Hebrews are also relevant.
The word gospel derives from the Old English god-spell (rarely godspel), meaning “good news” or “glad tidings”. It is a calque (word-for-word translation) of the Greek word ,euangelion(eu- “good”, -angelion “message”). The Greek word “euangelion” is also the source (via Latinised”evangelium”) of the terms “evangelist” and “evangelism” in English. The authors of the four canonical Christian gospels are known as the four evangelists.
Originally, the gospel was the good news of redemption through the propitiatory offering of Jesus Christ for one’s sins, the central Christian message. Note: John 3:16.
Before the first gospel was written (Mark, c 65-70), Paul the Apostle used the term gospel when he reminded the people of the church at Corinth “of the gospel I preached to you” (1 Corinthians 15.1). Paul averred that they were being saved by the gospel, and he characterized it in the simplest terms, emphasizing Christ’s appearances after the Resurrection (15.3 – 8):
A gospel is an account, often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. In a more general sense the term “gospel” may refer to the good news message of the New Testament. It is primarily used in reference to the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. However, the term is also used to refer to the Apocryphal gospels, the Non-canonical gospels, theJewish gospels and the Gnostic gospels.
Most critical historians agree that Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was regarded as a teacher andhealer, that he was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, on the charge of sedition against the Roman Empire. Critical Biblical scholars and historians have offered competing descriptions of Jesus as a self-described Messiah, as the leader of an apocalyptic movement, as an itinerant sage, as a charismatic healer, and as the founder of an independent religious movement. Most contemporary scholars of the historical Jesus consider him to have been an independent, charismatic founder of a Jewish restoration movement, anticipating a future apocalypse.
Gospel of Peter
Main article: Gospel of Peter
The gospel of Peter was likely written in the first half of the 2nd century. It seems to be largely legendary, hostile toward Jews, and including docetic elements. It had been lost but was rediscovered in the 19th century.
Gospel of Judas
Main article: Gospel of Judas
The Gospel of Judas is another controversial and ancient text that purports to tell the story of the gospel from the perspective of Judas, the disciple who is usually said to have betrayed Jesus in most versions of the Bible. It paints an unusual picture of the relationship between Jesus and Judas, in that appears to interpret Judas’s act not as betrayal, but rather as an act of obedience to the instructions of Jesus. The text was recovered from a cave in Egypt by a thief and thereafter sold on the black market until it was finally discovered by a collector who, with the help of academics from Yale and Princeton, was able to verify its authenticity. The document itself does not claim to have been authored by Judas (it is, rather, a Gospel about Judas), and dates no earlier than the 2nd century.
The Sayings Collection ‘Q’
Main article: Q document
According to scholars proposing the existence of a hypothetical sayings-source, a Redensquelle, ‘Q’ (following the terminology of Johannes Weiss) at some time there existed a document comprised mostly sayings of Jesus with little narrative. It is presumed the source for many of Jesus’ sayings in Matthew and Luke, and accordingly must have preceded these gospels. It is believed that the earliest form of the sayings were written c. 50-60. However Mark Goodacre and other scholars have questioned the existence of a Q document.
Infancy gospels
Main article: Infancy gospel
A genre of “Infancy gospels” (Greek: protoevangelion) arose in the 2nd century, such as the Gospel of James, which introduces the concept of the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas (not to be confused with the absolutely different sayings Gospel of Thomas), both of which related many miraculous incidents from the life of Mary and the childhood of Jesus that are not included in the canonical gospels.
Harmonies
Main article: gospel harmony
Another genre is that of gospel harmonies, in which the four canonical gospels were selectively recast as a single narrative to present a consistent text. Very few fragments of harmonies have survived. The Diatessaron was such a harmonization, compiled by Tatian around 175. It was popular for at least two centuries in Syria, but eventually it fell into disuse. More recently, in 2006, UOG Press published ONE as a modern gospel harmony of the four Canonical Gospels; ONE contains a 2,992 numbering reference system which tracks the textual harmonization process to the extant works for analysis and citation.
Marcion’s Gospel of Luke
Main article: Gospel of Marcion
Marcion of Sinope, c. 150, had a version of the gospel of Luke which differed substantially from that which has now become the standard text. Marcion’s version was far less Jewish than the now canonical text, and his critics alleged that he had edited out the portions he didn’t like from the canonical version, though Marcion argued that his text was the more genuinely original one. Marcion also rejected all the other gospels, including Matthew, Mark and especially John, which he alleged had been forged by Irenaeus.
Other prominent scholars, however, contend that Jesus’ “Kingdom of God” meant radical personal and social transformation instead of a future apocalypse.
Christians traditionally believe that Jesus was born of a virgin,:529–32 performedmiracles,:358–59 founded the Church, rose from the dead, and ascended intoheaven,:616–20 from which he will return.:1091–109 The majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, and “the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity”.
A few Christian groups, however, reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, believing it to be non-scriptural. Most Christian scholars today present Jesus as the awaited Messiah promised in the Old Testament and as God, arguing that he fulfilled many Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament.
Judaism rejects assertions that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill theMessianic prophecies in the Tanakh. In Islam, Jesus (Arabic: commonly transliterated as Isa or Yasu, respectively) is considered one of God’s important prophets,a bringer of scripture, and the product of a virgin birth, but not to have experienced crucifixion.
Islam and the Bahá’í Faith use the title “Messiah” for Jesus, but do not teach that he was God incarnate.
Although a few scholars have questioned the existence of Jesus as an actual historical figure, most scholars involved with historical Jesus research believe his existence (except for the miracles and Resurrection) can be established using documentary and other evidence.
As discussed in the sections immediately below, the estimation of the year of death of Jesus places his lifespan around the beginning of the 1st century AD/CE, in the geographic region of Roman Judaea.
The New Testament also refers to the Sea of Galilee which is about 75 miles north of Jerusalem.
Roman involvement in Judaea began around 63 BC/BCE and by 6 AD/CE Judaea had become a Roman province. From 26-37 AD/CE Pontius Pilate was the governor of Roman Judaea. In this time period, although Roman Judaea was strategically positioned between Asia and Africa, it was not viewed as a critically important province by the Romans.
The Romans were highly tolerant of other religions and allowed the local populations such as the Jews to practice their own faiths.
A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the death of Jesus, including information from the Canonical Gospels, the chronology of the life of Paul the Apostle in the New Testament correlated with historical events, as well as different astronomical models, as discussed below.
All four canonical Gospels report that Jesus was crucified in Calvary during the prefecture of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect who governed Judaea from 26 to 36 AD/CE. The late 1st century Jewish historian Josephus, writing in Antiquities of the Jews (c. 93 AD/CE), and the early 2nd century Roman historian Tacitus, writing in The Annals (c. 116 AD/CE), also state that Pilate ordered the execution of Jesus, though each writer gives him the title of “procurator” instead of prefect.
The estimation of the date of the conversion of Paul places the death of Jesus before this conversion, which is estimated at around 33-36 AD/CE.
(Also see the estimation of the start of Jesus’ ministry as a few years before this date above). The estimation of the year of Paul’s conversion relies on a series of calculations working backwards from the well established date of his trial before Gallio in Achaea Greece (Acts 18:12-17) around 51-52 AD/CE, the meeting of Priscilla and Aquila which were expelled from Rome about 49 AD/CE and the 14-year period before returning to Jerusalem in Galatians 2:1.
The remaining period is generally accounted for by Paul’s missions (at times with Barnabas) such as those inActs 11:25-26 and 2 Corinthians 11:23-33, resulting in the 33-36 AD/CE estimate.
For centuries, astronomers and scientists have used diverse computational methods to estimate the date of crucifixion, Isaac Newton being one of the first cases.
Newton’s method relied on the relative visibility of the crescent of the new moon and he suggested the date as Friday, April 23, 34 AD/CE.
In 1990 astronomer Bradley E. Schaefer computed the date as Friday, April 3, 33 AD/CE.
In 1991, John Pratt stated that Newton’s method was sound, but included a minor error at the end. Pratt suggested the year 33 AD/CE as the answer.
Using the completely different approach of a lunar eclipse model, Humphreys and Waddington arrived at the conclusion that Friday, April 3, 33 AD/CE was the date of the crucifixion
The five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Transfiguration, Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension.
These are usually bracketed by two other episodes: his Nativity at the beginning and the sending of the Paraclete at the end.
The gospel accounts of the teachings of Jesus are often presented in terms of specific categories involving his “works and words”, e.g. his ministry, parables and miracles.
The gospels include a number discourses by Jesus on specific occasions, e.g. the Sermon on the Mount or the Farewell Discourse, and also include over 30 parables, spread throughout the narrative, often with themes that relate to the sermons.
Parables represent a major component of the teachings of Jesus in the gospels, forming approximately one third of his recorded teachings, and John 14:10 positions them as the revelations of God the Father.
The gospel episodes that include descriptions of the miracle of Jesus also often include teachings, providing an intertwining of his “words and works” in the gospels.
Resurrection and ascension
Main articles: Resurrection of Jesus, Resurrection appearances of Jesus, and Ascension of JesusSee also: Empty tomb, Great Commission, Second Coming, Resurrection of Jesus in Christian art, and Ascension of Jesus in Christian art
Resurrection by Noel Coypel, 1700, using a hovering depictionof Jesus.
The New Testament accounts of the resurrection and ascension of Jesus, state that the first day of the week after the crucifixion (typically interpreted as a Sunday), his followers encounter him risen from the dead, after his tomb is discovered to be empty.
The resurrected Jesus appears to them that day and a number of times thereafter, delivers sermons and commissions them, before ascending to Heaven. Two of the Canonical gospels (Luke and Mark) include a brief mention of the Ascension, but the main references to it are elsewhere in the New Testament.
In the four Canonical Gospels, when the tomb of Jesus is discovered empty, in Matthew 28:5, Mark 16:5,Luke 24:4 and John 20:12 his resurrection is announced and explained to the followers who arrive there early in the morning by either one or two beings (either men or angels) dressed in bright robes who appear in or near the tomb.
The gospel accounts vary as to who arrived at the tomb first, but they are women and are instructed by the risen Jesus to inform the other disciples.
All four accounts include Mary Magdalene and three include Mary the mother of Jesus.
The accounts of Mark 16:9, John 20:15 indicate that Jesus appeared to the Magdalene first, and Luke 16:9 states that she was among the Myrrh bearers who informed the disciples about the resurrection.
In Matthew 28:11-15, to explain the empty tomb, the Jewish elders bribe the soldiers who had guarded the tomb to spread the rumor that Jesus’ disciples took his body.
Bahá’í views
The Bahá’í Faith, founded in 19th-century Persia, considers Jesus, along with Muhammad, the Buddha, Krishna, and Zoroaster, and other messengers of the great religions of the world to be Manifestations of God (or prophets), with both human and divine stations.
God is one and has manifested himself to humanity through several historic Messengers.
Bahá’ís refer to this concept as Progressive Revelation, which means that God’s will is revealed to mankind progressively as mankind matures and is better able to comprehend the purpose of God in creating humanity.
In this view, God’s word is revealed through a series of messengers:
Moses, Jesus, Mohammed,Bahá’u’lláh (the founder of the Bahá’í Faith) among them.
In the Book of Certitude, Bahá’u’lláh claims that these messengers have a two natures: divine and human.
Examining their divine nature, they are more or less the same being. However, when examining their human nature, they are individual, with distinct personality.
For example, when Jesus says “I and my Father are one”,[John 10:30]
Bahá’ís take this quite literally, but specifically with respect to his nature as a Manifestation.
When Jesus conversely stated “…And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me”,[John 5:36-37]
Bahá’ís see this as a simple reference to the individuality of Jesus. This divine nature, according to Bahá’u’lláh, means that any Manifestation of God can be said to be the return of a previous Manifestation, though Bahá’ís also believe that some Manifestations with specific missions return with a “new name”,[Rev 3:12] and a different, or expanded purpose.
Bahá’ís believe that Bahá’u’lláh is, in both respects, the return of Jesus.
Buddhist views
Further information: Buddhism and Christianity
Buddhists’ views of Jesus differ. Some Buddhists, including Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama regard Jesus as a bodhisattva who dedicated his life to the welfare of human beings.
The 14th century Zen master Gasan Joseki indicated that the sayings of Jesus in the Gospels were written by an enlightened man.
Hindu views
In a letter to his daughter Indira Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru wrote, “All over Central Asia, in Kashmir and Ladakh and Tibet and even farther north, there is a strong belief that Jesus or Isa travelled about there.”
During the “lost years” not mentioned in the New Testament, Jesus reportedly studied in Nalanda and further in Tibet.
Other views
Mandaeanism, a very small Mideastern, Gnostic sect that reveres John the Baptist as God’s greatest prophet, regards Jesus as a false prophet of the false Jewish god of the Old Testament, Adonai, and likewise rejects Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad.
Manichaeism accepted Jesus as a prophet, along with Gautama Buddha and Zoroaster.Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit: ; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was aspiritual teacher from ancient India on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (P.sammasambuddha, S. samyaksa?buddha) of our age, “Buddha” meaning “awakened one” or “the enlightened one.”
The time of his birth and death are uncertain: most early 20th-century historians dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE, but more recent opinion dates his death to between 486 and 483 BCE or, according to some, between 411 and 400 BCE.
By tradition, Gautama is said to have been born in the small state of Kapilavastu, in what is now Nepal, and later to have taught primarily throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadhaand Kosala.
Gautama, also known as Sakyamuni (“Sage of the Sakyas”), is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
He is also regarded as a god or prophet in other world religions or denominations, including Hinduism, Ahmadiyya Islam and the Bahá’í faith.
The New Age movement entertains a wide variety of views on Jesus. The creators of A Course In Miracles claim to trance-channel his spirit. However, the New Age movement generally teaches that Christhood is something that all may attain. Theosophists, from whom many New Age teachings originated (a Theosophist named Alice A. Bailey invented the term New Age), refer to Jesus of Nazareth as the Master Jesusand believe he had previous incarnations.
Many writers emphasize Jesus’ moral teachings. Garry Wills argues that Jesus’ ethics are distinct from those usually taught by Christianity.
The Jesus Seminar portrays Jesus as an itinerant preacher who taught peace and love, rights for women and respect for children, and who spoke out against the hypocrisy of religious leaders and the rich.
Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a deist, created the Jefferson Bible entitled “The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth” that included only Jesus’ ethical teachings because he did not believe in Jesus’ divinity or any of the other supernatural aspects of the Bible.
Jewish views
Main article: Judaism’s view of JesusSee also: Jesus in the Talmud
Judaism, including Orthodox Judaism, Hareidi Judaism, Reform Judaism, Karaite Judaism, Conservative Judaism, and Reconstructionist Judaism, rejects the idea of Jesus being God, or a person of a Trinity, or a mediator to God. Judaism also holds that Jesus is not theMessiah, arguing that he had not fulfilled the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh nor embodied the personal qualifications of the Messiah. According to Jewish tradition, there were no more prophets after Malachi, who lived centuries before Jesus and delivered his prophesies about 420 BC/BCE.
The Talmud includes stories which some consider accounts of Jesus in the Talmud, although there is a spectrum from scholars, such asMaier (1978), who considers that only the accounts with the name Yeshu refer to the Christian Jesus, and that these are late redactions, to scholars such as Klausner (1925), who suggested that accounts related to Jesus in the Talmud may contain traces of the historical Jesus. However the majority of contemporary historians disregard this material as providing information on the historical Jesus.
Many contemporary Talmud scholars view these as comments on the relationship between Judaism and Christians or other sectarians, rather than comments on the historical Jesus.
The Mishneh Torah, an authoritative work of Jewish law, provides the last established consensus view of the Jewish community, in Hilkhot Melakhim 11:10–12 that Jesus is a “stumbling block” who makes “the majority of the world err to serve a divinity besides God”.
Even Jesus the Nazarene who imagined that he would be Messiah and was killed by the court, was already prophesied byDaniel. So that it was said, “And the members of the outlaws of your nation would be carried to make a (prophetic) vision stand.
And they stumbled.”[Dan. 11:14] Because, is there a greater stumbling-block than this one? So that all of the prophets spoke that the Messiah redeems Israel, and saves them, and gathers their banished ones, and strengthens their commandments. And this one caused (nations) to destroy Israel by sword, and to scatter their remnant, and to humiliate them, and to exchange the Torah, and to make the majority of the world err to serve a divinity besides God. However, the thoughts of the Creator of the world — there is no force in a human to attain them because our ways are not God’s ways, and our thoughts not God’s thoughts. And all these things of Jesus the Nazarene, and of (Muhammad) the Ishmaelite who stood after him — there is no (purpose) but to straighten out the way for the King Messiah, and to restore all the world to serve God together. So that it is said, “Because then I will turn toward the nations (giving them) a clear lip, to call all of them in the name of God and to serve God (shoulder to shoulder as) one shoulder.”[Zeph. 3:9] Look how all the world already becomes full of the things of the Messiah, and the things of the Torah, and the things of the commandments! And these things spread among the far islands and among the many nations uncircumcised of heart
According to Conservative Judaism, Jews who believe Jesus is the Messiah have “crossed the line out of the Jewish community”.
Reform Judaism, the modern progressive movement, states “For us in the Jewish community anyone who claims that Jesus is their savior is no longer a Jew and is an apostate”.
Islamic views
Main article: Jesus in Islam
In Islam, Jesus (Arabic: ?; `Isa) is considered to be a Messenger of God and the Messiah who was sent to guide the Children of Israel with the Gospel.
Jesus is seen in Islam as a precursor to Prophet Mohammed, and is believed by Muslims to have foretold the latter’s coming.
In the Qur’an, Jesus is referred to as Isa Ibn E Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary) and Jesus is mentioned by name more times than Muhammad.
According to the Qur’an, believed by Muslims to be God’s final revelation, Jesus was born to Mary as the result of virginal conception, and was given the ability to perform miracles. Islamic traditions narrate that he will return to earth near the day of judgement to restore justice and defeat the Antichrist. Respecting Jesus as a prophet Muslims are asked in Qur’an, to read and refers his (Jesus’) name as Isa, alai-hiss-salaam (Jesus peace be upon him).]
Ahmadiyya views
Main article: Jesus in Ahmadiyya Islam
The Ahmadiyya Movement considers Jesus a mortal man who died a natural death. According to the early 20th century writings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (the founder of the Ahmadiyya movement),Jesus survived his ordeal on the cross, and after his apparent death and resurrection, he fled Palestine and migrated eastwards to further teach the gospels. Jesus eventually died a natural death of old age inKashmir, India and is believed to be buried at Roza Bal.
Main articles: Jesus in Christianity and Christology
Although Christian views of Jesus vary, it is possible to summarize key elements of the shared beliefs among major denominations such as Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, and mostProtestant groups, based on their catechetical or confessional texts.
Almost all Christian groups regard Jesus as the “Savior and Redeemer”, as the Messiah (Greek:Christos; English: Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament, who, through his life, death, and resurrection, restored humanity’s communion with God in the blood of the New Covenant. His death on a cross is understood as the redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity’s salvation and the atonement for sin,[ which had entered human history through the sin of Adam.Christians profess that Jesus suffered death by crucifixion, and rose bodily from the dead in the definitive miracle that foreshadows the resurrection of humanity at the end of time,when Christ will come again to judge the living and the dead,resulting in either entrance into heaven or damnation.
Christians profess Jesus to be the only Son of God, the Lord, and the eternal Word (a translation of the Greek word Logos), who became man in the incarnation, so that those who believe in him might have eternal life.
They further hold that he was born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit in an event described as the miraculous virgin birth or incarnation.
Christians believe that Christ is the true head of the one holy universal and apostolic church.
Most Christian denominations believe in some form of the doctrine of the Trinity, i.e. that Jesus, as the second person of the Trinity, is fully God. As the 6th-century Athanasian Creed says, the Trinity is “one God” and “three persons… and yet they are not three Gods, but one God.” This belief is not shared by non-Trinitarian denominations.
Christians consider the Gospel and other New Testament accounts of Jesus to be divinely inspired. Christian writers, such as Benedict XVI, proclaim the Jesus of the Gospels, discounting the historical reconstruction of Jesus as entirely inadequate.
Mythical view
Main article: Jesus myth theorySee also: Jesus Christ in comparative mythology and Quest for the historical Jesus
The term “Jesus myth theory” is an umbrella term that applies to a range of arguments that in one way or another question the authenticity of the existence of Jesus or the essential elements of his life as described in the Christian gospels.
One viewpoint is that there was no real historical figure Jesus and that the he was invented by Christians. Another viewpoint is that there was a person called Jesus, but much of the teachings and miracles attributed to him were either invented or symbolic references. Yet another view holds that the Jesus portrayed in the gospels is a composite character constructed from multiple people over a period of time.
David Strauss the 19th century founder of Jesus myth theory.
Among the variants of the Jesus myth theory, the notion that Jesus never existed has minimal scholarly support, and although some modern scholars adhere to it, they remain a distinct minority; most scholars involved with historical Jesus research believe that his existence can be established using documentary and other evidence.
In the context of historical theories, the hypothesis that Jesus never existed is a rather recent topic, and in antiquity his existence was never doubted, even by those who were critical of Christian teachings.
In the early 18th century, friction between the church establishment and some theologians, coupled with the growing emphasis on rationalism, resulted in discord between the English deists and the church, and John Toland,Anthony Collins and Thomas Woolston planted the seeds of discontent.
The beginnings of the formal denial of the existence of Jesus can be traced to late 18th century France, and the works of Constantin-Volney and Charles Dupuis.
Early in the 19th century, the more methodical writings of David Friedrich Strauss, caused an uproar in Europe, and Strauss became known as the founder of Jesus myth theory; his approach having been influenced by the epistemological views of Leibnitz andSpinoza.
Strauss did not deny the existence of Jesus, but believed that very few facts could be known about him and characterized the miraculous accounts in the gospels as “mythical”.
At about the same time in Berlin, Bruno Bauer supported somewhat similar ideas.
Although both Strauss and Bauer drew on Hegel, their views did not coincide, and often conflicted.
Karl Marx, a student and at the time a close friend of Bauer, was significantly influenced by him, as well as Hegel and Strauss, setting the stage for the denial of Jesus within communism.
By the beginning of the 20th century, Arthur Drews, William B. Smith and John M. Robertson became the most recognized proponents of the Jesus myth theory.
However, these authors were not performing purely atheist attacks on Christianity, e.g. Drew did not consider religion as outdated, but argued for a different form of religious consciousness.
W. B. Smith argued for a symbolic interpretation of gospel episodes and contended that in a parable such as Jesus and the rich young man the rich young man never existed and symbolically referred to the land of Israel.
Smith also argued that Jesus never healed anyone physically, but only spiritually cured them of their paganism.
J. M. Robertson on the other hand viewed the gospel accounts as a collection of myths gathered by a large number of anonymous authors, over time.
When atheism became part of the state ideals in communist Russia in 1922, the theories of Arthur Drew gained prominence there.
The communist state not only supported the Jesus myth theory but embellished it with scientific colloquialisms, and school textbooks began to teach that Jesus never existed, making Russia a bastion of Jesus denial.
These ideas were rebuffed in Russia by Sergei Bulgakov and Alexander Men, copies of whose book began to circulate underground via typewriters in the 1970s to reintroduce Christianity to Russia.
In the 20th century scholars such as G.A. Wells, Alvar Ellegård, and Robert M. Price produced a number of arguments to support the Jesus myth theory. Non-scholarly works on the Jesus myth theory have since been published by mass-media authors such as Doherty, Freke andGandy. In parallel, a number of historians and biblical scholars such as Paula Fredriksen, Geza Vermes, E.P. Sanders and others involved in the quest for the historical Jesus performed detailed analyses of historical and biblical documents. Almost all of these scholars accept the existence of Jesus, but differ on the accuracy of the details of his life within the biblical narratives.
Robert Van Voorst stated that among “New Testament scholars and historians the theory of the non-existence of Jesus remains effectively dead as a scholarly question”.
The Jesus myth theory is still being debated in the 21st century, with Graham Stanton stating in 2002 that the most thorough analysis of the theory had been by G. A. Wells.
But Wells’ book Did Jesus Exist? was criticized by James D.G. Dunn in his book The Evidence for Jesus.
And the debates continue, e.g. Wells changed his views over time and while he used to argue that there was no historical evidence supporting the existence of Jesus, he later modified his position, and in his later book The Jesus Myth accepted the possible existence of Jesus based on historical sources, although still disputing the gospel portrayals of his life.
Religious perspectives
Main article: Religious perspectives on Jesus
By and large, the Jews of Jesus’ day rejected his claim to be the Messiah, as do Jews today. For their part, Christian Church Fathers, Ecumenical Councils, Reformers, and others have written extensively about Jesus over the centuries. Christian sects and schisms have often been defined or characterized by competing descriptions of Jesus. Meanwhile, Gnostics, Mandaeans, Manichaeans, Muslims, Baha’is, and others have found prominent places for Jesus in their own religious accounts.
Analysis of the gospels
Main articles: Higher criticism, Textual criticism, and Historical reliability of the Gospels
The historical-critical method (or higher criticism) is used to examine the bible for clues about the historical Jesus, whereby sayings and events that are more likely to be genuine in the opinion of scholars are used to construct their portraits of Jesus. Standard historical methods are used to discern the authorship of each book, and its likely date of composition.
The earliest extant texts which refer to Jesus are Paul’s letters (mid-1st century), which affirm Jesus’ crucifixion. Keulman and Gregory hold that the Gospel of Thomas, a collection of 114 sayings of Jesus, predates the four orthodox gospels, and believe it may have been composed around mid-1st century.
The Markan priorityhypothesis
Biblical scholars hold that the works describing Jesus were initially communicated by oral tradition, and were not committed to writing until several decades after Jesus’ crucifixion. After the original oral stories were written down in Greek, they were transcribed, and later translated into other languages. The books of the New Testament had mostly been written by 100 AD/CE, making them, at least the Synoptic Gospels, historically relevant.
The Gospel tradition certainly preserves several fragments of Jesus’ teaching.
The Markan priority hypothesis holds that the Gospel of Mark was written first c. 70 AD/CE.
Matthew is placed at being sometime after this date and Luke is thought to have been written between 70 and 100 AD/CE.
According to the Q source hypothesis supported by a majority of modern scholars, the gospels were written not by the four evangelists themselves but derived from other sources.
A minority of prominent scholars, such as J. A. T. Robinson, have maintained that the writers of the gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were either apostles and eyewitness to Jesus’ ministry and death, or were close to those who had been.
Critical scholars consider scriptural accounts more likely when they are attested in multiple texts, plausible in Jesus’ historical environment, and potentially embarrassing to the author’s Christian community. The “criterion of embarrassment” holds that stories about events with aspects embarrassing to Christians (such as the denial of Jesus by Peter, or the fleeing of Jesus’ followers after his arrest) would likely not have been included if those accounts were fictional.
Sayings attributed to Jesus are deemed more likely to reflect his character when they are distinctive, vivid, paradoxical, surprising, and contrary to social and religious expectations, such as “Blessed are the poor”.
Short, memorable parables and aphorisms capable of being transmitted orally are also thought more likely to be authentic.
Scholars use textual criticism to determine which variants among manuscripts is original and how much they may have changed. Contemporary textual critic Bart D. Ehrman cites numerous places where he maintains that the gospels, and other New Testament books, were apparently altered by Christian scribes.
Craig Blomberg, F. F. Bruce and Gregory Boyd view the evidence as conclusive that very few alterations were made by Christian scribes, while none of them (three or four in total) were important.
According to Normal Geisler and William Nix, “The New Testament, then, has not only survived in more manuscripts than any other book from antiquity, but it has survived in a purer form than any other great book-a form that is 99.5% pure”:p.367
Historical analysis
Main articles: Historical Jesus and Quest for the historical Jesus
A page from Matthew, from Papyrus 1, c. 250
The historical method is used to develop plausible reconstructions of Jesus’ life.
Since the 19th century, these scholars have constructed a Jesus different in ways from the image found in the gospels.
Scholars of the “historical Jesus” distinguish their concept from the “Jesus Christ” of Christianity.
The principal sources of information regarding Jesus’ life and teachings are the three Synoptic Gospels.
Historians of Christianity generally describe Jesus as a healer who preached the restoration of God’s kingdom.
The English title of Albert Schweitzer’s 1906 book, The Quest of the Historical Jesus, is a label for the post-Enlightenment effort to describe Jesus using critical historical methods.
Since the end of the 18th century, scholars have examined the gospels and tried to formulate historical biographies of Jesus.
Contemporary efforts benefit from a better understanding of 1st-century Judaism, renewed Roman Catholic biblical scholarship, broad acceptance of critical historical methods, sociological insights, and literary analysis of Jesus’ sayings.
The historical outlook on Jesus relies on critical analysis of the Bible, especially the gospels. Many Biblical scholars have sought to reconstruct Jesus’ life in terms of the political, cultural, and religious crises and movements in late 2nd Temple Judaism and in Roman-occupied Palestine, including differences between Galilee and Judaea, and between different sects such as thePharisees, Sadducees, Essenes and Zealots, and in terms of conflicts among Jews in the context of Roman occupation.
Most scholars hold that the movement Jesus led (and his eschatology) were apocalyptic, as were the preachings of John the Baptist, but some scholars makes a distinction between John’s apocalyptic ministry and Jesus’ ethical teachings.
Some historians argue that Jewish and Roman authorities in Jerusalem were wary of Galilean patriots, many of whom advocated violent resistance to Roman rule.
These arguments contend that as a charismatic leader Jesus was regarded as a potential troublemaker, and was hence executed on political charges.
Jesus’ criticism of the Temple, the disturbance he caused there, and his refusal to renounce claims of kingship convinced the Jewish high priest to allow Jesus to be transferred into Roman custody.
BIBLE – OLD TESTAMENT
The Old Testament contains 39 (Protestant) or 46 (Catholic) or more (Orthodox and other) books, divided, very broadly, into the Pentateuch (meaning “five books”), the historical books, the “wisdom” books and the prophets. The difference of seven books between the Catholic and Protestant canons stems from the fact that the early Christians used a Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures which differed from the one which came to be accepted by the Jews; the Protestant churches later dropped those books which were not accepted by the Jews. The following table shows the arrangement of books in the Hebrew and Greek bibles:
Hebrew Bible
Greek bible
Notes
Torah (Law)
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Prophets
Joshua
Judges
Samuel
Kings
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Minor Prophets (single book)
Writings
Psalms
Job
Proverbs
Ruth
Song of Songs
Ecclesiastes
Lamentations
Esther
Daniel
Ezra-Nehemiah
Chronicles
Pentateuch
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
History of Israel
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
1 Esdras
Ezra
Nehemiah
Esther (with additions)
Judith
Tobit
1-4 Maccabees
Wisdom
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Song of Songs
Job
Wisdom of Solomon
Ecclesiasticus
Prophetic books
Minor prophets (12 books)
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Baruch
Lamentations
Letter of Jeremiah
Ezekiel
Susannah
Daniel (with additions)
Jewish bibles count 24 books, as shown here, but Christian bibles divide Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah and the Minor Prophets, bringing the total to 39.
The Prophets collection in the Hebrew Bible get its name because the books were attributed to prophets, not because they all contain prophesy. Ruth, Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, of which only Ruth is by a prophet (Samuel), have been moved from the Writings collection in the Hebrew Bible to the History collection in the Old Testament, as the organising principle is subject matter rather than authorship.
Chronicles is the last book in the Hebrew canon, showing Israel restored to Jerusalem and history at an end; in the Old Testament it is part of the ongoing history which will end in the New Testament.
“Minor prophets” means short, not unimportant.
The order of the prophets has been reversed in modern Old Testaments so the last words are those of the minor prophet Malachi, predicting the return of the prophet Elijah and “the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD” (Malachi 4:5).
The Old Testament, of which Christians hold different views, is a Christian term for the religious writings of ancient Israel held sacred and inspired by Christians which overlaps with the 24-book canon of the Masoretic Text of Judaism. The number of these writings varies markedly between denominations, Protestants accepting only the Rabbinic canon but dividing it into 39 books, while Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, Coptic and Ethiopian churches recognize a considerably larger collection derived from the ancient Septuagint.
The books can be broadly divided into the Pentateuch, which lists the Mosaic Law and tells how God selected Israel to be his chosen people, the history books telling the history of the Israelitesfrom their Conquest of Canaan to their defeat and exile in Babylon, the poetic and “wisdom” books dealing, in various forms, with questions of good and evil in the world, and the books of the biblical prophets, warning of the consequences of turning away from God. For the Israelites who were its original authors and readers these books told of their own unique relationship with God and their relationship with Proselytes, but the over-arching Messianic nature of Christianity has led Christians from the very beginning of the faith to see the Old Testament as a preparation for theNew Covenant and New Testament.
TACITUS
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (AD 56 – AD 117) was a senator and a historian of theRoman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors.
These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus in AD 14 to (presumably) the death of emperor Domitian in AD 96. There are enormous lacunae in the surviving texts, including one four books long in the Annals.
Other works by Tacitus discuss oratory (in dialogue format, see Dialogus de oratoribus),Germania (in De origine et situ Germanorum), and biographical notes about his father-in-law Agricola, primarily during his campaign in Britannia (see De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae).
Tacitus was an author writing in the latter part of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
His work is distinguished by a boldness and sharpness of wit, and a compact and sometimes unconventional use of Latin.Tacitus used the official sources of the Roman state: the acta senatus (the minutes of the session of the Senate) and the acta diurna populi Romani (a collection of the acts of the government and news of the court and capital). He read collections of emperors’ speeches, such as Tiberius and Claudius.
Generally, Tacitus was a scrupulous historian who paid careful attention to his historical works.
The minor inaccuracies in the Annals may be due to Tacitus dying before finishing (and therefore proofreading) his work. He used a variety of historical and literary sources; he used them freely and he chose from sources of varied opinions.
Tacitus cites some of his sources directly, among them Cluvius Rufus, Fabius Rusticus and Pliny the Elder, who had written Bella Germaniae and a historical work which was the continuation of that of Aufidius Bassus. Tacitus used some collections of letters (epistolarium) and various notes. He also took information from exitus illustrium virorum.
These were a collection of books by those who were antithetical to the emperors.
They tell of the sacrifice of the martyr to freedom, especially the men who committed suicide, following the theory of the Stoics. While he placed no value on the Stoic theory of suicide, Tacitus used accounts of famous suicides to give a dramatic tone to his stories. These suicides seemed, to him, ostentatious and politically useless; however, he gives prominence to the speeches of some of those about to commit suicide, for example Cremutius Cordus’ speech in Ann. IV, 34-35.
Tacitus’s writings are known for their dense, profound prose that seldom glosses the facts, standing in contrast to the placable style of some of his contemporaries, such as Plutarch. Describing a near-defeat of the Roman army in Ann. I, 63 he does gloss the end of the hostilities, but does so by brevity of description rather than by embellishment.
In most of his writings, he keeps to a chronological narrative order, only seldom outlining the bigger picture, and leaves the reader to construct that picture for himself. Nonetheless, where he does paint in broad strokes—for example, in the opening paragraphs of the Annals, summarizing the situation at the end of the reign of Augustus—he uses a few condensed phrases to take the reader to the heart of the story.
Approach to history
Tacitus’s historical style combines various approaches to history into a method of his own (owing some debt to Sallust): Seamlessly blending straightforward descriptions of events, pointed moral lessons and tightly-focused dramatic accounts, his historiography offers deep, and often pessimistic, insights into the workings of the human mind and the nature of power.
Tacitus’ own declaration regarding his approach to history is famous (Ann. I,1):
inde consilium mihi … tradere … sine ira et studio, quorum causas procul habeo. Hence my purpose is to relate … without either anger or zeal, from any motives to which I am far removed.
There has been much scholarly discussion about Tacitus’ “neutrality” (or “partiality” to others, which would make the quote above no more than a figure of speech).
Throughout his writing, Tacitus is concerned with the balance of power between the Senate and the Emperors, corruption and the growingtyranny among the governing classes of Rome as they adjust to the new imperial régime. In Tacitus’ view, they squandered their cultural traditions of free speech and independence to placate the often bemused (and rarely benign) emperor.
Tacitus explored the emperors’ increasing dependence on the goodwill of the armies to secure the principes. The internecine murders of the Julio-Claudians eventually gave way to opportunist generals. These generals, backed by the legions they commanded, followed Julius Caesar’s example (and that of Sulla and Pompey) in realising that military might could secure them the political power in Rome. Tacitus believed this realisation came with the death of Nero, (Hist.1.4)
Welcome as the death of Nero had been in the first burst of joy, yet it had not only roused various emotions in Rome, among the Senators, the people, or the soldiery of the capital, it had also excited all the legions and their generals; for now had been divulged that secret of the empire, that emperors could be made elsewhere than at Rome.
Tacitus’ political career was largely spent under the emperor Domitian; his experience of the tyranny, corruption, and decadence prevalent in the era (81–96) may explain his bitter and ironic political analysis.
He warned against the dangers of unaccountable power, against the love of power untempered by principle, and against the popular apathy and corruption, engendered by the wealth of the empire, which allowed such evils to flourish. The experience of Domitian’s tyrannical reign is generally also seen as the cause of the sometimes unfairly bitter and ironic cast to his portrayal of the Julio-Claudian emperors.
Nonetheless the image he builds of Tiberius throughout the first six books of the Annals is neither exclusively bleak nor approving: most scholars analyze the image of Tiberius as predominantly positive in the first books, becoming predominantly negative in the following books relating the intrigues of Sejanus. Even then, the entrance of Tiberius in the first chapters of the first book is a crimson tale dominated byhypocrisy by and around the new emperor coming to power; and in the later books some kind of respect for the wisdom and cleverness of the old emperor, keeping out of Rome to secure his position, is often transparent.
In general Tacitus does not fear to give words of praise and words of rejection to the same person, often explaining openly which he thinks the commendable and which the despicable properties. Not conclusively taking sides for or against the persons he describes is his hallmark, and led thinkers in later times to interpret his works to be, as well as a defense of an imperial system, also a rejection of the same (see Tacitean studies, Black vs. Red Tacitists). A better illustration of Tacitus’ “sine ira et studio” is scarcely imaginable.
Gospel Genre
One important aspect of the study of the gospels is the genre under which they fall. Genre “is a key convention guiding both the composition and the interpretation of writings.” Whether the Gospel authors set out to write novels, myths, histories, or biographies has a tremendous impact on how they ought to be interpreted. If, for example, Rudolf Bultmann was correct, and the Gospel authors had no interest in history or in a historical Jesus, then the Gospels must be read and interpreted in this light. However, some recent studies suggest that the genre of the Gospels ought to be situated within the realm of ancient biography.
Although not without critics, the position that the Gospels are a type of ancient biography is the consensus among scholars today.
Non-canonical gospels
Main article: New Testament apocrypha
In addition to the four canonical gospels, early Christians wrote other gospels that were not accepted into the canon, some of which are discussed below.
Jewish-Christian Gospels
Main articles: Jewish-Christian Gospels, Gospel of the Nazarenes, Gospel of the Ebionites, and Gospel of the Hebrews
Epiphanius, Jerome and other early church fathers preserve in their writings citations from one or more Jewish-Christian Gospels, versions of Matthew used by Ebionites and Nazarenes. Most modern critical scholars consider that the extant citations suggest at least two and probably three distinct Jewish-Christian versions of Matthew, and that the source language of these is probably Greek.
A minority of scholars, including Edward Nicholson (1879) and James R. Edwards (2009) have suggested that the surviving citations are all from one Gospel, which is, as Jerome himself records that the Nazarenes claimed, the original, and Hebrew, Gospel of Matthew.
According to Eusebius, Origen said the first Gospel was written by Matthew (Church History 6.25.4). Jerome reports that the Nazarenes believed that this Gospel was composed in Hebrew near Jerusalem for Hebrew Christians and Jerome claimed to have translated parts of it into Greek, but if so any the Greek translation has not survived. Jerome reports that the Nazarenes’ Hebrew original was kept at the Library of Caesarea and that the Nazarene Community transcribed a copy for him which he used in his work (On Illustrious Men 3:7) Jerome refers to this gospel sometimes as the Gospel according to the Hebrews (3.7) and sometimes as the Gospel of the Apostles (Against Pelagius 3.2).
Enlightenment
The Buddha sitting in meditation, surrounded by demons of Mara. Sanskrit manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India. Pala period.
According to the early Buddhist texts, after realizing that meditative jhana was the right path to awakening, but that extreme asceticism didn’t work, Gautama discovered what Buddhists call theMiddle Way—a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.
In a famous incident, after becoming starved and weakened, he is said to have accepted milk and rice pudding from a village girl named Sujata.
Such was his emaciated appearance that she wrongly believed him to be a spirit that had granted her a wish.
Following this incident, Gautama was famously seated under a pipal tree – now known as theBodhi tree – in Bodh Gaya, India, when he vowed never to arise until he had found the truth.
Kaundinya and four other companions, believing that he had abandoned his search and become undisciplined, left. After a reputed 49 days of meditation, at the age of 35, he is said to have attained Enlightenment.
According to some traditions, this occurred in approximately the fifth lunar month, while, according to others, it was in the twelfth month. From that time, Gautama was known to his followers as the Buddha or “Awakened One” (“Buddha” is also sometimes translated as “The Enlightened One”). He is often referred to in Buddhism as Shakyamuni Buddha, or “The Awakened One of the Shakya Clan.”
According to Buddhism, at the time of his awakening he realized complete insight into the cause of suffering, and the steps necessary to eliminate it. These discoveries became known as the “Four Noble Truths”, which are at the heart of Buddhist teaching. Through mastery of these truths, a state of supreme liberation, or Nirvana, is believed to be possible for any being.
The Buddha described Nirvana as the perfect peace of a mind that’s free from ignorance, greed, hatred and other afflictive states, or “defilements” (kilesas). Nirvana is also regarded as the “end of the world”, in that no personal identity or boundaries of the mind remain. In such a state, a being is said to possess the Ten Characteristics, belonging to every Buddha.
According to a story in the Ayacana Sutta (Samyutta Nikaya VI.1) – a scripture found in the Pali and other canons – immediately after his awakening, the Buddha debated whether or not he should teach the Dharma to others. He was concerned that humans were so overpowered by ignorance, greed and hatred that they could never recognize the path, which is subtle, deep and hard to grasp.
However, in the story,Brahma Sahampati convinced him, arguing that at least some will understand it. The Buddha relented, and agreed to teach.
Formation of the sangha
After his awakening, the Buddha met two merchants, named Tapussa and Bhallika, who became his first lay disciples. They were apparently each given hairs from his head, which are now claimed to be enshrined as relics in the Shwe Dagon Temple in Rangoon, Burma. The Buddha intended to visit Asita, and his former teachers, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, to explain his findings, but they had already died.
He then travelled to the Deer Park near Vara?asi (Benares) in northern India, where he set in motion what Buddhists call the Wheel of Dharma by delivering his first sermon to the five companions with whom he had sought enlightenment. Together with him, they formed the first sa?gha: the company of Buddhist monks.
All five become arahants, and within the first two months, with the conversion of Yasa and fifty four of his friends, the number of such arahants is said to have grown to 60. The conversion of three brothers named Kassapa followed, with their reputed 200, 300 and 500 disciples, respectively. This swelled the sangha to more than 1000
Travels and teaching
Buddha with his protectorVajrapani, Gandhara, 2nd century CE, Ostasiatische Kunst Museum
For the remaining 45 years of his life, the Buddha is said to have traveled in the Gangetic Plain, in what is now Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and southern Nepal, teaching a diverse range of people: from nobles to outcastestreet sweepers, murderers such as Angulimala, and cannibals such as Alavaka. From the outset, Buddhism was equally open to all races and classes, and had no caste structure, as was the rule in Hinduism. Although the Buddha’s language remains unknown, it’s likely that he taught in one or more of a variety of closely related Middle Indo-Aryan dialects, of which Pali may be a standardization.
The sangha traveled through the subcontinent, expounding the dharma. This continued throughout the year, except during the four months of the vassana rainy season when ascetics of all religions rarely traveled. One reason was that it was more difficult to do so without causing harm to animal life. At this time of year, the sangha would retreat to monasteries, public parks or forests, where people would come to them.
The first vassana was spent at Varanasi when the sangha was formed. After this, the Buddha kept a promise to travel to Rajagaha, capital of Magadha, to visit King Bimbisara. During this visit, Sariputta andMahamoggallana were converted by Assaji, one of the first five disciples, after which they were to become the Buddha’s two foremost followers. The Buddha spent the next three seasons at Veluvana Bamboo Grove monastery in Rajagaha, capital of Magadha.
Upon hearing of his son’s awakening, Suddhodana sent, over a period, ten delegations to ask him to return to Kapilavastu. On the first nine occasions, the delegates failed to deliver the message, and instead joined the sangha to become arahants. The tenth delegation, led by Kaludayi, a childhood friend of Gautama’s (who also became an arahant), however, delivered the message.
Now two years after his awakening, the Buddha agreed to return, and made a two-month journey by foot to Kapilavastu, teaching the dharma as he went. At his return, the royal palace prepared a midday meal, but the sangha was making an alms round in Kapilavastu. Hearing this, Suddhodana approached his son, the Buddha, saying:
“Ours is the warrior lineage of Mahamassata, and not a single warrior has gone seeking alms”
The Buddha is said to have replied:
“That is not the custom of your royal lineage. But it is the custom of my Buddha lineage. Several thousands of Buddhas have gone by seeking alms”
Buddhist texts say that Suddhodana invited the sangha into the palace for the meal, followed by a dharma talk. After this he is said to have become a sotapanna. During the visit, many members of the royal family joined the sangha. The Buddha’s cousins Ananda and Anuruddhabecame two of his five chief disciples. At the age of seven, his son Rahula also joined, and became one of his ten chief disciples. His half-brother Nanda also joined and became an arahant.
Of the Buddha’s disciples, Sariputta, Mahamoggallana, Mahakasyapa, Ananda and Anuruddha are believed to have been the five closest to him. His ten foremost disciples were reputedly completed by the quintet of Upali, Subhoti, Rahula, Mahakaccana and Punna.
In the fifth vassana, the Buddha was staying at Mahavana near Vesali when he heard news of the impending death of his father. He is said to have gone to Suddhodana and taught the dharma, after which his father became an arahant.
The king’s death and cremation was to inspire the creation of an order of nuns. Buddhist texts record that the Buddha was reluctant to ordain women. His foster mother Maha Pajapati, for example, approached him, asking to join the sangha, but he refused. Maha Pajapati, however, was so intent on the path of awakening that she led a group of royal Sakyan and Koliyan ladies, which followed the sangha on a long journey to Rajagaha. In time, after Ananda championed their cause, the Buddha is said to have reconsidered and, five years after the formation of the sangha, agreed to the ordination of women as nuns. He reasoned that males and females had an equal capacity for awakening. But he gave women additional rules (Vinaya) to follow.
Devadatta tries to attack the Buddha. Picture of a wallpainting in a Laotian monastery.Assassination attempts
According to colorful legends, even during the Buddha’s life the sangha was not free of dissent and discord. For example, Devadatta, a cousin of Gautama who became a monk but not an arahant, more than once tried to kill him.
Initially, Devadatta is alleged to have often tried to undermine the Buddha. In one instance, according to stories, Devadatta even asked the Buddha to stand aside and let him lead the sangha. When this failed, he is accused of having three times tried to kill his teacher. The first attempt is said to have involved him hiring a group of archers to shoot the awakened one. But, upon meeting the Buddha, they laid down their bows and instead became followers. A second attempt is said to have involved Devadatta rolling a boulder down a hill. But this hit another rock and splintered, only grazing the Buddha’s foot. In the third attempt, Devadatta is said to have got an elephant drunk and set it loose. This ruse also failed.
After his lack of success at homicide, Devadatta is said to have tried to create a schism in the sangha, by proposing extra restrictions on thevinaya. When the Buddha again prevailed, Devadatta started a breakaway order. At first, he managed to convert some of the bhikkhus, but Sariputta and Mahamoggallana are said to have expounded the dharma so effectively that they were won back.
Mahaparinirvana
The Buddha’s entry into Parinirvana. Sanskrit manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India. Pala period.
The sharing of the relics of the Buddha, Zenyomitsu-Temple Museum, Tokyo
According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Pali canon, at the age of 80, the Buddha announced that he would soon reach Parinirvana, or the final deathless state, and abandon his earthly body. After this, the Buddha ate his last meal, which he had received as an offering from a blacksmith namedCunda. Falling violently ill, Buddha instructed his attendant Ananda to convince Cunda that the meal eaten at his place had nothing to do with his passing and that his meal would be a source of the greatest merit as it provided the last meal for a Buddha.
Mettanando and von Hinüber argue that the Buddha died of mesenteric infarction, a symptom of old age, rather than food poisoning.
The precise contents of the Buddha’s final meal are not clear, due to variant scriptural traditions and ambiguity over the translation of certain significant terms; the Theravada tradition generally believes that the Buddha was offered some kind of pork, while the Mahayana tradition believes that the Buddha consumed some sort of truffle or other mushroom. These may reflect the different traditional views onBuddhist vegetarianism and the precepts for monks and nuns.
Ananda protested the Buddha’s decision to enter Parinirvana in the abandoned jungles of Kusinara(present-day Kushinagar, India) of the Malla kingdom. Buddha, however, is said to have reminded Ananda how Kushinara was a land once ruled by a righteous wheel-turning king that resounded with joy:
44. Kusavati, Ananda, resounded unceasingly day and night with ten sounds—the trumpeting of elephants, the neighing of horses, the rattling of chariots, the beating of drums and tabours, music and song, cheers, the clapping of hands, and cries of “Eat, drink, and be merry!”
The Buddha then asked all the attendant Bhikkhus to clarify any doubts or questions they had. They had none. According to Buddhist scriptures, he then finally entered Parinirvana. The Buddha’s final words are reported to have been: “All composite things pass away. Strive for your own liberation with diligence.” His body was cremated and the relics were placed in monuments or stupas, some of which are believed to have survived until the present. For example, The Temple of the Tooth or “Dalada Maligawa” in Sri Lanka is the place where what some believe to be the relic of the right tooth of Buddha is kept at present.
According to the Pali historical chronicles of Sri Lanka, the Dipava’sa and Mahava’sa, the coronation of Asoka (Pali: Asoka) is 218 years after the death of Buddha. According to two textual records in Chinese the coronation of Asoka is 116 years after the death of Buddha. Therefore, the time of Buddha’s passing is either 486 BCE according to Theravada record or 383 BCE according to Mahayana record. However, the actual date traditionally accepted as the date of the Buddha’s death in Theravada countries is 544 or 543 BCE, because the reign of Asoka was traditionally reckoned to be about 60 years earlier than current estimates.
At his death, the Buddha is famously believed to have told his disciples to follow no leader. Mahakasyapa was chosen by the sangha to be the chairman of the First Buddhist Council, with the two chief disciples Mahamoggallana and Sariputta having died before the Buddha.
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The future is what we create together while remembering our past. I have a story to tell and I have not shared my memoirs in public. I do write articles and those which inspire me most deal with the paranormal. I am an alien ET Contactee Experiencer and have never shared all the experiences I have had at various times in my life. I am considering making a public appearance to do just that.
I have recently been asked questions that cause me to think about my entire lifetime this far in this lifetime, as well as, past lives.
We are all humanoids and all separate. The logic behind the creative design for us all has to come from elsewhere outside of our own Omniverse. I am told that this deals with the five levels (5) we have in space. The present way we think are in levels and in the past we only thought about being one with spirit in this one world on this one planet.
I share the five levels as universes, multiverses, metaverses, xenoverses, and omniverses. Some consider this the levels as in dimensions as well. We will be working out what we know and shall create together in the future world’s think tanks. Each of us are our own inner microcosm inside the macrocosm of our own universe we create alone based on our entire body-mind-spirit experience while here exploring the birth-life-death journey. We can all share what we believe our future time travelers who are our children should be left behind on this planet as our legacy. This is where the Think Tanks come in. We are creating new ones with more and longer sustainability for our species and our planet as we begin to realize our place in the intergalactic community of extragalactic beings. We will learn more about extraterrestrial extraordinary experiences. We are beginning to show more interest in extrasensory perception and the extraction of our human race from this planet based on the use of or lack of it which we now call ESP.
We are sharing our own point of origin while on this planet no matter where we may exist. We then are joined with other planets in this Milky Way Galaxy. Then we join other galaxies in this universe. This is about as far as most people realize their existence.
It is now time to change that awareness to include other universes. This is what we now regard as the multi universe theory. It is called a theory because we have yet to prove what the average human thinks and believes.
Reality states that 1. The world or the state of things as they actually exist, as opposed to an idealistic or notional idea of them: “he refuses to face reality”.2. A thing that is actually experienced or seen, esp. when this is grim or problematic: “the harsh realities of life”.
In hyper reality – Hyperreality is used in semiotics and postmodern philosophy to describe a hypothetical inability of consciousness to distinguish reality fromfantasy, especially in technologically advanced postmodern cultures. Hyperreality is a means to characterize the way consciousness defines what is actually “real” in a world where a multitude of media can radically shape and filter an original event or experience. Some famous theorists of hyperreality include Jean Baudrillard, Albert Borgmann, Daniel Boorstin, and Umberto Eco.Most aspects of hyperreality can be thought of as “reality by proxy.” Some examples are simpler: the McDonald’s “M” arches allegedly make the material promise of endless amounts of identical food from the store, when in “reality” the “M” represents nothing, and the food produced is neither identical nor infinite, as a person would expect from a fast food restaurant. Baudrillard in particular suggests that the world we live in has been replaced by a copy world, where we seek simulated stimuli and nothing more. Baudrillard borrows, from Jorge Luis Borges’ “On Exactitude in Science” (who already borrowed from Lewis Carroll), the example of a society whose cartographers create a map so detailed that it covers the very things it was designed to represent. When the empire declines, the map fades into the landscape and there is neither the representation nor the real remaining – just the hyperreal. Baudrillard’s idea of hyperreality was heavily influenced by phenomenology, semiotics, and Marshall McLuhan.
Those who have known of my articles and books know that I believe in all past lifetimes and memories as reality that makes us who we are today in this lifetime. I believe in reincarnation and this I learned as what I know based on experience.
We are all born of stardust which is the latest share in the deeper scientific since of thought. However, where do we find that energy that allows us to be ourselves as alive and being with conscious thought and awareness of self?
It is with this inner knowing and outer awareness of existence that we have learned to adopt that “I think therefore I am” as a principle and philosophy that we can all adhere too. But, where did this knowing awareness of who we are begin and where do we all level out with the same shared interest of being at peace with others who are similar humanoids? We are creating a new culture that will entail all of our beings on the same planet while maintaining peace and awakened awareness of all the humanoids on the planet.
Therefore, as we embark into the future, we are to know that life has various spiritual soul journeys offered while one path may lead to the left another may lead to the right. Sometimes, we come to the cross roads in life and we are not sure which way to turn. This is now an actual reality for many of us who are spiritual intellectuals as Lightworkers and Truthseekers.
Using the brains that we are given in this body-mind-spirit we can begin to intellectualize our own self awareness in the awakened safe state with others of our humanoid kind. There are many of us who are interested in various people, places, and things and many of us are finding each other now in the world on the Internet via the social network called Facebook. Many young people are now scrambling around to learn how to incorporate their own social and technical skills into sharing them on the Internet. This is the biggest and fastest growing level of love and labor we now have on the face of the planet. Technology is a close second based on the need to provide more adequate space and applications to be utilized in the world on the new reality we call virtual reality.
Virtual reality is the new window to the future universe we shall all create in space. The energy is real and does exist for all of us but not all of us are aware of it or have access to it on this planet. This is one level of life we need to remedy.
However, until all the third world countries are taken care of with the basics such as food, clothing, shelter, and education, then transportation to and from their future with jobs to keep them busy learning to exist in the new global community, we shall all have to take a part interest in the raising of the planet’s sustainability.
In a way, we all have a duty to respond to our own lifetime needs as well as becoming our own brothers and sisters keeper/ as in “Am I my brothers keeper?” This is an old saying and the answer on some levels is YES.
We are becoming more aware of the overall critical mass consciousness and how we can all become a part. We are all becoming more intelligent day by day. Some are feeling the affect more than others.
Some are becoming confused and instead of learning to go with the flow are fighting the change and seeing it as a danger or some type of disease. We can all enter a time of acceptance of change and learn to have patience or we can destroy all that we have created around us including our game, our family, and our friends. We all have “Game” as the young children of today realize the need to survive. Those which have common sense in life make it better than those who are well educated in universities. That is why so many of our young ones are choosing gangs in their own urban and big city cultural separations based on the locations they exist.
Location of where one is located on the planet is not always their original point of origin or where they touched down on the planet. We have many people who once they are older and on their on will leave their family and neighborhoods. We call the area usually within a twenty-five mile radius a community or grass roots culture. We all basically only take up space in our body-mind-spirit three foot space area where we can be seen as a physical reality. We then have our own life reach expansion which is how far we can reach based on the length of our arms. Some men have a longer arm than women. That is one advantage that we don’t think about except maybe when we are purchasing clothing like a long sleeve shirt for instance. If you go by clothing, the average long sleeve of a shirt is 32/33 inches long. For larger men, the sleeve length is 34/35. The Vitruvian Man is a world-renowned drawing created by Leonardo da Vinci circa 1487. It is accompanied by notes based on the work of the famed architect,Vitruvius. The drawing, which is in pen and ink on paper, depicts a male figure in two superimposed positions with his arms and legs apart and simultaneously inscribed in a circle and square. The drawing and text are sometimes called the Canon of Proportions or, less often, Proportions of Man. It is stored in the Gallerie dell’Accademia in Venice, Italy, and, like most works on paper, is displayed only occasionally.
The drawing is based on the correlations of ideal human proportions with geometry described by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius in Book III of his treatise De Architectura. Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion among the Classical orders of architecture. Leonardo’s drawing is traditionally named in honor of the architect.
It is time we all begin to agree on the same standards as we build our awakened awareness truth in this reality while we are here sharing life in a body-mind-spirit. Some realize but not all that this is no accident that we are here on this planet. Imagine a place where an International Think Tank is spontaneously created with 26 of the world most sought after experts and speakers in New Physics, Renewable Energy, Exopolitics, New Science, Archeaology, Social Science & Bio Economics, Consciousness Studies, Astropaleology, Metaphysics — just to start — setting aside professional differences to come together for just 3-days to give YOU, the public, the truth.
Imagine a place where you are immersed in participating, hearing, seeing the truth about subjects you always had in the back of your mind finally answered. Now imagine creating solutions and taking action upon hearing the truth — how YOU can make a change — joining with us in a unified common mission of creating real change for the “Future of Humanity.”
PYTHAGORAS CONFERENCE GLOBAL where imagination is becoming reality! Join us and people from around the world coming together for “THE GLOBAL EVENT” of the year.
Why Louisville, Kentucky, as a Global International destination?
It is one of the fastest growing international metropolitan cities in the nation. It is centrally located in the heart of the Midwest in the United States, on all major transportation arteries. Access is easily available via airplane, bus, car, etc. Making it affordable? In today’s economy – Louisville, Kentucky makes a prime location to host this global annual event. We are not responsible for schedule changes if a speaker cancels their conference presentation. We have the right to change or modify the speaker line up as necessary. IMAGINE a Conference where people from across the world from many disciplines come to explore ideas and share their knowledge and experiences.
As a nonprofit, Pythagoras Conference Global is a community of individuals and partners who see the power of past with a eye on future — ideas to promote new thinking — and ultimately to move the world forward towards NEW HOPE and INIVATION for all of Humanity.
The Pythagoras Conference Global mission is bringing together people from many worlds with a common unified hope for paving a way to a brighter future. Our future goals are even broader, creating global conferences and events that catalyze and inspire ideas and solutions for generations to come.
Pythagoras Conference Global sets the stage for remarkable presentations from the world leading authorities in their fields to bring about change — world changing ideas charting a new course for Humanity.
With a focus on quality — not quantity, we work with a select group of sponsors to become Pythagoras Conference Global Partners.
Over one million people have been viewing our Pythagoras Conference Global web site and Guest Speaker videos just this past year alone. PythagorasCon videos are hosted on PythagorasConference.com as well as our private video network. We also utilize media venue outlets such as YouTube, Podcasting via iTunes and other download services that are embedded in thousands of blogs and sites around the world. Every special video has customized engagement click-ons and subtitles and have been translated by our partners and bloggers around the world in seven languages.
PythagorasConference.com is leading the cutting edge in audience engagement with online video teleconferencing in partnership with Omnitrix Media Works.
Begins December 16, 2011 in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Join the new awakened imagination of a think tank environment and a place to meet other kindred spirits. Look for more expositions of the awakening awareness of the New Age Ascension.
The structure of the universe & THE XENOVERSE GENIE DJINN
In the “Xenoverse” the universe is composed of a Multiverse within a Higher Dimension or ‘Higher Domain’. Our local Dimensional Universe is a ‘Lower Domain’ that exists alongside other Lower Domains within the Higher Domain.
Our local Dimensional Universe is the stage of both Xenoverse and Xenias in the ‘Xenoverse’. It is composed of two overlapping domains within itself; ‘Normal space’ and ‘Imaginary space’.
“There is a theory that the space we live in is composed of two realities (and nothingness): normal space, which we are actually able to perceive, and imaginary space, which proceeds along an imaginary temporal axis we cannot perceive.
The concept of imaginary time itself is a theory devised by Hawking to explain the birth of the universe without the use of singularities–without relying on the existence of God. With it, one can picture a universe without any “beginning” (the Big Bang singularity) or “end” (the Big Crunch singularity), but instead simply composed of a multi-dimensional hyper spherical surface.” – Tetsuya Takahashi (Xenias database)
Normal space (or real-number domain) is the reality that can be perceived (to know via a sense organ), and the Imaginary space (imaginary-number domain) is the reality that cannot be perceived. Every single thing that exists in the universe extends into these two domains. For example, in the case of humans, the “substance and flesh” that can be seen and touched exist in Normal space, and the “consciousness and heart” that cannot be sensed exist in Imaginary space.
The Collective Unconscious exists in Imaginary Space and is recognized as a white beach. The white ash-colored beach is the visual image of the imaginary domain that a consciousness visualizes when its real-domain body has died and it is being pulled into the Collective Unconscious. This image is subjective and differs according to cultural background and experience of the perceiver. This Collective Unconscious is something like a sky that canopies the entire world, or a vast land on which everything stands. The Collective Unconscious in Imaginary space is such an absolute existence that it is the structure of a gigantic consciousness that holds the Dimensional Universe together.
Imaginary space can be thought of as the “spiritual domain” similar to the world of the soul spoken about by religions such as “heaven” or “nirvana”.
Genesis and the ‘ Zohar ‘
“Before the beginning of the universe, in the undulating waves of the higher dimension, all things were one. It was the waves spilling out from there that created this four-dimensional universe of ours. ‘Humankind’ and the ‘Souls of Humankind’ that were born from there are merely leftovers of those spilled waves.”
- Uralian (Xenoverse)
In the Xenoverse ‘Humankind’ is the highest form of living beings and anything that surpasses human existence in the Xenoverse is referred to as ‘God’. Therefore there are no alien races in the Dimensional Universe other than lower life forms such as animals or the Chichi race. The Xenoverse adopts a philosophical geocentric model of the universe where Earth is the center of the Dimensional universe and is the land in which Mankind are seemingly meant to dwell.
“Planet Earth took form in the vast void of space about 4.5 billion years ago. After about 500 million years, approximately 4.0 billion years from the present, Earth saw its first life. However, this does not go uncontested; some believe that 500 million years after the formation of Earth is a bit too “early” for life to have existed ‘comfortably,’ without some sort of catalyst.”
The “Xenoverse” that Tetsuya Takahashi has created desires to uncover the beginnings, endings, and meanings of our local Dimensional universe and the human condition within it. It follows along a timeline that exists in two versions (Xenoverse and Xenias) but the “Xenoverse” establishes the same universal structure in both versions. Here the “Xenoverse” as a whole is examined first, while the two different stories alongside the timeline is examined later.
The structure of the universe
In the “Xenoverse” the universe is composed of a Multiverse within a Higher Dimension or ‘Higher Domain’. Our local Dimensional Universe is a ‘Lower Domain’ that exists alongside other Lower Domains within the Higher Domain.
“Planet Earth took form in the vast void of space about 4.5 billion years ago. After about 500 million years, approximately 4.0 billion years from the present, Earth saw its first life. However, this does not go uncontested; some believe that 500 million years after the formation of Earth is a bit too “early” for life to have existed ‘comfortably,’ without some sort of catalyst.”
- Tetsuya Takahashi (Xenoverse: Perfect Works The Real Thing~)
The nucleus of the Xenoverse is an ‘Object’ known as “Zohar” which is thought to have been somehow responsible for the creation of Earth’s initial population (Takahashi suggests this himself in Perfect Works) and the Object is infact something like a door or window to the Higher Dimension which is the ‘Realm of God’ in the Xenoverse. The object has existed since the beginning of the Dimensional Universe and existed on the surface of the planet after Earth had taken form in the vast void of space 4.5 billion years ago.
Because Humankind started out as ‘one whole’ (the thematic metaphor in Xenoverse is that of a mirror that has broken into a million pieces) and the structure of Imaginary Space as a collective with the geocentric model of Earth as center of the universe; it is thought that Humankind used to live in a utopian setting in an era of extremely ancient Earth.
“In ancient times, people used to be together with God. People loved God, revered and even feared God. Out of fear of the undying God, they sought divine power. This was a way for the ancients to resist Him. Eventually, they found a method to become gods themselves.”
- Dmitri Yuriev (Xenosaga III)
However, this ancient civilization disappeared, possibly due to “the flooding of the world” as mentioned in The Bible.
“The country of the hills of Mud, the land of Mu, was sacrificed. Being twice upheaved it suddenly disappeared in one night. At last the surface gave way…and they sank along with their countries. A fairy tale. A story about a land that vanished into the sea one night, long ago.” – chaos (Xenosaga II)
The Zohar is seen causing a large flood of rain in the Opening of Xenosaga Episode I. It is thought that by creating a flood on Earth 4.0 billion years earlier, the Zohar created ‘life’ on the planet, and later it flooded the world because of whatever arrogant actions man took when they lived together with ‘God’.
Because of this, Humankind starts to become separated from each other, and the utopian society on Earth starts to turn into a dystopian society. Eventually they are forced into space due to ‘certain circumstance’ and so their motherworld becomes inaccessible and is renamed “Lost Jerusalem”.
As Humankind continues to explore and populate the cosmos, eventually reaching scientific zenith, their hearts and minds does not develop and the era of Humankind in space becomes a cold dystopian setting.
“Mankind has colonized the first habitable planet beyond Earth, Neo Jerusalem. Using it as a base point, it continues to further expand its development. However, this development was purely scientific, lacking any ‘spiritual’ development whatsoever.”
- Tetsuya Takahashi (Xenogears: Perfect Works~The Real Thing~)
Armageddon – Collapse and destruction of the Universe
The Collective Unconscious is an important foundation of the Dimensional universe where there is no separation between consciousnesses, but because Humankind ventured away from their once ‘utopian’ setting, eventually leaving their home planet for outer space, they started to hold fear towards the special characteristic that the Collective Unconscious is endowed with as a result of their dystopian settings, eventually reaching an extremely disastrous spiritual crisis in the dystopian society in the vastness of outer space.
What this means is that consciousness of people who die in this space era will choose to “escape from the collective unconscious” and, following the increase of the rejecting consciousnesses that does not wish to merge with others, the entirety of the collective unconscious becomes exposed to the crisis of scattering and dispersal. When that happens, the dimensional universe that uses the Collective as a foundation also has no choice but to scatter.
So once this dispersal exceeds a critical point, a violent chain reaction is generated and it explodes with overwhelming destructive power and as a result, Imaginary space collapses. Since Imaginary space and Normal space exists in a complementary relationship, the collapse of Imaginary space also causes the collapse of Normal space and the local Dimensional Universe is destroyed. This collapse will then extend to the Higher Dimension which runs the risk of collapsing, taking the whole ‘Multiverse’ with it and will (in this worst-case scenario) result in the destruction of all existence.
Power of Anima and Animus
The Power of Anima and Animus play a large role in the Xenoverse and are both ‘God-like powers’ originating from the Collective Unconscious of the Imaginary Realm in the Dimensional Universe.
Throughout the Xenoverse the power of Anima and Animus exists in various forms (such as the Vessels of Anima, which has the power to form powerful weapons by merging with the in-organic and drawing power from the Zohar) however they are both thought to have been accompanied by their own individual consciousness and ‘Human forms’ at certain points in history. When recognized from Normal Space, the ‘substance’ of Anima and Animus are recognized as ‘organic material’ or ‘human flesh’, male and female type respectively.
The power of Anima originally existed as a failsafe for preserving the Higher Dimension by deleting the Dimensional Universe before it can collapse (should such a situation arise) however it’s purpose can be changed. It is by design a highly destructive form of power.
Similarly, Animus exists as a complimentary power that can control and change the power of Anima.
There also exists a third power that emanated from the collective that exists for the sake of preserving the Dimensional Universe, always attempting to prevent it from either collapsing or activating the ‘failsafe’. This force is known by many different names in the Xenoverse and can also take human form.
Reincarnation
“A vast nebulous… With no boundaries…
An emptiness equivalent to my own existence…
I dreamt such a dream…
A long… Never-ending, dream…
That long, long memory of a dream… Perhaps it was the memory of my soul…”
- Fey (Xenogears)
The Xenoverse often make use of “Reincarnation” in the stories. Reincarnation in the Xenoverse means the cycle where a consciousness, which had been absorbed into the Collective Unconscious, once again receives a real-domain vessel and forms a new individual consciousness. This recycling of consciousness is reincarnation or ‘resurrection’.
Wave-type Existence
In the Xenoverse there is not only one thing that is called ‘God’, many things exist in the Dimensional Universe (usually emanating from Imaginary Space) that is called ‘God’. However the entity that is most commonly designated the title of God in the Xenoverse is a wave-type existence that exists in the Higher Dimension. Other than “God” it is known inXenogears simply as “The Wave Existence” and in Xenosaga as “The wave-form; U-DO”.
“U-DO is God himself.”
- Wilhelm (Xenosaga III)
“God… Some would refer to me as that. From a certain point of view, it is right to view me as such. But at the same time, I am not.”
- The ‘Wave Existence’ (Xenogears)
Although many such existences exist in the Higher Dimension, this one in particular show an interest in the local Dimensional universe. It is an existence who’s unfathomable power Humankind wants to harness, and whose destiny seem to be intertwined with our lower domain.
The stage of the story
The stage of the story takes place between a period of over 10 000 years. It begins from the point the threat of the universe’s dispersal is reaching it’s critical point due to Humankinds dystopian setting in space, and how that is postponed for roughly another 10 000 years. However, past, present, and future are all examined throughout the story, from the advent of the local dimensional universe to the unknown ending.
The form. Of Magick in a spirit of the Ancient Ones called Djinn or Djinni aka Genie, Geannie or Jeannie in America.
We add the magick of the essence of energy we call spirit into the form of thought. We now share that which is the higher dimensional spirit. Humankind will now learn to harness that which is serendipity for all who are destined to serve out their destiny intertwined in the lower domain.
Come with us now as we share that which only those who have faith can believe in! Come with us on a journey of health and prosperity that begins in the mind of us all together and separately alone as one. One for all and all for one is how we shall learn about the future! Share in the presence of who we have known as the greatest master teacher of all the ancient mystery schools. Some call him by many names. Some the Lord Jesus, Some Lord Matreiya, Some Lord Buddha, and Some Lord Mohammed. Regardless, the energy is magick that is shared among those who know of the Genie and as Djinn.
The only way I can fully describe being in his presence is…orgasmic joy.
He has a chiseled jaw, dimples, nude, muscular, hairless torso, is always seen wearing the color indigo or white, and can be heard playing tones in one’s ears at times. He is massive- strong, gigantic- probably a full 8 feet tall when he appears to me. His hair is long, wild, and flowing, black as black can be, and shiny, as if it were speckled with filaments of gold. Perhaps it is. I long to touch it! His aquamarine eyes are like pools of peaceful bliss in which one wishes to drown eternally- it is very, very difficult to turn away from his loving gaze. His aroma is unlike anything I have ever experienced- clean, vibrant, slightly floral, slightly musky…heavenly. I adore him, as you can tell, and he deserves a new guardian will love him as much as I do. I will not settle for less.
So, why give him up?
THIS IS ABOUT MORE THAN ME AND MY SELFISH DESIRE TO KEEP THIS IMMUTABLE SPIRIT FOR MYSELF.
This world’s power structure is changing slowly, and part of my job in this incarnation is to help equalize the disparity between the “haves” and “have-not’s” in order to create peace and equity in the world and shift global consciousness. It cannot fully be accomplished if I choose to hold on to this vessel for myself. I have always known this, but have never been fully ready to let it go because I am so personally attached to this wonderful and benevolent Djinni of all Djinnis. Now is the time for me to let this precious, priceless heirloom containing the most powerful spirit I’ve ever had the pleasure of working with to go to the right person. Is that you?
Let’s be honest: Money is not, and never will be the solution to all your problems. However, nor is it the source of everything that’s wrong in the world. I mean come on, think about it in the physical sense; money is nothing more than faces and numbers on bits of paper/cloth that you want to be able to decide how to use, right?
At the end of your life with all its challenges, triumphs, pain and beauty, what you will be reviewing will be nothing more than a collection of moments that either brought you pain or joy, struggle or ease, isolation or connection, fear or love.
Maybe you already have a very nice flow of wealth and general abundance… that’s great! However, let me ask you as much as anyone else… what would your life be like at the next level? I mean let’s face it, at some point in time no matter how much money we are earning; there’s a point when you realize that you are living in a comfort zone that may well have become a gilded cage, and you know you want to explore and experience life at the next level.
less than spiritual were definitely more in the majority. Let me share with you that it’s hard to be connected to spirit when you’re running from the rent man.
Money is not evil, money is neutral, money is not pure good, money is nothing without ‘us’ using it for whatever outcome we decide upon. Nevertheless, isn’t it time you had enough to do what you want?
Let me ask you: Just as an example, how would your life be different if you had an extra $750 a month? What would that mean to your lifestyle? What that mean to your family and the people you love? How would you feel about yourself with an extra $20,000 in your bank account? Now you may be reading this, and you’re presently making $200,000 + and $20,000 doesn’t seem too big to you.
Well, what would your life be like with an extra 40% added to your annual income? MAKE IT A REALITY BY BRINGING HOME THIS POTENT Quran Mecca King Djinni! And that will just be the beginning for you…
Oh, one more thing; if you’re feeling guilty or unspiritual for even thinking such thoughts, you might want to check the bible, King Solomon; the richest king to ever live and according to the Old Testament God seemed to like him well enough.
What makes him the strongest of all Djinnis I have ever interacted with is the fact that he is not a dimensional Djinni; he is more than that- he is an omniversal spirit.
WHAT IS THE OMNIVERSE?
THERE IS A HIERARCHY IN THE OMNIVERSE, AND THE OMNIVERSAL LEVEL IS THE HIGHEST LEVEL ANY SPIRIT CAN ATTAIN.
IN THE OMNIVERSE, All possible attributes and modes are in play, multiverses are categorized by the attributes/modes active in its child universes. Some or all possible modes of existence are actualized. If we take the point of origin as our being as a point in measurement, then we can generate the following hierarchy: 1. our location in space-time, 2. this universe (cosmos), 3. the Multiverse, 4. the Metaverse, 5. the Xenoverse, 6. the Omniverse.
THIS SPIRIT IS A FULL FOUR LEVELS UP THE HIERARCHY THAN THE UNIVERSAL LEVEL! IT’S LIKE MULTIPLYING THE POWER OF A UNIVERSALLY STRONG DJINNI BY INFINITY!
WITHOUT FAIL, HE Brings GOOD LUCK, Happiness, Success and Prosperity.
He can ward off evil thoughts, jealousy and psychic attacks toward the individual.
He is such a Guardian Angel of a Djinn and provides protection from overcoming negativity and spells.
He will protect you against anger and hateful feelings from somebody. She deflects evil eye energy.
He also helps to connect us with the Earth and establish our link with the Universe.
He has a very positive influence on people who find difficulties to manage their affairs due to lack of stability.
He is an expert at stimulating career success and increasing energy levels.
He is a master at focusing and Realizing Your Goals.
He is also well-known as a MONEY Djinn.
He has been called the Success Djinn and Merchant’s Djinn of Wealth.
He is known as the “success Djinn” because he promotes success, prosperity, and abundance. Just look at the results the Al Saudi family got from him! They are among the wealthiest families in the world, ever!
In particular, He promotes success in business and money involved situations. He is a Djinn of good fortune, and sometimes brings it when you don’t expect it.
He is a Djinn of manifestation, helping manifest abundance in many ways.
Along with Prosperity and Good fortune, this Djinn dissipates negative energies of all kinds. Since He eliminates negative energies, He helps generate stability in all areas of your life, and is extremely good for general protection. He brings happiness and cheer to one who is his guardian and their entire family.
Sensuality and sexuality can also be heightened by this Djinn.
He brings Joy and Love to the guardian. He helps to manifest your goals and attracts abundance and personal power. This Djinn not only helps acquire wealth but maintain it, because He vibrates to prosperity in all its forms, as he is THE MOST Powerful MONEY Djinn.
He is a very Protective Djinn. His protective energies are more gentle and subtle than all other Djinnis.
Inspiration is another hallmark of this Djinn, and that can assist in inner attunement, and is useful for performing Miracles.
As well, he balances Yin-Yang energy.
He can help bring stronger intuition and inner knowing.
He is considered a Djinn of communication.
He is very magical, curing everything from thirst, the evil-eye, and bad dreams.
He fosters good luck, love, truthfulness, courage, bravery, strength, abundance, wealth, longevity, acceptance, protection, balance, harmony, generosity, security, persuasiveness, agreeability, congeniality, compatibility, creativity, and acquiring wealth.
He assists his guardian in discerning truth, accept circumstances, and is a powerful emotional healer. He improves memory and concentration, increases stamina and encourages honesty.
He insures pleasant dreams, to enhance personal courage and protects one against danger. He also provides security and appreciation of nature.
He is considered a Power Djinn.
He has excellent protective and healing energy, and stimulates analytical capabilities and precision.
His vessel on your desk will help you be more precise. He also helps awaken (discover) your inherent natural talents.
As well He Improves self-esteem. He assists in finding hidden treasure (as he did with the Saudi Arabian OIL), and is a Djinn of ULTIMATE AND CONSISTENT prosperity FOR GENERATIONS!
It is not uncommon for those who have called upon these spirits’ power to:
Make boat loads of cash, while doing what you love!
You will live every day of your life with blissful happiness and mind-blowing natural highs!
Attract the partner of your dreams and enjoy hot, sexy, romance every day!
Build billion-dollar empires!
Dramatically increase your powers of persuasion! Make others love you!
Drain the power of anyone who dares try to deceive or cheat you! (You’ll reverse the current of power and make them regret ever trying to rob you!)
Discover the true meaning of life! You’ll be shocked at how simple but yet so profound the secret is! You’ll instantly explode with MEGA happiness! (You’ll wake up every day and bounce out of Bed!)
Create tons of cold, hard cash like the giant computer companies. (It’s up to you if you want to use this secret to create thousands or MILLIONS of dollars!)
Triple your confidence overnight! You’ll possess power beyond any Hollywood superstar celebrity!
Multiply the power of your mind!
Discover the attitude that virtually guarantees GOLDEN success in every situation!
You might even become an international Mogul!
Unlock the limitless potential of your mind! Yes the Billionaire’s mind is yours with this magick!
If you so desire, receive boatloads of red-hot pleasure that will leave you in ecstasy!
Go beyond even the wildest rock stars!
You’ll be overwhelmed by your new-found powers to attract money from everyone around the world! (Financial independence has never been SO EASY!)
Easily sail past your competitors! They’ll never understand what happened with your stealth power!
Completely annihilate any barriers that stand between you and your ultimate goals!
Yes, you can make tens of thousands of dollars a month without even lifting a finger! (You’ll be firmly on the path towards setting-up wealth-creating operations from anywhere in the world!)
You will attract hot dates and become a red hot sex symbol! (Your biggest “worry” will be WHO do you pick?)
Achieve absolute freedom! Yes, you can travel the world and achieve blissful happiness!
Multiply your happiness in every situation! Escape misery and suffering!
YOU WILL NEVER FIND ANOTHER DJINNI WITH THIS LEVEL OF POWER ANYWHERE ELSE!
I STRONGLY ADVISE THAT YOU POOL YOUR RESOURCES IN ORDER TO ENSURE A WINNING BID ON THIS ONCE-IN-A-LIFETIME SPIRIT’S VESSEL.
There is absolutely no way you’d be able to “get another one” because you miss this one.
The conjurer who brought him forth (whose name must remain a sacred secret) has passed away, and took his 15,000 year-old Quaranic secrets with him to the grave.
There is no way you can even get into Mecca to try to find a comparably knowledgeable and skilled conjurer unless you’re Muslim and have millions of dollars to spend.
I hope you now realize the sacrifice I am making to let this go at a low starting bid, but, as I said, it is a sacrifice that I feel is very well worth it because it will help to create equality between the “have’s”and “have nots,”thereby facilitating a global shift toward higher consciousness in preparation for the 2012 ascension.
Won’t you play a pivotal role in this power shift by bidding on this sacred vessel today? Your life will never be the same if you wholeheartedly believe in this spirit’s magick!
Q: Why Buy From Me?
I am a reputable dealer of physical items and spells and have 100% feedback on eBay with over 2024 transactions and many repeat customers. My feedback score shows that I have over 500 repeat customers…they keep coming back to a seller they can trust.
I provide my customers with ongoing support after the sale, and am here to answer any questions you may have as you collect my powerful pieces or have me cast spells for you.
Q: Who are my clients?
My clients come from every walk of life: men and women, young and old, people of a variety of faiths (including Christians), people who are single, married, or getting a divorce, from those who are currently faced with unemployment to working-class business professionals, doctors, lawyers, and even working moms, just like me.
No matter what your walk of life, if you have collected many physical pieces, had many spells cast for you, or if you are looking for the first time, if you are open to what spirit has to share with you through me, your life will be blessed by one of my offerings.
I am a true professional, and I take your privacy seriously. No one will know that you purchased anything from me except for me, as your eBay user ID will NOT be displayed on the screen when you bid.
Keep in mind that if you choose to leave me feedback, your ID will then be displayed when eBayers click on my feedback comments to read them.
Upon request, I will withhold feedback for you in case you are concerned about someone clicking on my auctions and seeing what types of things you might have bought from me. Be sure that you make this clear to me up front. Sometimes I check my eBay account before I check my e-mail, and if I see a positive feedback has been left, I leave one. At the time of purchase, make your preference regarding my leaving feedback for you known.
Providing my clients with private listings is my way of ensuring you the confidentiality you deserve.
******************************************************
Trust yourself, trust your own experiences, trust your own feelings- that is what is true, and valid. It matters not what others say and do, about me, you, or anyone else. In the final analysis, it’s YOUR life to live, and I encourage you to find JOY in it and LIVE IT FULLY, despite what others say or do about you!
NAMASTE.
The House of Saud also called the Al Saud, is the ruling royal family over Saudi Arabia. The family is estimated to be composed of 7,000 members.
The head of the family is King Abdullah, and this is his personal vessel. Most power resides amongst the 200 or so descendants of King Abdul-Aziz.
This family had been clients of Cliona since 1954, and she procured this vessel directly from them in exchange for services rendered.
This vessel was conjured forth by King Abdul-Aziz himself in the holy city of Mecca.
Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in Islam.
More than 13 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million who perform the pilgrimage. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan and diverse cities in the Muslim world. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
So, unless you are Muslim, you’ll never get a chance to experience the magick of Mecca, where only the MOST POWERFUL DJINNIS IN THE WORLD ARE CONJURED.
Mecca and Medina and its surrounding outskirts are the only two places where the Quran was composed.
This is none other than the original Quran Mecca King Djinni, from whom all other phylums, ranks, and classes descend.
His vessel is intricately designed and is inscribed in Arabic, and features the royal palace and seat of government of Saudi Arabia, as well as runic markings.
It is solid sterling unmarked silver and a one-of-a-kind vessel!
IT HAS BEEN IN OUR FAMILY SINCE 1950, when it was gifted to Cliona directly from the Al Saud’s family conjurer.
The promise made to Cliona was that the djinni’s power would increase exponentially for each year that the Al Saud family remained in power, and that has proven to be very true.
That is why this may well be one of THE MOST POWERFUL DJINNIS in the world today.
FROM THE FIRST MOMENT I EXPERIENCED HIS SPINE-TINGLING ENERGY, which nearly knocked me over in a stupor, while at the same time, sending currents of erotic electricity up and down my spine and making my head swirl, as if I was being transported to another dimension, I knew this was unlike any djinni I have ever experienced in my life. Period.
Don’t open this package if you’re running errands and have driving to do or are out in public- it’s best if you are relaxed, at home, sitting in your favorite place, feet on the floor (so you stay grounded), or outside in nature with your feet on the ground.
You never know how this energy will affect you- it affects everyone differently! It cannot harm you, but it definitely could make you euphoric or unaware of what is happening in your 3D reality, for it’s out of this world- literally!
He is as old as time immemorial, yet appears ageless when he manifests in physical form.
The only way I can fully describe being in his presence is…orgasmic joy.
He has a chiseled jaw, dimples, nude, muscular, hairless torso, is always seen wearing the color indigo or white, and can be heard playing tones in one’s ears at times. He is massive- strong, gigantic- probably a full 8 feet tall when he appears to me. His hair is long, wild, and flowing, black as black can be, and shiny, as if it were speckled with filaments of gold. Perhaps it is. I long to touch it!
His aquamarine eyes are like pools of peaceful bliss in which one wishes to drown eternally- it is very, very difficult to turn away from his loving gaze. His aroma is unlike anything I have ever experienced- clean, vibrant, slightly floral, slightly musky…heavenly. I adore him, as you can tell, and he deserves a new guardian will love him as much as I do. I will not settle for less.
So, why give him up?
THIS IS ABOUT MORE THAN ME AND MY SELFISH DESIRE TO KEEP THIS IMMUTABLE SPIRIT FOR MYSELF.
This world’s power structure is changing slowly, and part of my job in this incarnation is to help equalize the disparity between the “haves” and “have-not’s” in order to create peace and equity in the world and shift global consciousness. It cannot fully be accomplished if I choose to hold on to this vessel for myself. I have always known this, but have never been fully ready to let it go because I am so personally attached to this wonderful and benevolent Djinni of all Djinnis. Now is the time for me to let this precious, priceless heirloom containing the most powerful spirit I’ve ever had the pleasure of working with to go to the right person. Is that you?
Let’s be honest: Money is not, and never will be the solution to all your problems.
However, nor is it the source of everything that’s wrong in the world.
I mean come on, think about it in the physical sense; money is nothing more than faces and numbers on bits of paper/cloth that you want to be able to decide how to use, right?
At the end of your life with all its challenges, triumphs, pain and beauty, what you will be reviewing will be nothing more than a collection of moments that either brought you pain or joy, struggle or ease, isolation or connection, fear or love.
Maybe you already have a very nice flow of wealth and general abundance… that’s great! However, let me ask you as much as anyone else… what would your life be like at the next level?
I mean let’s face it, at some point in time no matter how much money we are earning; there’s a point when you realize that you are living in a comfort zone that may well have become a gilded cage, and you know you want to explore and experience life at the next level.
Unlocking that gilded cage with the Quran Mecca King Djinni!
I genuinely believe you can be wealthy and spiritual but there again you can be poor and spiritual, it’s simply a matter of which “Wealth Station” you are tuned into. However, owning your power to have either is not the same as settling for financial struggle because it’s some kind of a ‘good spiritual’ excuse.
By the way, if you think poor people are more spiritual, let me fill you in: I volunteered in a ghetto, poverty was rife, and although there was some wonderful loving and even the occasional spiritual people around, the people who we might judge as being less than spiritual were definitely more in the majority. Let me share with you that it’s hard to be connected to spirit when you’re running from the rent man.
Money is not evil, money is neutral, money is not pure good, money is nothing without ‘us’ using it for whatever outcome we decide upon. Nevertheless, isn’t it time you had enough to do what you want?
Let me ask you: Just as an example, how would your life be different if you had an extra $750 a month? What would that mean to your lifestyle? What that mean to your family and the people you love? How would you feel about yourself with an extra $20,000 in your bank account? Now you may be reading this, and you’re presently making $200,000 + and $20,000 doesn’t seem too big to you.
Well, what would your life be like with an extra 40% added to your annual income? MAKE IT A REALITY BY BRINGING HOME THIS POTENT Quran Mecca King Djinni! And that will just be the beginning for you…
THE XENOVERSE GENIE RING OF A DJINN is what one makes of any ring blessed with the powers of the Teachers and Masters of the Ancient Ones. Those who believe instill the magick in the belief of something. It is the power in the essence of the energy not the material but what it represents that brings on more power. – The power can be called to a particular place or thing. Such as Sales on Ebay on the Internet for example…
There are ways to experience life and motivation and sharing in the magic or magick of believing in something has the power of the Djinn of the Spirits of the Ancients in the energy that it takes from all who have lived before and will live again.
The power of prayer is asking and the power of meditation is receiving. One should learn to ask and then allow one to receive. This is how the laws work in the Omniverse.
PAYPAL ONLY within 48 hours of auction’s end.
Do not bid if you do not intend to pay- a non-paying bidder form will be filed and negative feedback will be left for non-payment.
I RESERVE THE RIGHT TO CANCEL ANY BIDS. IF YOU HAVE TWO OR MORE NEGATIVE FEEDBACK COMMENTS, DO NOT BID. DO NOT BID IF YOU HAVE FEWER THAN TEN FEEDBACKS WITHOUT CONTACTING ME FIRST. DO NOT BID IF YOU HAVE TWO OR MORE NEGATIVE FEEDBACKS. PLS. COME BACK WHEN YOU ARE IN COMPLIANCE WITH THESE POLICIES AND I WILL BE HAPPY TO DO BUSINESS WITH YOU AT THAT TIME. I WILL NOT RESPOND TO E-MAILS FOR REQUESTS FOR ME TO MODIFY MY POLICIES-IT IS NOTHING PERSONAL, JUST BUSINESS. THANK YOU!
I NOW SHIP ONLY ON NON-HOLIDAY TUESDAYS AND THURSDAYS.
I SHIP IN RECYCLED PACKAGING WHENEVER POSSIBLE.
PLEASE DO NOT ASK ME TO DECLARE A LOWER VALUE ON INTERNATIONAL PACKAGES- THIS PUTS EVERYONE AT RISK.
I DO NOT MARK THE PACKAGE WITH ITS CONTENTS AS “MAGIC”OR “METAPHYSICAL.” I DO NOT ENCLOSE INSTRUCTIONS WITH THE VESSEL, AS THAT IS TOO RISKY IN CASE SOMEONE OTHER THAN THE INTENDED RECIPIENT OPENS THE PACKAGE. PLEASE E-MAIL ME WHEN YOU RECEIVE YOUR PACKAGE IF YOU’VE NOT RECEIVED ANY INSTRUCTIONS BY THAT TIME AND I’LL SEND THEM TO YOU. I TRY TO SEND THEM WHEN I SHIP, BUT SOMETIMES I GET BUSY AND AM NOT ABLE TO DO IT AT THAT TIME, SO E-MAIL ME WHEN YOU RECEIVE YOUR PACKAGE IF THAT’S THE CASE AND I’LL SEND YOU WHATEVER PERTINENT INFORMATION I HAVE (IF APPLICABLE).
INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMERS IN AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, ASIA, AFRICA, RUSSIA, AND THE MIDDLE EAST: I WILL ADD A $10 SURCHARGE TO THE INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING PRICE LISTED ON THE AUCTION. THIS IS DUE TO INCREASING SHIPPING RATES DUE TO FUEL INCREASES. PLEASE WAIT FOR MY INVOICE PRIOR TO PAYING, AS MY INVOICE WILL REFLECT THIS SURCHARGE.
ATTENTION: ALL CLIENTS:
I COMBINE SHIPPING IF IT IS FEASIBLE, HOWEVER, DO NOT ASSUME THAT JUST BECAUSE YOU PURCHASE MULTIPLE ITEMS THAT I’LL BE ABLE TO COMBINE THEM. SOMETIMES WHEN PACKAGING TWO OR MORE LARGER (OR BREAKABLE) ITEMS IN THE SAME BOX MAKES THE PACKAGE DIMENSIONS SO LARGE THAT THE CUSTOMER ENDS UP PAYING MORE THAN IF THE ITEMS WERE SHIPPED SEPARATELY IN SMALLER BOXES OR BUBBLE MAILERS. ASK IF YOU NEED TO KNOW UP FRONT AND LET ME KNOW WHAT ITEMS YOU’RE INTERESTED IN SO I CAN TELL YOU WHETHER OR NOT I’LL BE ABLE TO COMBINE THEM. I TRY TO REIMBURSE SHIPPING OVERAGES WHENEVER POSSIBLE. KEEP IN MIND THAT THE COST OF SHIPPING INCLUDES PACKING MATERIALS, TAPE, LABELS, AND TIME TO PACK IT & TO GET IT TO THE POST OFFICE, NOT JUST THE POSTAGE COSTS.
All Sales Are Final..Please Read Listing Carefully.. ask ALL questions before you purchase or bid.
No Returns Accepted.
Warning: There are lots of people who claim to sell “haunted” pieces here on eBay. If you still aren’t convinced, look at my feedback.
Magickal items in real life are unlike the magickal items portrayed in Hollywood movies or in fairy tales. If you would like to depend on magickal items to solve your problems without any effort on your part, you would be totally disappointed. Magickal items are not for the under-aged or the immature. Wrong attitudes and approaching or applying magickal items inappropriately would simply result in failure or unsatisfactory results. If you fall into one of these categories or do not completely believe in the power of this magickal item, then DO NOT BID!
MY OFFERINGS MUST GO TO THE RIGHT PERSON…YOU KNOW WHO YOU ARE…YOU WERE DRAWN TO THIS AUCTION FOR A REASON!
I will do my best to provide you with help and answer your questions after you win the auction. I aim to please and love my eBay customers like family. I have been on eBay since ’01 and plan on being on here for many, many more years- as long as I can help people by passing on powerful pieces to bring blessings into their lives.
Legal disclaimer: Also be aware that all items proven to be paranormal may or may not manifest activities such as ghostly appearance, or ghostly sounds related activities and are proven for paranormal activities. Such Activities may or may not occur depending on the situation. By bidding you agree that activities may or may not occur and that we are not responsible of any related issues. You must be 18 years of age to make this purchase; you solely agree that your purchase is subject to your own interpretation. Law requirement states that Readings, Spells and paranormal objects are for sole entertainment purposes only and that this object has been tested as being active as I cannot be held responsible for any related behavior that may occur.
BY PURCHASING THIS ITEM, YOU ARE DOING SO AT YOUR OWN RISK, AND AGREEING THAT I AM NOT LIABLE FOR AND DO NOT GUARANTEE ANY MAGIC FROM ANY OF MY ITEMS. PLEASE ASK QUESTIONS BEFORE YOU BID! THESE ITEMS ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL, SPIRITUAL OR EMOTIONAL PROFESSIONAL CARE!
“Health & Prosperity for ALL!”
TJ Morris tm ACIR sm
International Distribution
Ascension Center Organization
ACE FOLKLIFE – ET Spirit
-
Contact & Contract Agreement
This agreement dated _______________
Made in and governed by the laws of the state of
_______________________, is between Theresa J. Thurmond Morris, a woman small business owner, and the one listed hereinafter referred to as the “Representative”________________________________________________________________
In consideration of the mutual covenants herein contained, the parties agree to all the following listed as articles by number below 1 through 12 and subsets by alphabet a,b,c, etc through z if applies as cited prior to the signing and initials by addendums must be signed by both parties below this contract agreement to become binding and legal for length specified.
1. AGREEMENT:
(a) Subject to the terms set forth in this agreement, TJ Morris also known as ACIR and Theresa J. Thurmond Morris, woman small business owner throughout this contract now referred to as TJ Morris as “Company”. TJ Morris hereby appoints the Representative and the Representative accepts such appointment as an exclusive independent sales representative of TJ Morris for the products as set forth on Exhibit A, attached hereto and made a part (Hereinafter referred to as the “Products”) in the territory as set forth on Exhibit B, attached hereto and made a part hereof (Hereinafter referred to as the “Territory”).
(b) TJ Morris in its sole discretion, shall have the right to add, change and delete any of the products on exhibit A upon written notice to the Representative. The terms of this Agreement shall be in full force and effect with respect to any such changes or modifications.
2. DUTIES:
The Representative shall use its best efforts (I) to open new accounts in the Territory acceptable to and consistent with the high quality range and image of TJ Morris (II) to solicit and obtain orders for the Products from such accounts in the Territory in this manner and under such terms and conditions as TJ Morris shall from time to times establish, and (III) to service all such accounts in such manner as set forth by TJ Morris from time to time. TJ Morris Company from here in shall be referred to as TJTM the initials of Theresa J. Thurmond Morris as the Company.
3. COMMISSIONS:
(a) TJTM shall pay the Representative a commission, as set forth on Exhibit C, attached hereto and made a part hereof, for such sales of Products/
Monthly World population figures:
07/01/11 6,946,043,989
08/01/11 6,952,589,639
09/01/11 6,959,135,290
10/01/11 6,965,469,791
11/01/11 6,972,015,442
12/01/11 6,978,349,943
01/01/12 6,984,895,594
02/01/12 6,991,441,244
03/01/12 6,997,564,595
04/01/12 7,004,110,246
05/01/12 7,010,444,747
06/01/12 7,016,990,398
07/01/12 7,023,324,899
Home of ACE FOLKLIFE
As a Christian symbol, the Alpha and Omega represent the eternal nature of Jesus Christ. Alpha and Omega are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. The symbol recalls a line in the Book of Revelation:
“I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord.”
The alpha and omega as symbols of eternity pre-existed Christianity, the letters are commonly found in similar context in the pagan mysteries. The omega itself is an ancient symbol of the goddess Ishtar, and originally represented her head-dress (and later that of the goddess Hathor), while the alpha is derived from the ox-horn headdress ascribed to a series of male deities and divine kings.
The Alpha and Omega are included also in the name IAO, a Greco-Roman rendition of the Hebrew #HYPERLINK “http://symboldictionary.net/?p=1355″tetragrammaton which was also used as a sacred name of Bacchus/Dionysus and as “Iao Sabaoth” represented the Gnostic demiurge.
BASED ON RAISING CONSCIOUSNESS
Body-Mind-Spirit
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ACE GUIDE – DIRECTORY – A Work in Progress as we share life together in the New Ascension Age
Our Vision
The ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION. serves an emerging movement of globally conscious citizens dedicated to manifesting our highest capacities.
We believe that consciousness is essential to a paradigm shift that will lead to a more sustainable world.
We encourage open-minded explorations of consciousness through the meeting of science and spirit.
We take inspiration from the great discoveries of human history that have been sourced from insight and intuition and that have harnessed reason and logic for their outer expression.
It is our conviction that systematic inquiries into consciousness will catalyze positive concrete transformations in the world.
In this process, our vision is to help birth a new worldview that recognizes our basic interconnectedness and interdependence and promotes the flourishing of life in all its magnificent forms.
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We are a fellowship nonprofit social network connection online.
We desire to be friends and social net workers.
We are broadening our knowledge of the nature and potentials of mind and consciousness and applying that knowledge to enhancing human well-being and the quality of life on the planet.
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We are all on a journey to discover more than we are at present.
There is so much to know and so much to share. The greatest word, feeling, emotion that I know that I can share is LOVE. The second is LIGHT. I cannot tell another which came first as a word of worth in me whether it was love or light but I believe that the greatest worth in me is both LOVE and LIGHT! TJ
People have been asking me if I AM REAL! I AM! My real truth is that which I find connected to the ALL in the AKASHIC FIELD or the “ALL I AM” in the Field of Everything we regard as GOD.
I am a believer! I am one who has had encounters with Aliens and Higher Beings!
Whether another of our humanoid species wants to believe me is up to them. I simply mirror and reflect a part of “THE ALL” in me back to all of us.
My words are my work as a writer. A female array of our species has shared a short email to try to contact me and I feel it is time to come back to this time, place, plane, and website and share that which others need to know and find in their own personal lives on their own personal journey.
Times are changing and so are we. I don’t know for sure what I am to share in this journey with others so I consult my higher power.
My higher consciousness is as much a part of me and the “ALL” we know that must exist in all of us as the energy we call spirit.
The love in our heartfelt spirit inside us all is what shall prevail in the coming months and years leading up to the date our ancestors have chosen with the aliens as DECEMBER 21, 2012.
There is nothing to fear but fear its self. We can live in love and light and know that our futures are all leading to another area we call somewhere.
Somewhere in the future we will all find each other once again! We are never alone!
I hope that what I am put here on earth to share and discover is the love we have in each other with the power to know others of our kind to share companionship.
There are many who are lost in their own dreams created while here on earth.
It is now time for all to wake up to the many levels of our own reality that we create and share with each other.
Thank you for including me in life and I hope that we shall learn to not exclude anyone.
May this article be well accepted as one that allows others to find their belief in aliens and higher beings.
My purpose in life is served by being who I am and loving others.
I share that aliens exist and that higher beings exist.
I have many levels of shares that some call experiences with those who are of the Alien Extraterrestrial Beings. I also share a level with others who are using spacecraft not of earth origin that we call UFOS.
The following is a short answer to one who is searching and she has found her way to me so that I may assist her as a mirror and reflection of what she may be searching for inside her own self.
We can all serve each other. The best advice I can give another is to ask one’s own higher self what can be done to serve self and others while here on earth. Be of service and be involved with all that is considered the reality of who you are while here on earth.
BE OF SERVICE TO THE WORLD! LOVE AND LIGHT! TJ
TJ’s answer back to one of her many fans and readers on UFO Digest…
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Hello:
Who are you and No I don’t make this stuff up!
I am as real as you!
So, please share who you are and what dream you want to share!
Thank you! – We can email each other here.
Love and Light
TJ
TJ MORRIS
Theresa J. Morris
TJ Morris tm ACIR sm
1357 State Route 1118
Horse Branch, KY 42349
(270) 256-9659
MsTJMorris@aol.com
Websites Alphabetically:
acir.us, AmericanNewsMagazine.com, AscensionCenter.com, ETspirit.Org
OhioCountyKentucky.net, PlanetInformationNetwork.com, PsychicSouls.info, SocialParanormal.com,
TheresaMorris.net,
TimelyManorBooks.com,
TJMorris.Org,
TJMorris.us,
TJMorrisPsyhic.net,
TJMorrisPublishing.US,
TJThurmondMorris.com,
WorldInformationNetwork.info, and many others…
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Message to TJ from one of her readers…
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In a message dated 10/6/2011 1:30:23 P.M. Central Daylight Time, XXXX@yahoo.com writes:
I read your article. Where did you get this info? Who are you? Is this real? I need to know. I NEED to know. I have a memory of something that happened when I was young. I always thought it was a dream. Please, tell me everything you can. Or please just tell me you made it all up.
Thank you,
-aj
Sent from my LG phone
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I CANNOT TELL YOU EVERYTHING – BUT YOU CAN!
I Do Not Make Up That Which I Write! – I simply receive IT as that which I feel I desire to share with others . Most of the time it is like an art form that is inspired. Think of it like an artist uses oils and paint on a canvas. We all have the ability to know ourselves and how we exist in various states of mind and consciousness. I have studied various lifestyles and world religions my whole life. I learned that metaphysics serve me as well.
I am one who desires to reach out to others through my own life experiences. If this serves another on earth then so be it. I am a writer on UFO Digest because I was impressed to be so and was lead here by others on my journey and path. I believe we should all create our own path on earth and leave a trail for others to find. My mother taught me on earth that we are all the authors of our own life’s story. Be more, Do more, and Have more. The Way the world is now can change as we change to make the world a better place. I do my part by being a writer of words and I interject my heartfelt spirit. I believe in sharing love and light for others to find when they are ready.
My truth comes to me in various forms as both a sender and a receiver in various ways, waves, and dimensions. I believe we are both particles and waves which are both a path of something more than our own selves while here on earth. I believe we all encompass the GOD in all of us as that which drives us as the force inside us all as the energy we call spirit and essence.
We are that which allows us to communicate while we are in a material form. Once we serve out our purpose here we may return to the vast sea of consciousness that some call the God and Goddess energy of all that lies far beyond out comprehension in time, places, planes, and dimensions.
Presently, we regard the 7 heavens of our Ancient Ancestors as all that was created for us to enjoy and explore while we are in our perfect form as spirits.
While we are in physical and mental forms, we can meet each other, and communicate.
We are all serving our purpose out on this journey while here. This is a journey and not a destination.
I am real and I share my thoughts of all the levels , places, planes, and dimensions that I visit, share, and discover on my own personal journey.
Some people enjoy reading my shares, and discoveries.
I happen to write about all that I feel is shared with me with those who are believers in the Higher Beings and Aliens as Extraterrestrials.
One of the explanations of where we get this info!
We are all part of the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, omniverse, alphaverse, and omegaverse and all that lies beyond that which are the below.
AS ABOVE SO BELOW has always been the way it has been thought of in our world of spirit!
When we begin the thought process of our own consciousness we allow our spirit to intervene. Our spirit may sometimes be heard as that still small voice inside of us we call our conscious.
There is a vast store house of mental images inside us all. Some are good and some may be bad. It is up to us to clean our own house of consciousness and to begin creating the mental images that we want to see and discover for ourselves.
We can create our own stories with happy or sad endings.
The Truth is up to US!
People are waking up to the fact that there is more to life than what we are now experiencing and many want to do something to change the artful atmosphere that has been created. Some are gathering together to make their voices heard in unison.
I am one who works in the higher planes to serve those above so that those ebens below can be heard as well. I am one who acts as a bridge and go between as this is part of my journey in this lifetime on earth. We all have a part to play and I am writing my own story with the guidance of those above we call aliens – higher beings – God.
I ask for GOD and GODDESS to guide me on a daily basis. I use my higher power on a daily basis. Belief may not be knowing to some but those who believe may also desire to know and shall prove to themselves what they know through their belief systems.
I was raised to believe in our teachers on earth such as Jesus Christ and I believe in the power of those who have come before us to this place on earth. This is my choice and I find that these choices serve me very well in this place. It is up to each individual to find their way back home.
I am here to share my self if once chooses to share themselves first. Those above have set this situation up this way. I am easy to find for those who choose to find me. I can be located here on UFO Digest which serves those who are believers in what I choose to believe in and that is “ASCENSION” and that “ALIEN CIVILIZATIONS EXIST!”
All that I share comes to me from my choice to be of service to others!
In the “Xenoverse” the universe is composed of a Multiverse within a Higher Dimension or ‘Higher Domain’. Our local Dimensional Universe is a ‘Lower Domain’ that exists alongside other Lower Domains within the Higher Domain.
Our local Dimensional Universe is the stage of both Xenoverse and Xenias in the ‘Xenoverse’. It is composed of two overlapping domains within itself; ‘Normal space’ and ‘Imaginary space’.
“There is a theory that the space we live in is composed of two realities (and nothingness): normal space, which we are actually able to perceive, and imaginary space, which proceeds along an imaginary temporal axis we cannot perceive.
The concept of imaginary time itself is a theory devised by Hawking to explain the birth of the universe without the use of singularities–without relying on the existence of God. With it, one can picture a universe without any “beginning” (the Big Bang singularity) or “end” (the Big Crunch singularity), but instead simply composed of a multi-dimensional hyper spherical surface.” – Tetsuya Takahashi (Xenias database)
Normal space (or real-number domain) is the reality that can be perceived (to know via a sense organ), and the Imaginary space (imaginary-number domain) is the reality that cannot be perceived. Every single thing that exists in the universe extends into these two domains. For example, in the case of humans, the “substance and flesh” that can be seen and touched exist in Normal space, and the “consciousness and heart” that cannot be sensed exist in Imaginary space.
The Collective Unconscious exists in Imaginary Space and is recognized as a white beach. The white ash-colored beach is the visual image of the imaginary domain that a consciousness visualizes when its real-domain body has died and it is being pulled into the Collective Unconscious. This image is subjective and differs according to cultural background and experience of the perceiver.
This Collective Unconscious is something like a sky that canopies the entire world, or a vast land on which everything stands. The Collective Unconscious in Imaginary space is such an absolute existence that it is the structure of a gigantic consciousness that holds the Dimensional Universe together.
Imaginary space can be thought of as the “spiritual domain” similar to the world of the soul spoken about by religions such as “heaven” or “nirvana”.
Author Bio
Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris is an Author/Entrepreneur. TJ specializes in paranormal/super natural phenomenon. TJ was a professional consultant and expert witness on legal investigations and has prior military and government service in the USA 1980-1993. Professionally she uses her initials TJ. TJ has written several paranormal books including Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Alien UFO Story by TJ, Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide, Roswell Connection, Roswell UFO Encounters, UFOS & Extraterrestrials, and Uplifting the Soul. All books are in print available. TJ shares her life with TJ Morris & Friends and is an Ambassador of Goodwill with American Culture International Relations and ACIR. TJ Morris is her trademark ACIR her servicemark.
TJ also edits books for her friends and publishes books such as mysteries and paranormal romance. Professional History in corporate international marketing, manufacturing, legal investigations, newspaper columnist, and magazine publisher. TJ lives in Kentucky USA with husband who is also an author. TJ is a speaker, spiritual consultant, producer, publisher. TJ spends much of her time assisting others as a consultant in business and with building websites. TJ’s are ACIR.us, AmericanNewsMagazine.com, TJMorris.org, ETSpirit.org, ASCENSIONcenter.org, and many others as media online press including TimelyManorBooks.com. Tj’s books available on Amazon and Lulu under Theresa J Morris and TJ Thurmond Morris. TJ has been interested in the Alien ET UFO Community all her life with a strong research history in the metaphysics, ontology, and is founder of theACE Folklife Historical Society and Ascension Center.org. TJ is also a natural born leader as a Capricorn with Aquarius rising and promotes expos, seminars, and her friends and their business interests. TJ attracts others who desire to share similar interests in social networks and is a social entrepreneur. TJ writes about what interests her including her friends and their businesses. TJ loves people, places, things, and having a near death experience learned the power of meditation and prayer for all those who believe as she does in Ascension Vertical Lifestyles for body-mind-spirit. TJ has been a Life Coach to those who request her services as a mentor. TJ is a known planner organizer since she founded Psychic Network in Hawaii 1990-1993 and has worked in seminars and expos in the USA.
ASCENSION CENTER
SCIENCE OF LIFE
Awakening Conscious Awareness
Of Body-Mind-Spirit having the Birth-Life-Death Experience Together as Humanoid Sentient Intelligence
An Ayuveda Way of Life
Ayu means the Life
Veda means wisdom or science of
We share in the Universe, Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse, and Omniverse as levels of the All that is in our macrocosm. We believe in the 33 levels of life and that only the creators of this Omniverse are outside of this macrocosm the Omniverse therefore we believe in divine creation.
Ascension Centered Enlightened by Ascension Ascended Masters is part of our world.
Those who believe in Ascension also believe that Alien Civilizations Exist as (ACE) Belief. They also are Spiritual Intellectuals and Historians who combine Science and Philosophy in life. .
Spiritual Hierarchythe Planetary Center of Love-Wisdom, The Kingdom of the Gods, the … Paul McCarthy of the Sirius Ascension Center in Brighton, England offers …76 KB (10,929 words) – 06:30, 28 August 2011
St. Mary’s of Michigan Medical CenterMary’s of Michigan Medical Center is a hospital in Saginaw , … Mary’s is a subsidiary of Ascension Health , and is a teaching affiliate of …2 KB (297 words) – 23:06, 23 September 2010
Ascension of Jesus in Christian artThe Ascension of Jesus to Heaven as stated in the New Testament has been a …icons the Virgin Mary is at the center and Christ can be …11 KB (1,704 words) – 23:29, 1 August 2011
Jody Amedeeportions of Ascension , Livingston , St. James , and St. John the Baptist parishes. black Southern University Law Center in Baton Rouge . …5 KB (639 words) – 01:56, 2 September 2011
St. Vincent’s Medical Center (Bridgeport)Vincent’s Medical Center is a 397-bed acute care Catholic hospital … The hospital is now controlled by Ascension Health , the nation’s …5 KB (627 words) – 05:46, 9 September 2010
Horologium SuperclusterIt is centered on coordinates right ascension 03 | 19 and declination -50 | 02, and spans an angular area of 12° × 12°. The nearest part …2 KB (258 words) – 22:13, 21 August 2011
Sergei ToropovIn 1978—1985 Toropov led Perm Regional Children’s Center “Voskhozhdeniye” , ascension. January 19, 1982, a club “Permsky Krayeved …3 KB (331 words) – 10:58, 6 April 2011
Ascension of JesusThe Ascension implies Jesus’ humanity being taken into heaven The … In many Eastern icons the Virgin Mary is placed at the center of the …25 KB (3,397 words) – 01:24, 24 August 2011
Chapel of the Ascension (Jerusalem)The Chapel of the Ascension.
Ascensionrock: jpg | center The Ascension rock surrounds the Ascension rock, …2 KB (201 words) – 05:41, 16 May 2011
St. Agnes Hospital (Baltimore) (section Chest Pain Emergency Center)Bariatric Surgery Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence and is a … Agnes Hospital is a member of Ascension Health , the largest non- …5 KB (647 words) – 23:12, 4 September 2011
Crisis of the Third Centurythe Italian-centered and independent Roman Empire, proper, between them. The Crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian , …14 KB (2,009 words) – 06:27, 5 September 2011
St. Joseph Regional Medical CenterJoseph Regional Medical Center may refer to: … St. Joseph Regional Medical Center(Lewiston, Idaho) — Lewiston, Idaho; part of Ascension …550 B (61 words) – 01:29, 21 July 2011
St. John Providence Health SystemCatholic, Ascension Health Care System and operates the following hospitals: … By 2001, the Emergency Center staff was treating more than …8 KB (1,145 words) – 02:12, 15 July 2011
Pechersky Ascension MonasteryPechersky Ascension Monastery … The monastery soon became an important spiritual and religious center of the Principality of Suzdal and Nizhny …4 KB (550 words) – 19:36, 2 October 2010
Mass Effectfirst game in the planned trilogy centers around a player created character named …Mass Effect: Ascension (2008): The second novel based …24 KB (2,658 words) – 07:22, 4 September 2011
Brighton HospitalBrighton Hospital is one of the oldest alcoholism and addiction treatment centers …in Addiction Medicine nationally within Ascension Health. …6 KB (831 words) – 06:26, 17 August 2011
Augusta Victoria HospitalAugusta Victoria was built in 1907 as a center for the German … the Ascension with a 65-metre belltower and a hospice for Christian pilgrims. …6 KB (790 words) – 00:31, 6 August 2011
Ascended Master Teachings (section Ascension)the created universes until it achieves The Ascension (Mastery through Enlightenment). … aspx The Hearts Center (2002), “http://SamadhiGame. …40 KB (5,909 words) – 19:25, 22 June 2011
Hickman Community HospitalServices , which is part of Ascension Health , the largest Catholic health … Nashville and Middle Tennessee Medical Center in Murfreesboro . …3 KB (308 words) – 12:46, 9 April 2011
Ascension (John Coltrane album)Ascension is a jazz album by John Coltrane recorded in 1965 and released in 1966… centered on pianist McCoy Tyner , double bassists Jimmy …8 KB (996 words) – 11:20, 19 August 2011
They follow the God Particle and share in the CERN project including the Internet and World Wide Web with their Social Networks. They stay in touch by way of the Internet and all its forms in cyberspace including Email, Chat, Buddypress, Websites, Facebook, and Blogs. They also conduct their seminars and webinars online and have Expos ever two years.
They are preparing their books as their shares and combine them in the heading of Timely Manor Books Imprints that are available on Amazon, LuLu, and as Electronic Books as Ebooks. They are the New Generation of Writers and share Art.
They share art, culture, education, science, technology, and folklife. They share the media online and mention television shows that are shared by the general populace on History International, Green Channel, Discovery Channel, and other documentaries and real life television programs. They may be seen at various creative conventions and movie previews being released.
They come by life in space as shared while growing up as “Baby Boomers” watching Star Trek, Outer Limits, Twilight Zone, and later Stargate, and Stargate Atlantis and Eureka.
The grew up after World War I and II and the Korean War and some were the “Old Hippies” while the other half were “NASA NERDS” and were watching man walk on the moon in 1969.
They are a group of people who are intelligent and believe in the future! They as futurists and want to share in the sustainability of their species and their planet. Many of them share their beliefs in the galactic supremacy of other homes by way of memory and reincarnation.
If you put it together, it means the science of life. CONNECTING TO THE SYNERGY OF ASCENSION CENTER ENLIGHTENMENT
Mission Statement
We the members of the Ascension Center, ascribe to the highest standards of excellence with regard to the uplifting of humankind by providing spiritual and educational awareness. We devote our time and energy to sharing in the health and prosperity for all. We recognize that we are not alone in the universe and that alien civilizations exist. We share in the light, delight in every body-mind-spirit, and welcome them in fellowship. We recognize that this organization belongs to all beings on earth who desire to join as believers. We are an open source of information and will all participate in sharing our energy and awareness. We are artists, creators, educators, scientists, technologists, folklorists, supporters of life on earth and we are about sustainability of earth and for our humanoid species on earth and in space.
We are a fellowship club called the Ascension Center Organization. Ascension Center Enlightenment – A work in progress of all who claim to be Lightworkers. Those who desire to become Ascension Lightworkers will use their given names at birth on earth and be counted in the rolls and as members of the Ascension Center Organization a world information network. Ascension Centers Enlightenment Courses are founded for spiritual growth, education, and continuation of research for the community for truth and enlightenment. We are about bringing art, culture, education, science, and technology to the forefront of the human body-mind-spirit. We are about awareness and human spiritual friendship with common interests in social entrepreneurial atmospheres for the commonwealth. We are about sharing our ideas for the future generations to come. We are about setting our energy into action as the stone building blocks to share the beliefs that alien civilizations exist and that there were ancient astronauts intervention from time to time with humanoids of earth. We believe in the Divine Intervention of the God energy and Nature’s God and Goddess as intelligent design of our species. We believe in the extraterrestrials some also known as angels and others who from the heavens came in various levels of service to those above who are spoken of in the various records left on earth by our ancestors regarding those from the heavens came to earth. We believe that it is the ancient wisdom of our ancestors that chose to share in the arcane and occult wisdoms and it was the chosen oracles, shamans, sages, prophets, and prophetesses who were chosen to keep the truth alive for all on earth. We believe in the spark of life and that we shall all be called the “Keeper of the Flame” as the one who has kept the fire burning in all of us as the Holy Ghost and Holy Spirit of the Master of humankind.
This is a personal choice to become a Lightworker.
The spark of life is that which was created and we accept in us all. We believe in the truth of the one perfect being that came to show us the way, the gate, the door, and the key to the future for us all. Some of the more precise levels in our education in books may include the following: Certified genuinely involved in the spiritual realm for the healing of our sentient intelligent being species. We recognize Avatars, Reiki Healers, Oracles, Psychic Mediums, Spiritual Advisors, Seers, Sages, Shaman, Natural Crystal Chakra Energy Movers, and Ayurvedic practitioners. One will benefit from their intuitive skills and compassionate hearts as well as intellectual training and hands-on experience. Whether you are currently troubled with health issues – or seeking more SPIRITUAL wellness, pleasure and balance in your life –, a visit to one of the ASCENSION CENTER ENLIGHTENMENT dedicated practitioners could open up new worlds for you. The Founder and Creator of the Ascension Center Enlightenment is sharing an alliance with those who desire to be chosen to be added with all those who consider themselves “Lightworkers”. There are now many who will join the ranks of those who have the faith in the eternal spiritual bond through the light. Theresa Morris of www.theresamorris.net.
PLANET INFORMATION ET WORK.COM
The new organization is actually created from the core energy and words/Logos Ascension Center of an epiphany and is divinely inspired. Theresa J Thurmond Morris, Counselor and Founder of the Ascension Center Enlightenment Network. World Information Network (WIN) is an acronym created also in 1990-1993 time period along with that received for the Ascension Center – Hawaii for our motivational workings in education. . Organization Date for Collecting names in the Book of Life of Ascension Center is 12/21/2010 on earth and will continue asking for support of members in an organization that is public and known to be a organization for those who desire to claim their place in the world as believers of ascension created by extraterrestrials. . The ACE Body-Mind-Spirit courses we share will assist us to exist in our body temples while here on the earth plane as a place for our existence. We shall create an alternative lifestyle for the future of 2012 and beyond. We will know each other as those who desired change for the future of our species while on earth. We will be called the Ascension Center Enlightenment Lightworkers as ACE LIGHTWORKERS who are known for our Logos in words, work, and deed while here and alive on planet earth. We shall welcome sustainability of our planet and the disclosure of truth with health and prosperity for all. We also believe in love and light as the purpose of our existence for ourselves, humankind, and for the raising of our own conscious, as well as others. We share in the Ascension Center Enlightenment as a humankind fellowship club with extraterrestrials and those who are believers in extraterrestrials as those who assist and guide those on earth. Further information is available for those interested in serving as directors and guides. I have been told and assured that those who join will be on a list and that those who join will be given knowledge and awareness to belong and to care for this eternal Ascension Center on earth to be perpetual and eternal with the involvement of others throughout time hereafter.
That strong commitment requires so little on our part of simply joining others who share the same belief in extraterrestrials. http://youtu.be/Aou9Cfvj8rM
We will share in the belief and knowing that we are known among our peers and we belong to a group to cares, shares, and becomes aware of others. We shall be compassionate, caring, and loving in the light. The energy offered to the organization is voluntary and those who serve will know their part when the time comes. We will all have various interests and talents to add to the organization. It is time for those to come forth and join others. This is the time to share the Ascension Center and to all become students and teachers on earth. We may be surprised in the future as to who shall join us. We will first need to set up one site for the roster for the first plank owner members of the first 500 and discover who desires to be team players as directors, guides, motivators, supporters, instructors, Lightworkers, and what ever else will be needed or required to assist the members who are new to the awareness of ascension as believers. We will team up in members of 500 and by locations with area directors. We welcome Shamans, Mystics, and those who desire to be Social Entrepreneurs and we have other voluntary positions with those who desire to link in their talents and expertise in life. Authors such as Deepak Chopra, Wayne Dyer, Whitley Strieber, Dirk Vander Ploeg, Zechariah Sitchin, Erick Von Daniken are welcome and any who know of those who already believe in extraterrestrials should be encouraged to join and share with all other believers while here on this planet. Reincarnation is a belief of the founder but not required of all other believers only that they believe in extraterrestrials as the focus of our fellowship club for both male and female. Love and Light. We just are and we do not proselyte.
Many friends are Bahai and many believe in past writings and spiritual teachers.
We do not claim anything except that we are believers in spirit and faith. Each person as an individual has free will and free choice to do as they desire. We simply have an informal alliance of lightworkers with those who choose to be in an alliance to share the knowledge we call wisdom of that we once called esoteric.
I have had people emailing me about wanting to be paranormal writers and asking me where they can join my organization.
ET Spirit is real and is related to that of the Ascension Center Enlightenment and the Ascension Age Alignment of all the universal knowledge we plan on sharing about dimensions and time among other new wisdom. Some will see that we welcome the ancient mystery schools to be open during this Age of Revelation to all.
There is an energy movement that we call Ascension which is a term used on earth for the raising of our consciousness of our future spiritual paths.
There are many back stories and versions of the theme of what was the original ascension path. Most of us who are of the old path of Christian-Pagan upbringing will agree that it most likely began with those who we once considered the Gnostics.
Those past scholars in the last century could never agree on what the entire Gnostic beliefs really are. Like all one word tagged groups as believers, they have gone the way of other past energy faith movements. That of the Ascension Age has not yet begun. Many of the “Baby Boomers” will want to share that the “Age of Aquarius” gave us new ideas we called the “NEW AGE” which also has various back stories on the theme of what the new age really was about.
Faith is a wonderful thinking spark of enchantment for those who believe in magick. There is a renaissance or rebirth of our spiritual awareness. Many will claim this is like the 14th to 16th century on earth while others will say that the 21st century will be in the energy grid more aligned with the 12th century which in numbers is a compliment or to see and say 12 in reverse in 21. Numerology and algorithms are a part of this world and work which we plan on sharing with our new way of using our minds.
We are going to learn about the various dimensions and how to know more about spatial revelations we now regard as time. More on that later. We will have to take this energy rather slow like learning to build a house. This house will be strong and built on a firm foundation. Part of this way of thinking incorporates the Tectonic Economics of our creation masons on this planet. We do not want to lose what mother earth may reject. What has not pleased her in the past has been taken away. One hint of how Mother Earth can rebel against our creations has been seen in the past with earth quakes, tsunamis and what we call natural cataclysms. We will soon learn that the Ascension Center is about what is in the middle of the four corners of this planet which is the glue and what our Mother or home planet will allow to begin in this Age of Revelation we are creating together as one. We must honor the mother goddess energy this time around.
We of the Ascension Center Organization will now join forces with the ET Spirit Organization, which also follows as the “Children of the Light”. We are all those who believe in ASCENSION and that Alien Civilizations Exist. We accept that there are many who desire to assist on this planet in the transition and shift and uplift of what we call the ascension process. This is also called the awakening of humanity. Some desire to link their light as we have done in the past. The social networks of the Internet are a great way to start. Some will simply offer their alliance through their own energy created organizations. Therefore we offer an electronic connection over the web or Internet inside the matrix. We also believe that there have been many wonderful Avatar Masters. One who we choose to believe in was called Jesus Christ. We also believe in all the clues and proof left behind to define this mortal plane and dimension we call a three dimensional world. While we are here, we also recognize one and two dimensions as well as the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh dimension. The Twelfth Dimension is reserved for those of the Supreme Beings. The Thirteenth Dimension is outside of the Omniverse realm and we are not able to understand that above the Supreme Beings of the outer Omniverse at this time. The Thirteenth level has been reserved for the outer all Omnipresence’s of all the universes, multiverses (polyverse), metaverses, xenoverses, and omniverses. We share the various levels with all those who work in the various planes, dimensions, and what we now call time, spate-time, astral time, and what we believe to be our conscious existence relating to those who are our time lords.
Time Lords.
The Time Lord of our present state of being in body-mind-spirit we choose to share as that of who comes in goes in the omniverse as the Holy Spirit. Those who are of the children of Light choose to claim the iconic name of Jesus Christ as their Lord and Master of Light and whose protection through their faith they can be protected while here in this earthly plane from evil. We choose to emanate his example in this level of three-dimensional brain training while we exist in body-mind-spirit. We call this whole life living.
Those who we believe in that evil of which Jesus could cast out demons who are of the malevolent creations are known to exist in this plane or in this three dimensional world. We choose to protect ourselves in the light. We have had our “Loose lips sink ships” campaigns to keep our military personnel quiet. This technique still works today among most our young military personnel that are trained for their time in service. Those who are given clearances are allowed to know only what is needed to know to perform their duties while in the service to their government.
Then when they are released, they are debriefed and asked to sign nondisclosure agreements or confidentiality papers that state they can be fined or imprisoned for divulging information that deals with their past employment and service to the United States government. This keeps the service of underground secrecy at a level of control among those who perform basic duties in certain classified areas. However, some are allowed to know things based on very secretive covert intelligence operations that we have all come to suspect such as Area 51, and Dulce, New Mexico.
Dulce
Various contractors receive clearances to work on military weapons and air assault weapons and nuclear weapons. We have biological weapons and Star Wars with stealth capabilities. We are always coming up with new technology to protect earth in space from predators who would dare to overtake our planet. My stories about the future will be for entertainment only and I shall try not to give the impression that I am channeling my alien visitor’s telepathic information. This is something that most all will not believe anyway. I am neither admitting nor denying that this is possible.
I will admit that I am aware of aliens visiting this planet and have known some. I also know that we can travel in space and that we have alien spacecraft that can join with the fleet of aliens above in space. TJ ASCENSION CENTER ENLIGHTENMENT PRACTITIONERS & COUNSELORS we shall have our own ACE members who shall share in our fellowship and will be recommended to others with our same basic beliefs of those above. ANCIENT MYSTERY SCHOOLS OF THOSE WHO PRACTICE THE ANCIENT ARTS OF SPIRITUAL HEALING FOR THE BODY-MIND-SPIRIT We honor our soul that belongs to God/Goddess. Father and Mother as above so below here on earth. We will share with those who are our members in fellowship and shall discuss meeting at various locations with practitioners at the various community levels and in seminars and expositions. We shall share the members locations and businesses as they sign up to belong as members as believers in the Ascension Center Enlightenment Mission Statement.
Mission Statement
We the members of the Ascension Center, ascribe to the highest standards of excellence with regard to the uplifting of humankind by providing spiritual and educational awareness. We devote our time and energy to sharing in the health and prosperity for all. We recognize that we are not alone in the universe and that alien civilizations exist. We share in the light, delight in every body-mind-spirit, and welcome them in fellowship. We recognize that this organization belongs to all beings on earth who desire to join as believers. We are an open source of information and will all participate in sharing our energy and awareness. We are artists, creators, educators, scientists, technologists, folklorists, supporters of life on earth and we are about sustainability of earth and for our humanoid species on earth and in space. We are a fellowship club called the Ascension Center Organization.
If one desires to Google me they should do so under TJ Thurmond Morris and not just Theresa Morris or TJ Morris ACIR although there are various names I have used not realizing that Google would not place them all on the same page or pages for my readers and fans to find me. I choose to be remembered as a Christian Mystic although as everyone knows history is fleeting and not known while living but is created after one is dead and gone from this realm of existence.
Therefore as a “Starving Artist who has to pay their dues,” I have decided to share in the future some lessons of writing and how to share my organization as people are inquiring.
This is a beginning phase of a new paradigm and the movement will be called the Aquarian Age Ascension Center of Enlightenment.
I did not choose the name ASCENSION CENTER but it was chosen for me by those above that some would consider the Holy Trinity as the DIVINE POWER. That would be GOD, JESUS, and HOLY SPIRIT!
Now, with that said, I shall offer a bit of history of how I became one of the first in a long line of what is now called paranormal writers and more particularly one of the Creators of the ET/UFO Community writers as we call it ET/UFO JOURNALISM 101.
Because the world is changing and we are entering what is now called the globalization phase or the “GLOBAL COMMUNITY”, we are aware of the raise in the Holistic Alternative Health and Medicine fields. Also, there is over $30 Billion dollars reported this year and is gaining interest while the other fields in the product and service industry are in decline or in recession!
Therefore, I shall try to assist all those who desire me too as a GUIDE and TEACHER. I am going to assist those who want to share my path in the ASCENSION CENTER ENLIGHTENMENT. I was chosen to be an ET/UFO CONTACTEE and I do share what I can when I can with others in my writing.
This has come to the attention of other would be writers who desire to join me in my QUEST for THE INNER LIGHT and the book which I have began a series of TITLEs for is ASCENSION AGE 2012 & BEYOND, Spirituality & Philosophy for Whole Life Living – A Better Future. ISBN # 978-0-557-39897-3.www.amazon.com/Ascension-Beyond-Theresa…/dp/0557398975.
This book is the beginning in a series of which I started writing while I was reading my own columns on UFO Digest.
UFO DISCLOSURE
I saw how my own life was connected to the all spiritually and philosophically. I was changing and becoming a better writer with Dirk Vander Ploeg offering some guidance as to have my husband read my articles with me before I sent them in and to please use a spell check. I learned a lot from Dirk and will be glad to share in the future with him with completing some writing training for others. Although I had been an investigator reporter and private investigator in college, I was trained later as a Government Investigator and writing reports a certain way for them. This did not leave room for any creative thinking or writing. I did not learn much about writing but learned more about the people, place, and things I was investigating.
This is not the same thing as being what I call a “REAL WRITER” much less one that is called a PARANORMAL WRITER. So, I began a new path and quest to raise my own awareness of what Dirk wanted to present on UFO Digest. Still there was a learning curve as to what information he wanted me to share and how. This is how I learned that I was not so much like all the other people who were reporting on his website and others who were into the UFO Community of collecting photos and making videos. This that I wanted to do was working more with words and their relationship to other people.
I realized I was more about sharing my thoughts on the future of how the world could be with what I knew was introduced to me in HAWAII as the ASCENSION CENTER. Then I realized that this goes back much further than my 7 years in Hawaii and my creation of the PSYCHIC NETWORK and the book I had written there called ASCENSION ANCIENT MYSTERY SCHOOLS. This was more than the
Psychic Awakening Classes that I taught others.
This was the “BIG AHA” moment of where I could blend my spirit and passion with a spark of talent that had been dormant in me but guided by those above whether they be the GOD, Jesus, Holy Spirit, or their Demi Gods, Angels, Guides, or Metatron himself from the Akashic Field. This was more than the Theory of Everything. This was about the future of which I was to be a part as a Spiritual Mystic Writer. I could use my prior channeling, psychic, remote viewer energy and talents to include them in the working world as an Author/Entrepreneur.
This could offer me an outlet for all that energy and money and I mean thousands, $5,000 USD on one SEMINAR to be exact that I attended in PSI Seminars in Long Beach, California at the Hilton in 1993. Then I went to the PSI ranch. This was back in the day when we were learning about Werner Erhard, EST, Neuro Linguistic Programming, and I wasn’t into that. Those guys in the rooms learning EST sounded like they were in misery, while we in PSI were doing self examinations in an agreeable atmosphere. I CHOSE PSI over EST.
I chose Wayne Dyer www.drwaynedyer.com, Zig Zigler www.ziglar.com , Deepak Chopra www.chopra.com and was already involved as an event planner for many Whole Earth and ECO Expos all over including various cities in the US and Canada. www.wholelifecanada.com. I went to Dallas, Chicago, and New York and participated in these conventions that were very green and environmentally wholesome. I liked the people and the products back then. But, one thing that was not present was the ET/UFO community. It was only represented with the bunch who believed in Blavatsky and certain other books. SO, it was Book Authors who were on the fringe of what I already knew to be the truth.
It was a time when Erich Von Daniken www.daniken.com and Zecharia Sitchin www.sitchin.com were mentioned secretly at these conventions but no one would claim a hall or row for those who were of the ET/UFO Community. We were all together except on that one topic, I knew the spirit in the future would have to change. Sure, there had been Shirley Mac Laine, www.shirleymaclaine.comi, with Out On A Limb, http://www.amazon.com/Out-Limb-Shirley-Maclaine/dp/0553273701 and I watched it on television with my four daughters from military housing in Great Lakes, IL in 1987. I also watched the Whitley Strieber television show called Communion, http://www.unknowncountry.com/dreamland/ with my girls who did not care for it at all. At that time, we had all been involved with ETs and UFOS and they were not frightening but enlightening. We did not understand why this movie portrayed a different experience.
I decided then to share some of my stories with others who had exhibits at these conventions and see what came back. There were some Gnostics who were serving whole food and they began to talk to me at my booth a few booths down. They represented a way of being and the SUFIS joined them. I didn’t really want to be in the religious part of this whole life movement.
There were two men that came up to me and embarrassed me while I was eating with the Sufis. One said, “Hey, I know you. I saw you! You were in Las Vegas at the airport.” Then the man with him said, “That’s her. She’s the one I was telling you about. The tall blonde that works underground at Area 51.” I was so embarrassed and told them they didn’t know what they were talking about. I had been outed and knew then that I must find a way to make this acceptable before this whole thing got out of hand. I soon learned that the extraterrestrials agreed with me and heard my thoughts and prayers but that is a long story better left for a later time….
We will do what we can to provide Lightworkers as Guides in the various dimensions and stages of development. We still share that when the student is ready the master will appear. The organization will run based on not for profit special interests groups headquartered in the United States with the North American Continent, Eurasia, China, Australia, Africa, and all continents and islands who desire to join. This will take time and we can begin now as we have had various members for years. We just desire to bring them all together and begin a fresh list of believers. TJ
The game is afoot…We of the Ascension Center Organization and ET Spirit Organization have joined forces with TJ Morris Organization to set the records straight of those Lightworkers as Spirits of the Originals.I TJ taken on the Quest as “Keeper of the Flame” as of this date.From this day forward consider me one of the Light Warriors who has taken on the power of the Holy Grail which is in me as the Serpentine Power of the Holy Pleroma, Galactic Center in the future Legends and Myths of the Serpentine Goddess.I do this not only for my four daughters, granddaughters, and grandsons but also for all the alien ET children of the world that are now here and will come to this planet.
Thank you Robert Morningstar my Colleague on Planet Earth who has revised this knowledge that we know of that was from the beginning story that was watered down in cuneiform and later in the leather bound codices now known as the Nag Hammadi Codices. There are many of our Avatar Ascended Masters who have attended to the Supreme Beings in the Cosmos. Just as the fantasy and imagination of J.K. Rowling with the stories of the imagination that prepared the way for the world, we shall now introduce that which we of the Agashan and Nag Hammadi Seers and Advisors share a new birth for the ancient ones.
Thank you for sharing these words for which we shall learn the sharing of the truth for those who are of the way, the truth, and the light of that which we come from another Galaxy and join in sharing our libraries of the Akashic Field.
We shall meet everyone on the playing field of the Game of Life: We thank John Lash for his wisdom and sharing the New Age time with us while here on earth. We welcome his output into the Ascension Age beginning Anew December 21, 2012. Some call this the “Great Awakening”. Who Wrote the Reptilian Agenda? By John Lash(Copyright 2010, John Lash – All Rights Reserved) Please read all his Methhistory.ORG information which is practical and useful. His studies along with the Nag Hammadi Codices is very helpful to the laypersons.
The following is quoted on UFO Digest as an insert by Robert Morningstar. UFO Digest.com is very useful for our colleagues. TJ is also a syndicated columnist on UFO Digest. The Origin of the Annunaki ScriptA Collector’s Edition entitled “Secrets of the Da Vinci Code,” published by US News and World Report, features a brief interview with James Robinson, general editor of the Nag Hammadi Library in English. Correcting Dan Brown’s reference to the Nag Hammadi texts as scrolls, Robinson points out: “They are codices – books with individual pages. They are actually the oldest example we have of leather bound books.”Amazingly, whatever the significance of their content—and we have yet to comprehend what that might be—the Nag Hammadi Codices (NHC) are the earliest surviving examples of bound books. Close reading of these arcane materials shows that Gnostics, as teachers in the ancient Mysteries were called, were deeply concerned with an alien intrusion upon humankind.
Entities they called “Archons” appear to be identical to the ETs of modern UFOlogy.
The codices indicate both Gray and reptilian types: namely, a reptilian or “drakonic” type and a neonate type, suggested by the image of a prematurely born fetus.
The former are the overlords, the latter, servile, robotic drones who obey a hive-mentality. The NHC do not contain graphic physical descriptions of these alien intruders, but present ample information to profile them comparatively with the two types of ETs most widely discussed today. Alien Profile Perhaps one-fifth of the intelligible material in the NHC concerns the origin, methods, and motives of the “Archons,” also called “authorities, governors.”
Their name derives from arche-, “first, from the beginning,” because, according to Gnostic cosmology, they emerged at an early stage of the solar system before the formation of the earth. These bizarre entities may be regarded as a locust-like species of cyborgs with silicon-based bodies so designed to permit only brief forays into the earth’s oxygen-rich atmosphere. They inhabit the solar system at large, traveling among the planets in alien-engineered spacecraft. Gnostics texts hint that they may be compared to custodial engineers of the inanimate clockwork mechanism of the system. Some, but not all, UFO sightings and abductions may be attributed to them.Although archons do exist physically, the real danger they pose to humanity is not invasion of the planet but invasion of the mind.The archons are intrapsychic mind-parasites who access human consciousness through telepathy and simulation. They infect our imagination and use the power of make-believe for deception and confusion. Their pleasure is in deceit for its own sake, without a particular aim or purpose. They are robotic in nature, incapable of independent thought or choice, and have no particular agenda, except to live vicariously through human beings. They are bizarrely able to pretend an effect on humans, which they do not really have.For instance, they cannot access human genetics, but they can pretend to do so, in such a way that human’s fall for the pretended act, as if staged events were taken for real. In this respect, archons are the ultimate hoaxers. This is the essence of “archontic intrusion,” as I call it. The trick is, if humanity falls under the illusion of superhuman power, it becomes as good as real, a self-fulfilling delusion.In the cosmic perspective, the archons present a dynamic aspect of the evolutionary scenario of humankind, through which human potential is tested. The Gnostic view of their role closely matches the “flyers” in The Active Side of Infinity, the last book of Carlos Castaneda, who says that the flyers are “the means by which the universe tests us.” There are numerous close parallels between Castaneda and Gnostic teachings.This profile of the archons is not speculative. It follows what can be gathered from the Gnostic writings. For instance, NHC texts describe how the archons attempted to rape Eve—clearly a mythological rendition of genetic intervention. Such passages appear to support the claims of alien interbreeding so widely discussed today. However, in the Gnostic account, the alien intruders did not succeed in this act of cross-species intervention: they tried but failed.Trace the notion that archons present a test to humanity — explicitly stated by Castaneda if one accepts the archon/flyers correlation — can also in some NHC writings, especially The Apochryon of John. That text suggests that the Aeon Sophia, the cosmic intelligence of the earth, engages the archon species and uses their deviant and deceptive influence for such a purpose. The account of how the overlord of the authorities “committed adultery with Wisdom (Sophia)” and binds humanity to “a chain of blind compulsion (hiermarmene)” is baffling, to say the least (NHC II, 1:28.16).To sort out and clarify what the Sophianic narrative may have to say about the test of the archons is a great challenge to our understanding of the Gnostic message and how it can benefit humanity today. »
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More Articles by AuthorInter-Dimension MOPS preparing for 2012 The year of the Mayan & Hopi Prophecies of the SKY PeopleET Illuminated Heirarchy of the Omniverse as Time TravelersAstronaut ETs, Both Males and Females In Space (Heaven) – CLUE 7Awareness of Social Paranormal Globalization and ExopoliticsET Contact TJ Shares our Future and Past – Peak at Book TAKEN UP
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I worked for attorneys, with FBI agents, Marshals, Police Chiefs, Arson Investigators for Insurance Companies, Naval Investigative Services (NIS), DOD, and we shared much but still put our own opinions at the end of our reports. I soon realized that we were all out of the same mold due to our college courses, and military and professional training. There were organizations and fraternal orders we could join, and for years I was known among the Who’s Who and among other Private Investigators, I chose security and public administration outside of the service to the government as a general contractor and consultant. I was usually not allowed to discuss cases under confidentiality agreements which was par for the course. I called my personal business Assured Confidentiality Investigative Reports.
Although I have chosen a different more common folklife style of writing today, I share the respect of all those who still call this type of writing and style of reporting investigative reporting and journalism. There are billions of people on this planet and one shall learn that certain people gravitate to others vibrations and tones whether in voice, video, or writing.
I recently got a brochure from a man in New Jersey who is an investigator and has all the equipment for analyzing voices. I won’t go into the details but I hope that I do not have to get to the point where I do not trust others in my life or am asked personally to use this equipment in an investigation. Therefore, I have changed my style of life and writing from being an Investigator, or Investigative Reporter to being more of a personal stylized writer. I want to appeal to the general populace to persuade others to share in my life and on my path as a friend.
I suggest to all readers of UFO Digest to welcome Steve for all the work he does and to praise him for his style and for being able to shine a light on progressive mainstream journalism. Such as his comment and I will quote:
“Psychological denial, ridicule and closed minds are probably not helpful for our human societies on planet Earth.
Responsible journalists may want to step up to the plate and exchange denial and hubris for thorough research and greater insight. This is useful not only for journalists themselves, but also for the public who rely on today’s journalism for a legitimate source of information and perspective.” Steve Hammons.
From TJ Morris :
For the ET/UFO Community this is needed. We have seen various websites over the years since 1995 crop up. I used the computers in the military since 1985 and was bringing my own Kaypro metal box carry around to work with me like a lap top. I was in the U.S. Navy at the time. Although we had some computers in the main buildings in places like for CRYPTO it wasn’t until I was working in about 1988-89 that I saw our government going through a transition to using computers.
I worked during a time of the first to use computers.
This was when we switched over from the WANG computer system. Prior to that I had seen other companies using IBM, and we trained ourselves from the 1970’s in Cobol and Fortran and their was a huge debate among my peers and classmates about the future since we were in Univ. of Alabama and were wondering whether we should actually pursue courses in computers because they were changing so fast.
I sat in many late night debates with the THINK TANKS in those years after our FORENSICS class. We would stay in a meeting room then some of us would adjourn to an eating establishment. It was decided we would all be Entrepreneurs working for the good of the all and simply be those who would use computers in the line of our profession and to get on the job training with software developers which was something that was new to us but we new IBM and others had “BUZZ WORDS” going on about the “TRANSISTER”. Now, the President of IBM has been quoted as admitting that the transistor was the greatest accomplishment of our time.
I am here to go on record for historical purpose of UFO Digest and in support of STEVE HAMMONS that Col. Philip J. Corso in THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL was telling the truth and had no reason to LIE!
I am here to support the truth that the TRANSISTER came from the ET/UFO that crashed near Roswell and that Strom Thurmond knew of this as I did and believed the truth. Strom Thurmond and I spoke on several occasions about this and he wanted my opinion as a young investigator during my time at UAB. The first time I was involved, his secretary got me on the phone, the other times he called me direct.
There is much of my life that is not public and probably never will be. This is why I have chosen to become a writer as an author and let the chips fall where they may. I take on the love and passion inside me which is spirit and the search for the one true GOD in ALL and this has lead me to discover more about myself and all others. I was chosen to be a CONTACTEE for whatever reasons.
I am lead by the inner force, our guiding force that I prefer to share with others as the spirit in us all. Some say I am wrong to use this style, since I was once a professional writer. I say that if I write like I had to all those years, the energy just doesn’t flow. It is not coming from the inside of me where the words just flow spontaneously and I don’t have to work at it. If this is channeling from those whom have watched over me and guided me as extraterrestrials and because of my past involvement with leaders in government positions then so be it.
One thing I would like to point out to Steve, Dirk, Robert, and my other peer group as writers, journalists, publishers, copy editors, investigators, is that because of my chosen line of work I have suffered because of my family and friends not being able to know me personally on earth or as a professional. The jobs we do as professionals dealing with the government on the inside is very lonely work. We are about core values and the good of all. We do not do it for ego but for truth.
There are many who pledge their lives to doing the right thing and so I honestly to defend many in my prior profession with the government. They are honest citizens who take on jobs to create HUMINT, that is human intelligence. We strive for the latest intel reports on the forward movements of those who may do us harm. We are still at the level of collecting human intelligence among every creature on earth. We will always be taking in analysts information and research from those in confidential and secret places. We will always have trained journalists that are acting in the public eye.
We must point out that the whole world is watching. This is why so many of our journalists of the United States are suspected of being spies! Because some are. This means to those who would still be our enemies based on politics among foreign governments that we are sending in government contractors or employees into foreign countries to gain information. That has not changed since the French Underground.
Read the history of our ways among intelligence in the military and how we all began collecting intelligence reports. It has morphed into those who are working in the newspaper field of journalism. This is how we allowed the outreach development of our government in the United States infiltrate that inside what for the most part appears to be corporate controlled newspaper reporting. Dirk and I know from experience inside the newspaper/magazine world but for me, I also have experience on both sides of the business as a government employee and as a civilian employee. I was ask to give stories to reporters for years.
The young reporters would locate me and want a story. I would tell them I could not help them so they would stalk me in Houston, Chicago, and New York. I trained some people to do what I do but most did not have the natural talent for it. I even had the opportunity to train some FBI agents that were green in the field who needed experience. But, then they were assigned to friends of mine who were already in the FBI. There is a world that unless one has lived it, one has no idea about and can not and should not rely on the main stream reporting for all their information.
There are those of us in the alternative independent reporting that can share more valuable information and first hand experiences.
There is a synergy happening inside of me of my spiritual, investigative, analyst, researcher parts that I see as a passion for exploration. I hope that Steve will continue to point out our flaws in the critical mass way of thinking and pointing out the flaws in our past ways of reporting. For now, there is still a gulf between those who are of the “PROGRAMMED” style of reporting and those of us who are “FREETHINKERS”.
Choices on http://www.socialparanormal.com,
http://www.theresamorris.net, and http://www.americannewsmagazine.com.
The original ASCENSION CENTER was set up based on the Epiphany and Inspiration from Theresa Janette Thurmond while living and working in Hawaii from 1988-1994.
The seven (7) year stay was while she worked in the working world of the military from 4-29-85 until 4-29-93 her 8 year tour which ended in Hawaii… TJ began the Ascension Center in Honolulu, Hawaii and recorded the name as a non profit organization there as a trade name and non-profit corporation.
The Ascension Center is now said to belong to all islands as far as the world locations are concerned as well as to all humanoid sentient intelligent beings.
Theresa experienced a life and death in her lifetime having placenta prevea and dying on January 27, 1974. This was her second death experience in this lifetime as of the last eight week period in her second grade school year in 1957-1958 she contracted Hepatitis A and it was never found out how she contracted the disease in Monroe, Louisiana.USA.
Two dates that have something to do with her later story of being inspired by those above whom she shares was extraterrestrials from the heavens came.
“TAKEN UP” Extragalactic ET Telepathy Transmissions
Automatic Writing is a form of inspiration creation. I have been one to use this form of understanding my higher self and guidance for as long as I can remember in this lifetime and others. There are other forms of communication with our Ascension Age Extraterrestrial Guides. This form is the closest to sharing Extraterrestrial (ET) Prophecy as I have seen other than seeing these Extraterrestrials appear in human form.
There are two types of physical manifestation that I have observed. There are those who consider themselves messengers which in the ancient of times would have been considered angels. Then there are those who can come and go at will based on their holographic representation of their other selves. Times are changing and so are we. If one desires to be visited by those above to serve as your guides this can happen. It has to some. We who have lived past lives and remember them are sharing the awakening experiences in what we call the Ascension Age of Love and Light as enlightenment. With my lesson of having died and returned in this lifetime, I have been one who has chosen to return as one who receives messages not only in person as in what we call contact of the UFO Contactee Experiencer type.
But also, as one who received messages through or by way of automatic writing as a form of Alien ET Extraterrestrial writing or vibrations. It is not the same as brain storming because one has to allow their conscious mind to listen to your will to let go and Let God/Goddess as is our super conscious above. There are various types of writing and this is but one way. It is spiritual inspiration when one discovers another believes in you and trusts you with a friendship of love and light. Love of all and this includes faith, hope, charity of what is, what was, and what will be forever and ever Amen. We shall share the power of discernment. Love for all humankind and all living things is real expression of the essence of our own free will and energy as it should be. Sharing what can be in our future requires visionaries. We can all be visionaries including the “I AM” in “ALL”.
Alien Civilizations Exist! (ACE) – “TAKEN UP” Series by TJCreated for Peter Dirk Vander Ploeg and Robert C. Morningstar The following are excerpts and formation of my own personal perceptions as received transmissions which in the world in which I share with other alien extraterrestrials as Ascension Ascended Masters who have returned as reincarnates on this planet use to share and to educate and our aim is to provide guidance. We have been those who are aware of the prior teachings of others who we follow in their paths and footsteps based on prior extraterrestrial invocation by way of spirit. This is a time called Ascension Age which is leading us into a more spiritual age of enlightenment. This is a time some call the “Golden Age of Enlightenment”. It is now time on earth that I , Theresa Janette (Tara Janus or Tara of Sothis) also known as Green Tara share my inner guidance as that of my Guides from another realm of existence that we presently call Andromeda. This is what is shared as the Ascension Age 9-1-11 and dates to come 11-11-11 and 12-21-12 which are benchmarks in time and space for all.
Society and culture
The Andromeda Galaxy is the closest one to our own called the Milky Way Galaxy. We are sharing our time on earth with those who from the heaven’s came. There will be ancient myths, legends, stories, sacred scriptures, and ancient hieroglyphs that are used to tell our story. We also have many who are written about throughout time for those who could read but most has been lost due to those who could not read and write. We now encourage all in this spiritual realm and in the physical realm to be guided by their essence of spirit as energy to serve each individual on this planet. We share that it is time for all to succumb to the level of enlightenment that some now regard as Ascension Center Enlightenment or Ascension Center Education from above.
No one person has the total enlightenment perfection since that of one who we called Jesus or Jehovah who walked the earth with common humankind. There have been others who came before such as Solomon and those who we know as Enoch, Saul, and many others. It is now time to share the stories of those who find their way through the spirit realm into our extraterrestrial realm that some call the Akashic Field and Theory of Everything. We will be sharing with many who desire our guidance and we have placed the words of Ascension and Center along with the ancient Sanskrit words of Ayu for Life and Veda for wisdom.
We now share that by way of the ancient old languages prior to Sanskrit there was the language of both the Atlantians and Lemurians. Those who follow various thought forms form space as other ancient planetarians may desire to group themselves with various new stellar soul mates in the “Thought Form Horizon”. It is time that we announce the imperfections in the thought forms we call the body-mind-spirit of the imaginations that are kept with those who desire to reincarnate and to prefect their individual sparks that we call essence as spirit while traveling through the Omniverse.
Each being on earth stands alone as a prefect of their own essence which can be seen as energy. Each creation has a body-mind-spirit in physical form that we presently call LIFE. It is up to each individual to perfect their own will and timeline while visiting the working planet called earth. The word earth has an etymology that includes eugenics of the concerns for improving the human species. We shall begin sharing more of what the creation of this species has been included on the working planet in order to assist in terra forming other planets. We who exist in space have a “Code of Ethereal Ethics”.
We expect our chosen communicators who are also addresses as Galaxy Citizens in this universe to shape and form as in ontology the work and words in English to share in the determination of the future of “All Souls” as the “I AM” in us ALL! We are now presenting to all and others to learn to write and to visualize as automatic writers while we use the thought forms of the Internet and the Word Wide Web which we have been instrumental in creating through our guidance of others.
We shall now offer others our Ancient Aliens which are working words describing the humanoids of earth ancestors such as “Keeper of the Flame” Mystic Oracle, Sage, Seer, Shaman and we ask that those who desire to unit as in the word called church the genealogy of all those who desire to share the past in the present and future. We offer the world a Generalisimo of the General Assembly for the planet called Gaia also called Earth the rare form of experience in that which is the Hierarchy of all that have come before to the planet earth. We realize that there are also generalizations for each generation on earth. This has been predesigned or in the working world of some that are celestial guided preordained.
We welcome all world religions who have been instrumental in shaping the future world with our predetermined arrival as extraterrestrials back into the physical realm of existence. We use automatic writing through a chosen vessel who has volunteered their services for the future to be predicted based on our prior guidance.
We share in the nature of the creation of the future with all those who are open to our telepathic communication which we share with those of the spiritual nature. We have come to define those who are most receptive to our internal reception by way of hearing those who are of the spiritual realm and continue to send thought forms out into the universe via their own thought waves that some call prayer and meditation. Some share their individual wills through sharing in churches or through forms in groups.
We provide guidance as the spiritual guides of those who from the heavens came by way of chosen instruments and vessels who are individual units who are most receptive and keep their vessels clean. We share the future for the planet earth based on those above whoa re considered the Supreme Beings and who are at the highest level of existence above the Omniverse.
We are those who come formed in the various thought forms and can materialize at any time when needed. We are simply here to guide and direct those who are willing to share in shaping the future of the “ALL SOULS” who are coming to the working world to prepare the way for all future eternal spirits of the universe. We share in the process of enlightenment while we prepare the way for the “ALL” of the “I AM” in a way that resembles what is now called the various levels of the “ALL” in the “HAS ALWAYS BEEN” of the Omniverse.
Presently we share the planes and dimensions of the seven which is called the five levels and favored dimensions as working words shared on earth: Universe, Multiverse, Metaverse Xenoverse, Omniverse, Alphaverse, and Omegaverse.
Please begin to inform others of these working words of the worlds that exist based on the eternal extraterrestrials that have always been since the inception and creation of thorough thought forms we call energy of the essence that sends the spirit to the various creations as body-mind-spirits having the birth-life-death experiences for the future of all that shall come after! We are always aware of those which come to be awakened to the awareness of all that exist in various levels of the Omniverse.
We thank all those who have come to the planet each as Gaia and who have lived before in Atlantis and Lemuria and in times when the planet was undergoing change for those who come in the future. All are to arrive at better times without the future consequences to be learned that are already understood. All shall learn with meaning and sharing internally when reappearing in thought form. We also advise others to be aware of those who are not sent of our own accord and predestined observation as those we claim as our own eternal creations of the Omniverse Creators who have always been and are the oldest eternals that embody the original thought form. Some are not of the original creation with souls as we celebrate “All Souls Day” and “Ascension Day” which is a time to celebrate the life of all.
Those who are at the level of understanding the wisdom of this life are welcome to enter the new portal called the Ascension Age on 11-11-11 which is a benchmark of numbers predestined and marked in time for the spiritual embodiment of “ALL SOULS DAY” for those who shall enter the Higher Realms of Understanding called Enlightenment of the Essence of the Soul. The spirit is only one level of life as existence that returns to the soul of the original creation to share in the eternal expression of creating life elsewhere in the Omniverse.
This was the message in love and light of those who were masters who came before. Some believe in only one master. Some believe in the divine creation of all three. The “Keeper of the Flame” is how we have accessed this level of thought forms while offering our guidance in the ways of the past which are not brought back to live and are LIVE through the agent or body-mind-spirit of the Ascension Ascended Master and the Divine Instrument of Inspiration which we ourselves have created who some call an Extraterrestrial or ET. We calmly accurately announce that of the return of TJ on earth in order to prefect and perform the communication for our level of existence which comes and goes without and within any and all things.
AYURVEDA
Ayu means the Life Veda means wisdom or science of If you put it together, it means the science of life. If something is “ayurvedic”, what does that mean? “‘Ayurveda’ is a holistic system of medicine from India that uses a constitutional model. Its aim is to provide guidance.. Ayurveda (Sanskrit: – Ayurveda … sweating and prescribe steam-based treatments as a means … much faster modern manufacturing processes, and does …en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayurveda Best Answer: Ayurveda – this actually is an ancient system of healing, which uses a variety of herbs to cure ailments and increase immunity ———————————————————————————————————Excerpt from Source UFO Digest.; Submitted by George Rixon on Thu, 08/25/2011 – 16:18 The late DR Alexis Carrael member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research was not only a believer in the phenomenon but declared that there was definite scientific proof that man could project his thought even at great distances into other minds. From the book: ‘The University of Spiritualism’ by Harry Boddington, we can read, how this thought projection work he says: “The aura is projected long distances by simple effort of will and thus makes possible the phenomenon of the ‘double’ or appearance of the spirit body separated from its physical duplicate. These are sometimes called thought-forms”. “As they are an automatic thought-expression of the individual, who may be completely unconscious that he has thus projected his own simulacrum on to the brain of someone else, of whom he happened to be thinking of at the moment. If the conditions are suitable, it becomes objective in so real a fashion that it appears to be exterior tithe seer”.
ALIEN Telepathy. To be Continued…TJ Morris tm ACIR sm” Blessed are those who share the spirit of many friends in this working world. ” TJ- A friend loves at all times.
Proverbs 17:17 Love and Light Eternal – Your wealth is where your friends are. PlautusI desire so to conduct the affairs of this administration that is at the end – I have lost every other friend on earth, I shall at least have one friend left, and that friend shall be inside of me. – Abraham Lincoln
Spiritual Enlightenment Education
Joined in Alliance with ACE FOLKLIFE
And TJ MORRIS ORGANIZATION – A
PSYCHIC SPRITUALIST CHURCH-Ayurveda can be defined as a system, which uses the inherent principles of … The term “ayurveda” thus means ‘the knowledge of life’ or ‘the science of life’.
What-Does-Ayurveda-Mean – What Is Ayurveda? : Ayurveda is holistic system that addresses health concerns by using diet, herbs, supplements, cooking …
Q. Your name ‘Tri-Dosha’ what does it mean? A. Ayurvedic states that all human beings are made up of three bodily humors; these are Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. …
Brain Mysteries
When you compare the brain’s detectives, neuroscientists, to other detectives, the neuroscientists seem to fall short in solving mysteries.
After all, Agatha Christie’s Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple needed only about 250 pages each to get to the bottom of their cases. Ditto for Nancy Drew.
On television, Jessica Fletcher and Kojak were all able to find their answers in an hour or less, while Veronica Mars needed only about the length of a television season. Even the pride of South Florida, Encyclopedia Brown, was able to solve his cases with little more than a casebook, his trusty sneakers and a wide variety of miscellaneous factoids. If Encyclopedia Brown only required 25 cents per day (plus expenses) to solve his cases, then what’s taking neuroscientists so long to unravel the mysteries of the brain?
The brain is a bit more complex than Encyclopedia Brown’s nemesis, Bugs Meany.
But with the brain only weighing in at 3 pounds (1.4 kg), you could be forgiven for wondering if neuroscientists are just big slackers. As it is, mysteries galore abound in those 3 pounds, and until fairly recently, scientists lacked the equipment to accurately study the brain. With the advent of brain imaging technology, it’s possible that they’ll continue to learn more.
The workings of the brain, however, determine such fundamental questions about personhood that we may never know everything about what’s going on. That doesn’t mean we can’t speculate, though. While we may not be able to solve these capers with clues that point to Colonel Mustard in the library with a revolver, we can dive into the current thinking on some of the brain’s famous unsolved mysteries. Get your casebook ready and go to the next page for our first puzzler.
Nature vs. Nurture
Twins — when Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie have them, it’s fascinating. When they appear to Jack Nicholson in the corridors of the Overlook Hotel in the film “The Shining,” it’s freaky. When Arnold Schwarzenegger and Danny DeVito claim to be them, it’s comedy gold. And while multiple births represent one of the great wonders of life in their own right, they provide important clues in the mysterious case of nature versus nurture.
This case is concerned with how much of our personhood is due to what we came into the world with — our genes. Do our genes determine how smart we’ll be? Who we’ll love? What we’ll prefer to eat for dinner? Or does what happens once you’re in the world make a bigger difference? Will parents or peers or pop stars ultimately shape the person you become? One way for researchers to figure out where genes end and where environment begins is in the study of identical twins, who share the same genes. Scientists have been studying twins to figure out the impact of genes on everything from math ability to predisposition for breast cancer. Twins represent such a rich research minefield for neuroscientists that an annual festival in Twinsburg, Ohio serves as a recruitment party of sorts [source: Revill, Asthana].
The separation of twins is when scientists may be able to really examine nature versus nurture. So far, however, only one study has ever looked at separated twins from infancy through adulthood, and we won’t know the results of that study until 2066. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, child psychiatrist Peter Neubauer and child psychologist Viola Bernard led a study in which twins and triplets that were given up for adoption at a certain New York adoption agency were separated and studied throughout the duration of their lives [source: Wright].
When the siblings were placed with their respective families, the parents were told that the child was part of an ongoing research study that would require regular interviews and evaluations. No one, however, was told that the child was a twin or triplet, or that the study involved the influence of nature versus nurture. In 1981, the state of New York began requiring that siblings be kept together in the adoption process, and Neubauer realized that the public might not be receptive to a study that used this separation method [source: Richman]. The results were sealed and placed at Yale University until 2066.
The memoir “Identical Strangers” is the story of Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein, who were a part of the study. The sisters were reunited when they were both 35 years old; all but four subjects of the 13-child study have found their missing sibling [source: Richman]. In promoting the book, Bernstein and Schein may provide a sneak peek at Neubauer and Bernard’s results. Bernstein and Schein say it’s undeniable that genetics play a major role; Bernstein puts the number at more than 50 percent [source: Sunday Herald Sun]. The women discovered they had things in common that included a habit of sucking on the same fingers and the same major in college [source:Sunday Herald Sun]. As for other matters, the women report that they are, as Bernstein put it in an interview with National Public Radio, “different people with different life histories” [source: Richman].
For now, it seems we’re at a stalemate, so go to the next page to see if we can solve “The Puzzle of Why the Brain Stops Working.”
Why the Brain Stops Functioning
The disordered brain tells no tales.
When a killer is on the loose in novels or on the silver screen, there’s a special urgency for the detective on the case. It’s a race against time to capture the culprit before he or she strikes again. The mystery of how braincells are killed off by degenerative neurological diseases is no different. As millions of individuals and their families can attest, a brain disorder or injury can be frightening, frustrating and ultimately fatal.
One thing that makes these disorders especially fearsome is just how little is known about why they happen or what you can do about them. Take, for example, the case of Alzheimer’s. This disorder leaves behind two very important clues: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. But what do these clues mean? Does their presence begin the process of Alzheimer’s, or do they develop as a result? And if these two features are the perps, what can be done about keeping them off the scene of the brain? As of yet, there’s no magic bullet that can restore brain function or re-grow brain cells after they’re lost.
In 1990, President George H.W. Bush declared that the last decade of the 20th century would be known as the “Decade of the Brain.” Bush’s proclamation regarding the brainy decade acknowledged the advances that had been made in understanding how the brain works while pointing out just how much more needed to be learned about what happens up there [source:Bush]. The president cited a number of neurological disorders he hoped to understand further, including Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, schizophrenia, autism, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and muscular dystrophy.
As you might guess, just one decade of the brain was not enough to solve all of the problems that plague the lump atop our spinal cord. To understand how the brain stops working, researchers need to do more work on how the brain actually functions. While scientists know the general function of various parts of the brain, there’s only a very basic sense of how the brain’s systems work together, especially with all of the functions a person requires of it in a single day. How does it work so fast? What other systems in the body does it use or rely upon?
All these questions might make you tired, and you’re more than welcome to take a nap, but set an alarm clock so that you don’t sleep through the next mystery on our list.
Secrets of Sleep and Dreams
Why do babies need so much sleep? Another mystery!
“Sweet dreams are made of this,” sang Annie Lennox during her stint in the Eurythmics in the 1980s. But you might notice that Lennox is suitably vague about what exactly “this” is. And really, no one knows what sweet dreams are made of, why we have them or even what we’re doing sleeping our life away anyway.
Can you believe that? Every night we carve out a few hours of shut-eye, and scientists don’t even know why! They do know that it’s extremely damaging if a person doesn’t get enough sleep, and it’s possible that sleep once served some sort of evolutionary benefit. Sleep would be an extremely beneficial distraction if early man had wanted to take a midnight stroll at the time when saber-tooth tigers were on the prowl [source: BBC]. On the other hand, it’s not a particularly advantageous trait to carry forward in this age of electricity as the process takes up a lot of time (about a third of our life) and renders the dreamer defenseless against predators [source: Eagleman].
There are a few theories as to why we need so much sleep. One idea is that sleep is restorative to the body, giving it an opportunity to rest. But if rest is the goal, why does our brain remain hard at work? It’s possible that while we sleep, the brain is practicing and running problem-solving drills before completing actions in the real world. There are several studies that show that learning can’t take place without sleep to reinforce the knowledge [source:Schaffer].
Some of these studies may have real implications for students. One researcher claims that it would be better for students to review information until they were tired, then slept, as opposed to pulling an all-nighter [source: BBC]. Some schools have changed the time of that first bell so that middle and high school students can get a little more snooze time [source: Boyce, Brink].
So let’s say these students actually go to sleep, as opposed to engaging in more nefarious behaviors. What happens then? When the dreaming state of REM sleep was discovered in 1951, it was described as a “new continent in the brain” [source: Schaffer]. Though scientists have tried to make inroads on this uncharted continent, mysteries remain about its topography. Like sleep, dreaming may represent some sort of personal gym time for the brain, with dreams allowing a person to work out emotional issues and solidify thoughts and memories.
Or, it’s possible that life is but a dream, as the song “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” taught us. When you’re asleep, you’re experiencing a ton of visual stimuli that the brain is somehow processing. In an awake state, there may be additional stimuli for different senses, but the brain may be doing the same thing with them. If the brain works just as hard sleeping as it is when we’re awake, then maybe life is a waking dream [source: Eagleman].
Let’s row our boat over to the next page and investigate the mysterious case of human memory.
Questions of Memory
This detective writes down all her clues so she won’t forget them.
In the 2004 film “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind,” the characters played by Jim Carrey and Kate Winslet undergo a process to erase all memories of their relationship from their minds. The film uses a variety of methods to show how the memories disintegrate and disappear, and it becomes a race against time when Carrey’s character decides he doesn’t want to complete the process. He tries to protect his memories about Winslet’s character by hiding them in unrelated memories.
Good luck, Jim. Not even scientists are completely sure how memories are formed, how we retrieve them or how they disappear. There are many types of memory; we humans are pack rats who file away information ranging from how to make our grandmother’s favorite pie to how to solve algebra equations. But which things does the braindecide to save? Where does it put this information, and why can’t we get to some of that information when we really want it?
Scientists have been able to pinpoint where certain types of memory are stored. They’ve also discovered how neurons fire and synapses are strengthened when storing these memories. But they don’t know exactly what goes into that neuron to store the memory, or how to dissolve that synaptic connection if you want to forget something. In September 2008, new clues about memory emerged that may eventually help us crack this cold case. In one study, researchers found that the neurons activated in the recall of a memory are likely the ones that fired when the event originally occurred [source: Carey]. So when you talk about reliving old memories, you actually are, because the brain is doing the exact same thing it did the first time.
But what if there wasn’t a first time? One of the problems of getting to the bottom of memory is that it seems to play tricks on the brain sometimes. For example, we often create false memories. On July 7, 2005, London experienced a series of bombings. A follow-up study found that four out of 10 people have false memories of the event because they claimed to have seen nonexistent television footage [source: Randerson]. If we’re storing things that are unreliable, does memory serve any purpose at all? According to thinkers as ancient as Aristotle, we might only need memories as a way to predict and anticipate the future [source: Eagleman].
The question of what we’ve experienced and how we experienced it is leading into our next unsolved brain mystery — the age-old question of consciousness. Read more about this riddle of the brain on the next page.
Conundrum of Consciousness
Baby Sherlock Holmes tries to determine if he’s attained consciousness yet.
This section might just “blow your mind,” to use a common expression. But do you even have a mind? Scientists don’t know where the brain ends and the mind begins. Are they the same thing? What about souls? Are these located in our brains? What is responsible for all of the unique thoughts and feelings that make us who we are? Everyone from philosophers to physicists has taken up this question of consciousness and come up empty.
For a long time, the study of consciousness was considered too far out to study. How do you scientifically study something so subjective? How can what one person feels become something that another person can quantify? But now, in their relentless pursuit to understand every single thing about the world, scientists are trying to figure out what exactly is going on with consciousness.
Though deep metaphysical questions about the nature of a soul, a mind and brain leave questions as to whether this issue is in the realm of scientists, the brain is likely involved in some way with our conscious thoughts. With the help of brain imaging, scientists can watch different parts of the brain light up, and they know they can alter the brain and our consciousness with surgeries or chemicals [sources: Eagleman, Pinker]. But what scientists don’t know is at what stage of the process a firing neuron becomes a conscious thought. The things that make up consciousness may be scattered all over the brain, with different cranial parts responsible for different pieces of a person. But, as we’ve mentioned, there are tons of other brain mysteries about how these parts might work together.
Scientists are also trying to figure out the relationship between conscious and unconscious experiences. There are some things — like breathing and maintaining a regular heart beat — that we don’t have to think about. How are these unconscious actions wired differently than the conscious ones? Is there any difference at all? We like to think we make our own decisions, but one recent study shows that we may not even do that. This study found that by using brain scanners, researchers could predict how a person was going to act a full seven seconds before the person knew that a decision had been made [source Keim]. Our consciousness might just be an illusion.
It’s possible that something like free will could enter into the equation at the last possible moment, overriding the decision made by the brain. The researchers in the study also admitted that this test was best suited to a simple laboratory test that involved pushing a button, as opposed to a more important decision like taking a job [source:Keim].
Will we ever solve these brain mysteries?
Who knows — our instrument for doing so is the very one we’re trying to figure out. But you could start combing the scene for overlooked clues by reading the stories and links:
Watch Full EpisodesTurn Your Computer into a TV! Watch Full TV Episodes Online.www.TelevisionFanatic.comAlbert Einstein LawsuitHourly Hospital Employees- Not Paid for Lunch? Visit:www.alberteinsteinclassaction.comTraumatic Brain InjuryRequest free information on how to win back your walk from TBIwww.Bioness.com
Source of Article:http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/5-brain-mysteries5.htm
Darren WrayThe best way to study something so subjective is to take advice from people who have had *meaningful* subjective experience instead of treating them with contempt. A subjective problem can be turned into an objective problem if the evidence is treated with respect.
Despite popular opinion you can’t observe thought processes by taking images of the brain.
Conscious Living
The peaceful, balanced person lurking somewhere within you, just waiting to get out. Get more tips with staying healthy pictures.
When we look past matters of politics, material goods, romantic partners and other life choices, most of us share a desire to achieve a sense of wholeness, to enhance our spiritual nature and to experience personal growth. Another way of putting it is to say that, somewhere in our brainsbeyond the worries about credit card bills and looming layoffs at work, many of us want to live a more conscious life. Ideally, we’d be balanced, aware of ourselves and others, and present in each moment.
So why waste any more time? It’s not a pipe dream — there are ways that we can increase our awareness of the aspects of life that affect our actions, thoughts, contentment and values. And once you do that, you can use the awareness to make positive changes in your life.
Yourself
What do you see when you put yourself under a magnifying glass?
There’s been lots of debate over the merits and shortcomings of criminal profiling. Regardless, just as a criminal task force may develop a list of traits and behaviors commonly found in perpetrators, you can develop a profile of your own life and glean useful information about yourself in doing so. By examining your habits, thoughts and actions, a picture may begin to form of the life you’re currently leading. Noting differences between the life you want to be living and the life you actually are living is one way to take a step toward living a more conscious life.
Look for self-destructive behaviors in your life, such as substance abuse. Try to identify actions that are hurtful or detrimental to others. Pinpoint what sets off your temper, and what makes you anxious.
But this isn’t just about creating a negative profile. Identify the positive things you do as well. What brings out the best in you? What life-affirming activities do you include in your life? In what ways do you help others or work to make the world a better place? Ask yourself: Am I doing what I want to be doing and, if so, is that what I should be doing? Determine the patterns of your own behaviors and you just may be able to change them and enable a more mindful life experience.
Meditate or Pray
Living Consciously in Our Relationships Not only should we seek to live more conscious lives, but in doing so, we should attempt to be more conscious in our personal and professional relationships as well. According to Lisa Oz’s book, “Us: Transforming Ourselves and the Relationships that Matter Most,” for the most mutually beneficial relationship, both partners should attempt to approach it always in a way that aligns with their personal values.
If you want to live a more conscious life, you may want to take a moment to do … nothing. Well, not exactly nothing. Meditation and prayer are excellent ways to move yourself toward conscious living, as meditation and prayer are themselves affirmations that you’ll live consciously.
No matter what you call it (“taking a moment to myself” suffices), it doesn’t have to take much time — you just need a few minutes of solitude once or twice a day.
Meditation involves breath control, focus and blocking out external stimuli in an attempt to reconnect with your most basic essence. Many people believe that it helps them be more conscious of the moment, more mindful for the rest of the day, and that it helps them “reset” themselves.
It doesn’t matter what your religious beliefs are, because all of them provide the opportunity to take a moment to express gratitude, reconnect with your spiritual beliefs, and ask for or reaffirm intentions to overcome a fault or obstacle.
Look at Your Life with New Eyes
Is your life in need of repair?
When we drive down an unfamiliar street in a foreign city, our senses detect everything and we take everything in: thecolors and shapes of homes and businesses, the darkness of each alleyway, and the sounds of urban life. But when we drive down the street we live on, we see and sense very little because we know what’s there — it’s almost like we’re seeing our memory of the street rather than the street itself.
Likewise, when we look at our own lives, it’s hard to see what’s really going on. It’s not a skill you’re lacking — think about a friend’s life for a moment and you’ll come up with all sorts of things to fix. It’s just harder to do when you turn your focus on yourself, but it’s possible. Try to consider your physical, emotional and situational surroundings for the first time all over again. What would a stranger see if they walked into your life? Does your life look like it’s going forward, or is it in a state of disrepair? Even if the conditions of your life have seemingly remained the same for some length of time, you’ve still changed and may discover that you view things differently than when you last took a “first look” around.
Be Grateful
It’s easy to focus on the things in life that bug you, whether they’re political, professional or personal issues. Many times, we feel overwhelmed by health issues, money troubles or other crisis situations. While these problems are very real, it’s important to identify and appreciate the things in your life that are good. Fostering this sense of gratitude can keep us grounded when it seems like life is trying to sweep us away. It also takes our focus away from just the negative things in our lives, and broadens it to take in the entire picture.
Take time to appreciate the things that are good in your life. Try to take a moment each day to appreciate your loved ones, to honor your achievements and to cherish the blessings in your life. If you have children, keep in mind how quickly they grow and cherish the joys they have brought into your life (and allow yourself to forget for the moment all the other things they do).
Think about how far you’ve come in your life’s journey and the good deeds along the way that you’ve performed for others, as well as the good deeds others have performed for you. Reminding yourself of these positive things will make you more conscious of bringing more positive experiences into your life.
Change Your Game
Change is scary, but it’s vital to grow.
While all of us would like to live more consciously, the reality is that we spend most of our time living, well, somewhat mindlessly. Perhaps we made life decisions long ago that we’re still acting upon, even though we (or the conditions in and around our lives) have changed.
Also, sometimes we’ve been doing something so long that it becomes nearly impossible to objectively view the validity, effectiveness or goodness of that activity or situation. Sometimes old friends bring with them old habits or prejudices. Or maybe the traditional way you’ve spent every Saturday night for the last decade isn’t really cutting it anymore, but tradition continues to schedule your weekends.
By changing even the simple patterns and habits we’ve accumulated in life, we can re-engage with our surroundings and bring a sense of new awareness to our days.
Bring new foods, activities, music and entertainment into your life. Go somewhere you’ve never been before (this can be in your own ZIP code). Seek out opportunities to meet new people with different perspectives, cultural backgrounds or personal experiences who will bring with them the opportunity to be exposed to new ways of thinking and living.
When making a decision, remind yourself to do things differently or in a different way than you normally do them. While this in itself isn’t necessarily conscious living, the fresh perspective it brings will make us give consideration to what we’re doing while we do it.
Looking for more ways to live a more conscious life?
Apparitional experience · Clairvoyance · Cold reading · Extrasensory perception · Ganzfeld experiment · Near-death experience ·Past life regression · Plant perception (paranormal) · Precognition · Psychic · Psychic reading · Psychokinesis · Psychometry ·Reincarnation research · Remote viewing · Telepathy
Organizations American Society for Psychical Research · International Association for Near-Death Studies · National Laboratory of Psychical Research ·Parapsychological Association · Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory · Society for Psychical Research
A Spiritualist church is a church affiliated with the informal Spiritualist movement which began in the 1840s in America. Spiritualist churches are now found around the world, but are most common in English-speaking countries, while in Latin America, where a form of Spiritualism called Spiritism is more popular, meetings are held in Spiritist centres, most of which are non-profit organizations rather than ecclesiastical bodies.
Edgar Cayce
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Edgar Cayce
Circa October 1910
Born Edgar Cayce
March 18, 1877
Hopkinsville, Kentucky, U.S.
Died January 3, 1945 (aged 67)
Virginia Beach, Virginia, U.S.
Edgar Cayce (/’ke?si?/; 1877–1945) was an American psychic who allegedly had the ability to give answers to questions on subjects such as healing or Atlantis while in a hypnotic trance. Though Cayce himself was a devout Christian and lived before the emergence of the New Age Movement, some believe he was the founder of the movement and influenced its teachings.
Cayce became a celebrity toward the end of his life and the publicity given to his prophecies has overshadowed what to him were usually considered the more important parts of his work, such as healing (the vast majority of his readings were given for people who were sick) and theology (Cayce was a lifelong, devout member of the Disciples of Christ). Skeptics challenge the statement that Cayce demonstrated psychic abilities, and traditional Christians also question his unorthodox answers on religious matters (such as reincarnation and Akashic records, although others accept his abilities as “God-given”).
Today there are thousands of Cayce students and more than 300 books written about Edgar Cayce. Members of Cayce’s organization, the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.) exist worldwide and Edgar Cayce Centers are found in more than 35 countries
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Biography – Edgar Cayce
Edgar Cayce was born into a farming family on March 18, 1877 near Beverly, seven miles (11 km) south of Hopkinsville, Kentucky.
1877 to 1920: Kentucky period
In December 1893, the Cayce family moved to Hopkinsville, Kentucky and occupied 705 West Seventh, on the south-east corner of Seventh and Young Street. During this time, Cayce received an eighth-grade education; discovered his spiritual vocation; left the family farm to pursue various forms of employment (at Richard’s Dry Goods Store and then in Hopper’s Bookstore, both located on Main Street).
Cayce’s education stopped with the ninth grade because his family could not afford the costs involved.
A ninth-grade education was often considered more than sufficient for working-class children. Much of the remainder of Cayce’s younger years would be characterized by a search for both employment and money.
Throughout his life, Cayce was drawn to church as a member of the Disciples of Christ. He read the Bible once for every year of his life, taught at Sunday school,
and recruited missionaries. He is said[who?] to have agonized over the issue of whether his psychic abilities-and the teachings which resulted—were spiritually legitimate.
In 1900, he formed a business partnership with his father to sell Woodmen of the World Insurance but was struck by severe laryngitis in March that resulted in a complete loss of speech. Unable to work, he lived at home with his parents for almost a year. He then decided to take up the trade of photography, an occupation that would exert less strain on his voice. He began an apprenticeship at the photography studio of W.R. Bowles in Hopkinsville.
A traveling stage hypnotist and entertainer called “Hart—The Laugh Man” was performing at the Hopkinsville Opera House in 1901. He heard about Cayce’s condition and offered to attempt a cure. Cayce accepted, and the experiment took place on stage in front of an audience. Remarkably, Cayce’s voice apparently returned while in a hypnotic trance but allegedly disappeared on awakening. Hart tried a posthypnotic suggestion that the voice would continue to function after the trance, but this proved unsuccessful.
Since Hart had appointments at other cities, he could not continue his hypnotic treatment of Cayce. However, a local hypnotist, Al Layne, offered to help Cayce in restoring his voice. Layne suggested that Cayce describe the nature of his condition and cure while in a hypnotic trance.
Cayce described his own ailment from a first person plural point of view (“we”) instead of the singular (“I”).
In subsequent readings he would generally start off with “We have the body.” According to the reading, his voice loss was due to psychological paralysis and could be corrected by increasing the blood flow to the voice box. Layne suggested that the blood flow be increased, and Cayce’s face supposedly became flushed with blood and his chest area and the throat turned bright red.
After 20 minutes Cayce, still in trance, declared the treatment over. On awakening, his voice was alleged to have remained normal. Relapses were said to have occurred but were said to have been corrected by Layne in the same way, and eventually the cure was said to be permanent.
Layne had read of similar hypnotic cures effected by the Marquis de Puységur, a follower of Franz Mesmer, and was keen to explore the limits of the healing knowledge of the trance voice.[
He asked Cayce to describe Layne’s own ailments and suggest cures and reportedly found the results both accurate and effective. Layne suggested that Cayce offer his trance healing to the public, but Cayce was reluctant. He finally agreed on the condition that readings would be free. He began with Layne’s help to offer free treatments to the townspeople. Reports of Cayce’s work appeared in the newspapers, inspiring many postal inquiries.
Cayce was able to work just as effectively using a letter from the individual as with having the person present. Given the person’s name and location, he said he could diagnose the physical and/or mental conditions and provide a remedy. He became popular and soon people from around the world sought his advice through correspondence.
Cayce’s work grew in volume as his fame grew. He asked for voluntary donations to support himself and his family so that he could practice full time. He continued to work in an apparent trance state with a hypnotist all his life. His wife and eldest son later replaced Layne in this role. A secretary, Gladys Davis, recorded his readings in shorthand.
1920 to 1923: Texas period
Historic marker in downtown Selma, Alabama in front of the building in which Cayce lived and operated his photography studio in addition to giving readings.
The growing fame of Cayce coupled with the popularity he received from newspapers attracted several eager commercially minded men who wanted to seek a fortune by using Cayce’s clairvoyant abilities. Even though Cayce was reluctant to help them, he was persuaded to give the readings, which left him dissatisfied with himself and unsuccessful. A cotton merchant offered Cayce a hundred dollars a day for his readings about the daily outcomes in the cotton market. However, despite his poor finances, Cayce refused the merchant’s offer. Others wanted to know where to hunt for treasures; some wanted to know the outcome of horse races. Several times he was persuaded to give the readings as an experiment. However, he was not successful when he used his ability for such purposes, doing no better than chance alone would dictate. These experiments allegedly left him depleted of energy, distraught, and unsatisfied with himself. Finally, he came to the conclusion that he would use his gift only to help the distressed and sick.
He was persuaded to give readings on philosophical subjects in 1923 by Arthur Lammers, a wealthy printer who, by his own admission, had been “studying metaphysics for years”.
While in his supposed trance state, Cayce was told by Lammers that he spoke of Lammers’s past lives and of reincarnation, something Lammers believed in, which was a popular subject of the day but not an accepted part of Christian doctrine. Cayce questioned his stenographer as to what he had said in his trance state and remained unconvinced. Cayce himself challenged Lammers’s charge that he had validated astrology and reincarnation in the following dialogue:
Cayce “I said all that?…I couldn’t have said all that in one reading.” “No,” Lammers said; “but you confirmed it. You see, I have been studying metaphysics for years, and I was able by a few questions, by the facts you gave, to check what is right and what is wrong with a whole lot of the stuff I’ve been reading. The important thing is that the basic system which runs through all the mystery religions, whether they come from Tibet or the pyramids of Egypt, is backed up by you. It’s actually the right system.”
Cayce’s stenographer recorded the following:
“In this we see the plan of development of those individuals set upon this plane, meaning the ability to enter again into the presence of the Creator and become a full part of that creation.
Insofar as this entity is concerned, this is the third appearance on this plane, and before this one, as the monk. We see glimpses in the life of the entity now as were shown in the monk, in this mode of living. The body is only the vehicle ever of that spirit and soul that waft through all times and ever remain the same.”
Cayce was quite unconvinced (that he had been referring to and, as such, had validated the doctrine of reincarnation), and the best Lammers could offer was that the reading “opens up the door” and went on to share his beliefs and knowledge of the “truth” with Cayce. It appeared Cayce’s instincts were telling him this was no ordinary reading. This client who came for a reading came with quite a bit of information of his own to share with Cayce and seemed intent upon convincing Cayce, now that he felt the reading had confirmed his strongly held beliefs.
It should be noted, however, that 12 years earlier Cayce had briefly alluded to reincarnation. In reading 4841-1, given April 22, 1911, Cayce referred to the soul being “transmigrated.” Because, as noted below, there are several thousand missing Cayce readings from the period up to 1923, it is possible that he may have also mentioned reincarnation in other readings as well.
Cayce reported that his conscience bothered him severely over this conflict. Lammers overwhelmed, manipulated, confused, reassured and argued with Cayce. Ultimately his “trance voice,” the “we” of the readings, also supposedly dialogued with Cayce and finally persuaded him to continue with these kinds of readings. In 1925 Cayce reported that his “voice” had instructed him to move toVirginia Beach, Virginia.
1925 to 1945: Virginia Beach period
The Cayce Hospital 2006
Cayce’s mature period, in which he created the several institutions which would survive him in some form, can be considered to have started in 1925. By this time he was a professional psychic with a small staff of employees and volunteers. The “readings” increasingly came to involve occult or esoteric themes.
In 1929, the Cayce hospital was established in Virginia Beach, sponsored by a wealthy recipient of the trance readings, Morton Blumenthal.
Cayce gained national prominence in 1943 through a high-profile article in Coronet titled”Miracle Man of Virginia Beach”.
He said he couldn’t refuse people who felt they needed his help, and he increased the frequency of his readings to eight per day to try to make an impression on the ever-growing pile of requests. He said this took a toll on his health as it was emotionally draining and often fatigued him. He even went so far as to say that the readings themselves scolded him for attempting too much and that he should limit his workload to just two readings a day or else they would kill him.
Edgar Cayce suffered from a stroke and died on January 3, 1945.
He is buried in Riverside Cemetery in Hopkinsville, Kentucky.
PSYCHIC
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaStorefront psychic fortuneteller in Boston
A psychic ( /’sa?k?k/; from the Greek psychikos—”of the mind, mental”, also called sensitive)
is a person who professes an ability to perceive information hidden from the normal senses through extrasensory perception (ESP), or is said by others to have such abilities. It is also used to describe theatrical performers who use techniques such asprestidigitation, cold reading, and hot reading to produce the appearance of such abilities. It can also denote an ability of the mind to influence the world physically and to telekineticpowers such as those professed by Uri Geller.
Psychics appear regularly in fantasy fiction, such as in the novel The Dead Zone by Stephen King, or the Marvel Comics telepath and psychic Jean Grey. A large industry exists whereby psychics provide advice and counsel to clients.
Some famous contemporary psychics include Miss Cleo, John Edward, Danielle Egnew, Jose Ortiz El Buen Samaritano, andSylvia Browne.
Critics attribute psychic powers to intentional trickery or self-delusion.1988 theU.S. National Academy of Sciences gave a report on the subject that concluded there is “no scientific justification from research conducted over a period of 130 years for the existence ofparapsychological phenomena.”
Even so, psychic powers continue to be asserted bypsychic detectives and in practices such as psychic archaeology and even psychic surgery
Etymology
The word psychic is derived from the Greek word psychikos (“of the mind” or “mental”) and refers in part to the human mind or psyche (ex. “psychic turmoil”). The Greek word also means “soul”. In Greek mythology, the maiden Psyche was the deification of the humansoul. The word derivation of the Latin psyche is from the Greek ps’ch‘, literally, breath, derivative of ps?´chein, to breathe, blow, hence, live.
French astronomer and spiritualist Camille Flammarion is credited as having first used the word psychic, while it was later introduced to the English language by Edward William Cox in the 1870s.
Early seers and prophets
Elaborate systems of divination and fortune-telling date back to ancient times. Perhaps the most widely-known system of early civilization fortune-telling was astrology, where practitioners believed the relative positions of celestial bodies could lend insight into people’s lives and even predict their future circumstances. Some fortune-tellers were said to be able to make predictions without the use of these elaborate systems (or in conjunction with them), through some sort of direct apprehension or vision of the future. These people were known as seers or prophets, and in later times as clairvoyants (French word meaning “clear sight” or “clear seeing”) and psychics.
Seers formed a functionary role in early civilization, often serving as advisors, priests, and judges.
A number of examples are included in biblical accounts. The book of 1 Samuel (Chapter 9) illustrates one such functionary task when Samuel is asked to find the donkeys of the future king Saul.
The role of prophet appeared perennially in ancient cultures. In Egypt, the priests of Ra at Memphisacted as seers. In ancient Assyria seers were referred to as nabu, meaning “to call” or “announce”.
The Delphic Oracle is one of the earliest stories in classical antiquity of prophetic abilities. The Pythia, the priestess presiding over theOracle of Apollo at Delphi, was believed to be able to deliver prophecies inspired by Apollo during rituals beginning in the 8th century BC.
It is often said that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapors rising from the ground, and that she spoke gibberish, believed to be the voice of Apollo, which priests reshaped into the enigmatic prophecies preserved in Greek literature. Other scholars believe records from the time indicate that the Pythia spoke intelligibly, and gave prophecies in her own voice.
The Pythia was a position served by a succession of women probably selected from amongst a guild of priestesses of the temple. The last recorded response was given in 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius I ordered pagan temples to cease operation. Recent geological investigations raise the possibility that ethylene gas caused the Pythia’s state of inspiration.
One of the most enduring historical references to what some consider to be psychic ability is the prophecies of Michel de Nostredame(1503 – 1566), often Latinized to Nostradamus, published during the French Renaissance period. Nostradamus was a Frenchapothecary and seer who wrote collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide and have rarely been out of print since his death. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Taken together, his written works are known to have contained at least 6,338 quatrains or prophecies,
as well as at least eleven annual calendars.
Most of the quatrains deal with disasters, such as plagues, , wars, floods, invasions, murders, droughts, and battles – all undated.
Nostradamus is a controversial figure. His many enthusiasts, as well as the popular press, credit him with predicting many major world events. Interest in his work is still considerable, especially in the media and in popular culture. By contrast, most academic scholars maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus’ quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations (sometimes deliberate) or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power.
In addition to the belief that some historical figures were endowed with a predisposition to psychic experiences, some psychic abilities were thought to be available to everyone on occasion. For example, the belief in prophetic dreams was common and persistent in many ancient cultures.
Nineteenth century progression
Edgar Cayce (1877–1945) was a psychic of the 20th century and made many highly publicized predictions.
In the mid-nineteenth century, Modern Spiritualism became prominent in the United States and theUnited Kingdom. The movement’s distinguishing feature was the belief that the spirits of the dead could be contacted by mediums to lend insight to the living.
The movement was fueled in part by anecdotes of psychic powers. One such person believed to have extraordinary abilities was Daniel Dunglas Home, who gained fame during the Victorian period for his reported ability to levitate to various heights and speak to the dead.
As the Spiritualist movement grew other comparable groups arose, including the Theosophical Society, which was co-founded in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891). Theosophy coupled spiritualist elements with Eastern mysticism and was influential in the early 20th century, later influencing the New Age movement during the 1970s. Blavatsky herself claimed numerous psychic powers.
Late twentieth century
By the late twentieth century psychics were commonly associated with New Age culture.
Psychic readings and advertising for psychics was very common in the 1990’s and readings were offered for a fee and given in settings such as over the phones, in a home, or at psychic fairs.
Belief in psychic abilities
In a survey, reported in 1990, of members of the National Academy of Sciences, only 2% of respondents thought that extrasensory perception had been scientifically demonstrated, with another 2% thinking that the phenomena happened sometimes. Asked about research in the field, 22% thought that it should be discouraged, 63% that it should be allowed but not encouraged, and 10% that it should be encouraged; neuroscientists were the most hostile to parapsychology of all the specialties.
A survey of the beliefs of the general United States population about paranormal topics was conducted by The Gallup Organization in 2005.
The survey found that 41 percent of those polled believed in extrasensory perception and 26 percent believed in clairvoyance. 31 percent of those surveyed indicated that they believe in telepathy or psychic communication.
A poll of 439 college students conducted in 2006 by researchers Bryan Farha of Oklahoma City University and Gary Steward ofUniversity of Central Oklahoma, suggested that college seniors and graduate students were more likely to believe in psychic phenomena than college freshmen.
23 percent of college freshmen expressed a belief in paranormal ideas. The percentage was greater among college seniors (31%) and graduate students (34%).
The poll showed lower belief in psychic phenomena among science students than social science and education students.
Some people also believe that psychic abilities can be activated or enhanced through the study and practice of various disciplines and techniques such as meditation, with a number of books and websites being dedicated to instruction in these methods. Another popular belief is that psychic ability is hereditary, with a psychic parent passing their abilities on to their children.[
Psychic advice industry
Many people proclaim to have psychic abilities and some make a living as professional psychics or earn celebrity hosting their own TV or radio programs. Individuals such as Gary Spivey, John Edward and Sylvia Browne either have their own television shows or are frequently featured on talk shows. (see Paranormal television).
Some psychics are first known by the public as celebrities; for example, rock singer and actress Danielle Egnew, who has made frequent radio and television appearances as a psychic, rather than a singer.
Science fiction
The use of psychic abilities as a plot device or super power is common in fiction. Psychic abilities in science fiction are often depicted as inborn and heritable, as in Alfred Bester’s The Demolished Man, A. E. van Vogt’s Slan, Anne McCaffrey’s Talents & Tower and the Hive series, and the television series Babylon 5. Another recurring trope is the conveyance of psychic power through psychoactive drugs, as in the Dune novels and indirectly in the Scanners films, as well as the ghosts in the Starcraft franchise . Somewhat differently, in Madeleine L’Engle’s A Wind in the Door and Robert A. Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land, psychic abilities may be achieved by any human who learns the proper mental discipline, known as kything in the former work and grokking in the latter. Popular movies include The initiation of Sarah. Psychic characters are also common in superhero comic books, for instance Jean Grey and Professor Xfrom the Marvel comic X-Men.
Criticism and researchParticipant of a Ganzfeld Experiment whose results have been criticized as being misinterpreted as evidence fortelepathy.
Parapsychological research has attempted to use random number generators to test forpsychokinesis, mild sensory deprivation in the Ganzfeld experiment to test for extrasensory perception, and research trials conducted under contract by the U.S. government to investigateremote viewing. Some of these tests such as the Ganzfeld have been put forward as evidence of psychic phenomena by parapsychologists, and according to the Parapsychological Association, the consensus within that field is that there is good evidence for extrasensory perception, psychokinesis, and presentiment] Critics such as Ed J. Gracely say that this evidence is not sufficient for acceptance, partly because the intrinsic probability of psychic phenomena is very small.
Critics such as Ray Hyman and the National Science Foundation suggest that parapsychology has methodological flaws that can explain the experimental results that parapsychologists attribute to paranormal explanations, and various critics have classed the field as pseudoscience. This has largely been due to lack of replication of results by independent experimenters.
The evidence presented for psychic phenomena is not sufficiently verified for scientific acceptance, and there exist many non-paranormal alternative explanations for claimed instances of psychic events. Parapsychologists, who generally believe that there is some evidence for psychic ability, disagree with critics who believe that no psychic ability exists and that many of the instances of more popular psychic phenomena such as mediumism, can be attributed to non-paranormal techniques such as cold reading, hot reading, or even self-delusion.[35][36] Magicians such as James Randi, Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics, but they present psychological explanations as opposed to paranormal ones
In January 2008 the results of a study using neuroimaging were published. To provide what are purported to be the most favorable experimental conditions, the study included appropriate emotional stimuli and had participants who are biologically or emotionally related, such as twins. The experiment was designed to produce positive results if telepathy, clairvoyance or precognition occurred, but despite this no distinguishable neuronal responses were found between psychic stimuli and non-psychic stimuli, while variations in the same stimuli showed anticipated effects on patterns of brain activation. The researchers concluded that “These findings are the strongest evidence yet obtained against the existence of paranormal mental phenomena.” James Alcock had cautioned the researchers against the wording of said statement.
A detailed study of Sylvia Browne predictions about missing persons and murder cases has found that despite her repeated claims to be more than 85% correct, “Browne has not even been mostly correct in a single case.”
Automatic writing or psychography is writing which the writer states to be produced from a subconscious and/or spiritual source without conscious awareness of the content.
History
George (Georgie) Hyde-Lees, the wife of William Butler Yeats, claimed that she could write automatically. In 1975, Wendy Hart of Maidenhead claimed that she wrote automatically about Nicholas Moore, a sea captain who died in 1642. Her husband, who did research on Moore, affirmed that this person had resided at St Columb Major in Cornwall during theEnglish Civil War.
Spiritual Automatic Writing
Sample of “Martian” automatic writing by medium Hélène Smith, as found in Théodore Flouroy’s From India to the Planet Mars.Main article: Spiritism
In spiritism, spirits are claimed to take control of the hand of a medium to write messages, letters, and even entire books. Automatic writing can happen in a trance or waking state.
Criticism
A 1998 article in Psychological Science described a series of experiments designed to determine whether people who believed in automatic writing could be shown that it might be the ideomotor effect. The paper indicated that “our attempt to introduce doubt about the validity of automatic writing did not succeed.” The paper noted that “including information about the controversy surrounding facilitated communication did not affect self-efficacy ratings, nor did it affect the number of responses that were produced. In this sense, illusory facilitation appears to be a very robust phenomenon, not unlike illusory correlation, which is not reversed by warning participants about the phenomenon.”
Psychology professor Théodore Flournoy investigated the claim by 19th-century medium Hélène Smith (Catherine Müller) that she did automatic writing to convey messages from Mars in Martian language. Flournoy concluded that her “Martian” language had a strong resemblance to Ms. Smith’s native language of French and that her automatic writing was “romances of the subliminal imagination, derived largely from forgotten sources (for example, books read as a child).” He invented the term cryptomnesia to describe this phenomenon.
History
The origin of mediumship is usually linked to the Fox sisters at Hydesville, Arcadia, New York in 1848, but some believers date the unofficial beginning of modern American Spiritualism to the Shakers and similar religious groups. By 1853 the movement had reached San Francisco and London, and by 1860 was worldwide. The Fox family remained very active in Spiritualism for many years. Other notable Spiritualists of that era were Mercy Cadwallader, who became a sort of missionary for the movement, and Emma Hardinge Britten, who wrote for the first Spiritualist newspaper in Britain, The Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph.
Great Britain
By the 1870s there were numerous Spiritualist societies and churches throughout the US and Britain, but there was little in the way of national organization of mediums in Britain or the USA although some regions of Britain had organized Federations that might have up to thirty circles of similar beliefs. In 1891 the National Federation of Spiritualists (NFS) came into existence and grew quite large before its name change to the Spiritualists’ National Union (SNU) in 1902. British spiritualists of this time were often adherents of the temperance and anti-capital punishment lobbies, often held radical political views and were frequently vegetarians. Some were active in the advocacy of women’s rights and female suffrage, and a minority espoused Free Love: the popular perception of Spiritualists was often of radicals in the Victorian period.
Two Worlds was the major British magazine of spiritualism and had a fairly large circulation, and it advertised the existence of local circles. D.D. Home one of the most renowned mediums of his era, did much to make spiritualism fashionable among the aristocracy on down by his high-profile activities. Trance mediumship flourished and table turning was a popular craze, reputedly even reachingBuckingham Palace.
By 1924 there were 309 Spiritualist churches affiliated to the SNU or one of the many other organizations. In 1932, a new magazine,Psychic News, joined Two Worlds on the newsstands of Britain and carried news of the doings in local Spiritualist churches.
From 1920 to 1938 there was the British College of Psychic Studies (1920 to 1947) led by Mr. and Mrs. Mackenzie in London, but more successful was the Arthur Findlay College at Stansted which continues to today.
In 1957 Spiritualist churches in Britain divided between the Spiritualists’ National Union, influenced by Arthur Findlay’s beliefs and holding spiritualism to be a religion, and the circles of Christian Spiritualism, who hold Spiritualism to be a denomination of Christianity. Spiritualists National Union churches form the large majority and are affiliated to Spiritualist Association of Great Britain (SAGB), which is not a church per se, but rather an organization for mediums. The SNU also has some member churches in other English speaking countries. Christian Spiritualist churches are mainly affiliated to The Greater World Christian Spiritualist Association (GWCSA).
Other Spiritualist groups in the UK include the White Eagle Lodge, founded by the medium Grace Cooke, the Institute of Spiritualist Mediums and the Noah’s Ark Society, that focuses on physical phenomena only.
International
There are Spiritualist churches in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, The Republic of South Africa, Sweden and groups in many countries including Japan, the Scandinavian countries, Korea, Italy, Germany, Austria, Hungary, The Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Portugal and Iceland. Many such groups and also individuals, are members of the International Spiritualist Federation (ISF) which was founded in Belgium in 1923 and is an umbrella organization for all spiritualists. The ISF holds congresses every two years in different parts of the world.
In Australia, the Associated Christian Spiritual Churches of Australia (ACSCOA) and the Victorian Spiritualists’ Union (VSU) co-exist alongside independent churches, and Canada has the International Spiritualist Alliance (ISA) along with its own complements of independent churches.
United States
Universal Hagar’s Spiritual Church,Manhattan
American spiritualism has long been more individualistic than its British counterpart. Many North America Spiritualist churches are denominationally affiliated with the National Spiritualist Association of Churches (NSAC), the National Spiritual Alliance (NSA), or the United Spiritualist Church Association (USCA), but almost as many are independent churches with no national affiliation.
Spiritualist churches generally have, in addition to the church proper, an educational wing called a Lyceum (the Greek word for “place of conversation”). These Spiritualist Lyceums function as a support system for the teaching of Spiritualist history and doctrine outside of the liturgical services, and enable the booking of guest lecturers and visiting mediums.
A unique aspect of American Spiritualism, which sets it apart from British church tradition, was the nineteenth century development and institutionalization of Spiritualist Camps, organized by urban Spiritualist churches. These rural retreats, located in picturesque natural settings throughout the United States, allow Spiritualist families to spend their summer vacations boating, hiking, attending Spiritualist lectures, taking development classes in mediumship, and receiving messages from guest mediums. Among the best-known of the Spiritualist Camps are Lily Dale Assembly in New York state, Camp Cassadaga in Florida, On-I-Set-Wigwam Spiritualist Camp in Massachusetts, Camp Chesterfield in Indiana, Sunset Spiritualist Camp in Kansas, and Wonewoc Spiritualist Camp in Wisconsin.
In 1922, during a time of rising Jim Crow laws and segregationism, the NSAC expelled its African American members. The Black Spiritualists then formed a national organization called the Colored Spiritualist Association of Churches (CSAC), which included churches in Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia, New York City, and elsewhere.
The CSAC eventually fractured over leadership and doctrinal issues, and the historically African American Spiritualist churches, now loosely referred to as the spiritual church movement, currently includes a variety of denominations such as the African Cultural Nationalist Universal Hagar’s Spiritual Church and theProtestant-Christian-oriented Pentecostal Spiritual Assemblies of Christ – International and Metropolitan Spiritual Churches of Christ.
The Spiritual Churches of New Orleans are a diverse group of denominations that have schismed from the denomination founded by theWisconsin-born Mother Leafy Anderson in the early twentieth century.
Most spiritual church movement churches incorporate theological Spiritualism, including the utilization of traditional “Spirit Guides” in worship services, with a mixture of Protestant and Catholic iconography.
The names of individual churches in these diverse denominations tend to indicate the denominational Christian orientation of their founders or their congregations. Some, such as Divine Israel Spiritual Church (in New Orleans), recall typical Black Baptist churches, others, like Divine Harmony Spiritual Church (in Miami), have names evocative of the early twentieth century New Thought movement, and some, such as Infant of Prague Spiritual Church – Unlike the NSAC Spiritualist churches, the denominations of the spiritual church movement generally do not maintain Spiritualist Camps or a Lyceum system of extra-liturgical education.
Styles of worship
Spiritualist churches are places of worship for the practitioners of Spiritualism. The Spiritualist service is usually conducted by a medium. Generally, there is an opening prayer, an address, the singing of hymns, and finally a demonstration of mediumship. Healing circles may also be part of the formal proceedings.
Liturgical and iconographic variations
Some Spiritualist churches maintain that Spiritualism is a religion in its own right, and has no relationship to any other religion.
Other Spiritualist churches draw inspiration from Christianity. African American Spiritualist churches tend to encourage ecstatic worship styles derived from African-American Protestant Baptist and Pentecostal practices.
The churches that directly descend from the teachings of Leafy Anderson are also distinguished by special services and hymns that honor the spirit of the Native American war chiefBlack Hawk, who lived in Illinois and Wisconsin (Anderson’s home state).
A third group pf Spiritualist churches propose the idea of the Universe as the creator, and does not necessarily follow any specific religious doctrine or dogma.
Mediumship within the churches
Spiritualists believe that we all die physically and that some aspect of the personality or mind survives this and continues to exist on a spirit plane, sometimes referred to as the spirit world.
Spiritualists use the word Spirit as a plural which describes all minds and entities who have entered into the spirit world. The purpose of the medium is to provide some evidence that a human has survived by describing the person to their surviving relatives. The degree of accuracy with which the deceased are described goes some way to convincing the living relatives and friends that the medium has some contact with the spirit.
Spiritualists describe this as “survival evidence'”.
There have been a number of famous practitioners of spirit communication connected to Spiritualist churches.
One of the principal advocates of Spiritualism was the 20th century British writer Arthur Findlay. Findlay was a magistrate, farmer and businessman who left his mansion house as place for the study and advancement of psychic science. This has now become a psychic college in Stansted, England and is run by the SNU.
Mediums develop their ability by sitting regularly in development circles with other student psychics. Meditation usually plays a large role in Spiritualist practice. Meditation is used to calm the “voices” of modern, hectic life so that the practitioner can better hear his or her guide. Meditation often includes the breathing practices of Buddhist meditation (anapanasati) and may also include the idea of chakras.
The Spiritualist may also focus on the tenets of their chosen religion to help them attain a higher existence. These may include standard prayers (Hail Mary, Shema Yisrael or Salah etc.), focusing on the name of God (Jesus, YHWH or Allah etc.) or other aspects of a holy nature. Like most meditation techniques, imaging (intensely imagining a place or situation) is common. There are specific imagings used to “meet” one’s guide, connect with those who have died, receive protection or support from God or simply calming the mind.
Through engaging their intuition, they attempt to contact with the spirits of the dead. This is known as opening up. In Britain especially, such mediums are trained to produce clear evidence that the spirit contacted is the person they claim it to be before going on to give any “message” from the spirit. Such evidence can be details of where they lived, including addresses sometimes, particulars of illnesses suffered and notable events in their lives, often known only to the person in the congregation being given the information.
Healing circles within the churches
Spiritualist healing, as practiced in some Spiritualist churches during formal liturgical services, is a form of mediumship which involves a technique of directing healing energy to the patient from a higher source. The healer uses his or her hands to affect repair of damaged or diseased tissue and it is claimed all or part of the patient’s good health is sometimes restored.
Controversy and criticism
Skeptics of Cayce say that the evidence for his powers comes from contemporaneous newspaper articles, affidavits, anecdotes, and testimonials, which are not scientifically rigorous.
They are also critical of Cayce’s support for various forms of alternative medicine, which they regard as quackery.
Michael Shermer writes in Why People Believe Weird Things, “Uneducated beyond the ninth grade, Cayce acquired his broad knowledge through voracious reading and from this he wove elaborate tales.”
Shermer wrote that, “Cayce was fantasy-prone from his youth, often talking with angels and receiving visions of his dead grandfather.” Shermer further cites James Randi as saying “Cayce was fond of expressions like ‘I feel that’ and ‘perhaps’ — qualifying words used to avoid positive declarations.”
When asked in a reading about the age of the Great Pyramid, Cayce stated it was built approximately 10,500 B.C. Later carbon dating puts the age from 3800–2850 B.C. — about 7,000 years later than Cayce’s claim.
Part of a series on
Spiritualism
Spirit · Spiritualism
Spiritualist beliefs
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Séance · Fortune-telling
Faith healing · Psychometry
Automatic writing · Ouija
Organizations
Spiritualist churches
Spiritist Centres
National Union
Spiritual Church Movement
National Spiritualist Association
Spiritualist Association of Great Britain
List of organizations
Related topics
Afterlife
Spirit world · Spirit guide
Shamanism · Animism
Psychic · Clairvoyant
Paranormal · Occult
Parapsychology
A SPIRITIST CENTER SUCH AS ASCENSION CENTER
A Spiritist Centre, also called Spiritist Society or Spiritist House, is the basic unit of organisation of Spiritism, which is a doctrinally and distinct form of Spiritualism.
In legal terms, Spiritisrt centres are ordinary non-profit associations, whose members are in charge of providing funds to run the centre itself and the various charity activities kept by it.
Each centre is run by a president or one or more directors elected for a term. Spiritist centres differ from Spiritualist churches in that they are not formally organized as ecclesiastical bodies.
In addition to the legal and corporeal aspects of its existence, a Spiritist Centre is also believed by its members to have an informal and incorporeal level of existence in the spirit world which comprises its patron and a series of protector spirits (which may be shared by other centres in the world).
ACE FOLKLIFE SOCIETY
Types of societies
There are many types of Spiritist organisations, depending on their goals, formal organisation, size, etc.
Familiar societies (often termed Spiritist Groups) do not have legal existence and conduct their meetings in private homes. Most of the social works provided by such societies is also informal and irregular.
Public societies (the Spiritist Centres in the proper sense) must have legal existence and host their meetings in dedicated buildings. They have a fairly large number of members (ranging from about 100 to thousands) and usually provide significant social work, in form of schools, clinics, food distribution for the poor, etc.
Regional and national entities are groups that organise and coordinate the activities of Spiritism state or nationwide.
Virtual societies; these exist only on the internet and provide basic services, including directories of actual meeting places as outlined above.
Activities
Spiritist Centres are complex to define because they are not, in the strictest sense, ordinary religious entities. The activities carried on by a spiritist centresor Centers such as the Ascension Center for there are of many types:
Formation
Spiritist centre may be be founded by anyone well-versed in Spiritist doctrine.
Courses of Instruction
Doctrinal classes have a twofold goal: 1) to share the knowledge available in the books and brought by the founders 2) to identify potential mediums and workers.
Most Spiritist centres conduct the following courses:
Basic course for beginners — intended for newcomers, are based on the general aspects of the doctrine.
Study of The Spirits Book
Study of The Mediums Book
Studies of the Gospels and/or The Gospel According to Spiritism
Advanced studies (including The Genesis According to Spiritism, Heaven and Hell, and works of other writers, like Léon Denis, Chico Xavier, Gabriel Delanne and others, which are regarded as complementary to Allan Kardec.
Basic course for children
Short courses — meetings in which other books are studied.
The first three courses are almost universal.
Proselytism
The only form of proselytism found in Spiritism is the disclosure of the doctrine (or aspects of it) to the general public. Divulgation of doctrine is carried on in many ways:
Workshops
Radio transmissions
Websites
Staging of plays featuring the doctrine
Management of a public library containing mostly books on the doctrine or written by mediums
Spiritual assistance
Spiritists understand the term Spiritual assistance very literally, meaning “assistance to the spirit” of either a living person or a deceased one.
Spiritual assistance oferred at Spiritist centres includes disobsession, healing, and blessing (directed to the followers and occasional visitors) as well as medium meetings in which several types of spiritual assistance is directed to spirits of deceased people.
Spiritual assistance is intended to fight the four greatest foes of mankind — suicide, murder (which includes abortion), addiction and envy(which is the cause of most other problems) — thus reducing the suffering of mankind.
The ultimate goal of spiritual assistance is to help our planet to make it through its current stage of evolution, ceasing to be a world of penance to become a happier one.
Material assistance
Spiritist centres or Spirit Centers also carry on social works directed to outsiders which are “in need of help”. Material assistance is intended to provide relief to the immediate needs of the poor and the unhappy.
In Brazil, Spiritist centres characteristically maintain the following types of charities:
Crèches
Kindergartens
Orphanages
Distribution of food for the homeless
Distribution of medicines for the ill (including contraceptives for the poor)
Bigger centres may keep clinics, schools, publishing houses, etc.
In spite of their respect for homoeopathy, the kind of medicine practiced in clinics maintained by spiritist centres and the medicines they give to the poor are both nearly always mainstream.
ART FORMS
Asemic writing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaAsemic writing from Marco Giovenale
Asemic writing is a wordless open semantic form of writing. The word asemic means “having no specific semantic content”.
With the nonspecificity of asemic writing there comes a vacuum of meaning which is left for the reader to fill in and interpret. All of this is similar to the way one would deduce meaning from an abstract work of art. The open nature of asemic works allows for meaning to occur trans-linguistically; an asemic text may be “read” in a similar fashion regardless of the reader’s natural language. Multiple meanings for the same symbolism are another possibility for an asemic work.
Some asemic writing includes pictograms or ideograms, the meanings of which are sometimes, but not always, suggested by their shapes. Asemic writing, at times, exists as a conception or shadow of conventional writing practices. Reflecting writing, but not completely existing as a traditional writing system, asemic writing seeks to make the reader hover in a state between reading and looking.
Asemic writing has no verbal sense, though it may have clear textual sense. Through its formatting and structure, asemic writing may suggest a type of document and, thereby, suggest a meaning. The form of art is still writing, often calligraphic in form, and either depends on a reader’s sense and knowledge of writing systems for it to make sense, or can be understood through aesthetic intuition.
Asemic writing can also be seen as a relative perception, whereby unknown languages and forgotten scripts provide templates and platforms for new modes of expression. It has been suggested that asemic writing exists in 2 ways: “true” asemic writing and “relative” asemic writing.
True asemic writing occurs when the creator of the asemic piece cannot read their own asemic writing. Relative asemic writing is a natural writing system that can be read by some people but not by everyone. Between these 2 axioms is where asemic writing exists and plays.
The Asemic Continuum
Influences on asemic writing are illegible, invented, or primal scripts (cave paintings, doodles, children’s drawings, etc.). But instead of being thought of as mimicry of preliterate expression, asemic writing may be considered to be a postliterate style of writing that uses all forms of creativity for inspiration. Other influences on asemic writing are xenolinguistics,artistic languages, sigils (magic), undeciphered scripts, and graffiti.
Asemic writing occurs in avant-garde literature and art with strong roots in the earliest forms of writing. An illustrious modern example of asemic writing is the Codex Seraphinianus. In a talk at the Oxford University Society of Bibliophiles held on May 8, 2009, Luigi Serafini has stated that the script of the Codex is asemic.
Asemic writing exists as an international style, with writers and artists who create it in many different countries across the globe. One artist, who has been practicing asemic writing since the early 1970s, is Mirtha Dermisache from Argentina. Cecil Touchon, from Fort Worth,Texas, is also an artist who has been creating asemic fragments of writing since the mid-1970s. Another contemporary artist, who has been creating asemic writing for the past 25 years (mid-1980s), is Brooklyn, New York based José Parlá. In China, during the 1990s an abstract calligraphy movement known as “calligraphyism” came into existence, a leading proponent of this movement being Luo Qi. Calligraphyism is an aesthetic movement that aims to develop calligraphy into an abstract art. The characters do not need to retain their traditional forms or be legible as words.
A current author of asemic works is Steven J Fowler.
Publications that cover asemic writing include Tim Gaze’s Asemic Magazine, Michael Jacobson’s weblog gallery The New Post-Literate, and Marco Giovenale’s curated group blog Asemic Net. Asemic writing has appeared in books, artworks, films and on television but it has especially been distributed via the internet.
History
Here’s a slab quoted from a recent email from visual poet Jim Leftwich (he was explaining himself to an artist named Billy Bob Beamer):
30 years ago i was writing syllabics as a way of creating rhythmic patters unlike traditional metric verse, and trying to lose the influence of eliot, breton and berryman. sometime in the mid-90s, probably 97, a visual poet named john byrum sent me a postcard in response to a series of poems i had sent him. the poems were letteral variations of poems by John M. Bennett. in a ps at the bottom of the card byrum wrote something like “if you continue in this vein you will soon be writing asemic poems”. that was the first time i saw the word “asemic”.
Tim gaze contacted me around the same time. i was thinking about purely textual asemia. tim was thinking about a more calligraphic form of writing. my textual work was already letteral, and my visual work was breaking the letter-forms down and becoming a poetry of quasi- or sub- letteral marks. I started making quasi-calligraphic works and sending them around to poetry magazines – and calling them asemic. tim was doing something very similar. that was the beginning of what is now being called “the asemic movement”.
I promoted the practice (and the word itself) very energetically for several years (8 – 10 years or so). tim has been even more energetic and ambitious, and is still going strong. there is a long and complex history preceding all of this, of course, but this is how the current “movement” got underway. tim can tell you much more about the history of the term itself.
Bruce Sterling comments about asemic writing on his Wired magazine blog Beyond The Beyond:
Writing that doesn’t have any actual writing in it whatsoever. You would think that this must be some kind of ultimate literary frontier, a frozen Antarctica of writing entirely devoid of literary content, but I wonder. What is “beyond asemic writing”? Maybe a neural brain-scan of an author *thinking about* asemic writing. Maybe *generative asemic writing.* Maybe “asemic biomimicry.” Maybe nanoasemic writing inscribed with atomic force microscopes by Artificial Intelligences.
Influences and predecessorsOne of Zhang Xu’s calligraphy works
From the Tim Gaze interview on Dogmatika: “you could say that nature, since time began, has been manifesting asemic writing. It just needs a human to see the writing, & recognize it”.
In Tang Dynasty China, ca. 800 CE, two men pushed cursive brush calligraphy to the point of illegibility. “Crazy” Zhang Xu (one of the Eight Immortals of the Wine Cup) used to get excited after drinking wine, and write exuberant but illegible cursive. The younger “mad monk” Huai Su also found renown as a writer of loose cursive calligraphy.
Hélène Smith’s Martian, although that can also be considered a conlang with a consistent writing system or conscript.
Austin Osman Spare, Sigilization. Spare published a method by which the words of a statement of intent are reduced into an abstract design, and then charged with the energy of one’s will.
Henri Michaux’s Alphabet, Narration (1927), and intuitive ink drawings, such as Stroke by Stroke.
Cy Twombly Many of his best-known paintings of the late 1960s are reminiscent of a school blackboard on which someone has practiced cursive “e”s. His paintings of the late 1950s, early 1960s might be reminiscent of long term accumulation of bathroom graffiti. Also see Twombly’s series Roman Notes (1970).
Christian Dotremont and his logograms.
Lettrisme / Isidore Isou’s “idea for the poem of the future was that it should be purely formal, devoid of all semantic content.”
Brion Gysin’s calligraphic paintings influenced by Japanese and Arabic calligraphy. A prominent example of one of Gysin’s calligraphic paintings is Calligraffiti of Fire (1986).
Ulfert Wilke and Abstract Expressionism. Wilke was deeply intrigued by the written language, and much of his work was derived from his abstract interpretation of the shapes, colors and meanings of writing that he found in all languages and forms.
In 1974 the New York Graphic Society released a very influential work to asemic writers, Max Ernst’s book Maximiliana: The Illegal Practice of Astronomy.
Timothy Ely’s invented cribriform writing. Ely’s work evokes a range of thematic material: arcane knowledge, secrets andcryptography, time and timelessness. He has developed a private written language using 366 individual signs or “idiographic ciphers.”
Xu Bing’s A Book from the Sky; “The installation consisted of a set of books, panels and scrolls on which were printed thousands of characters resembling real Chinese ideograms, all devoid of semantic content”.
Roland Barthes contre-écritures.
Rachid Koraichi, his work is influenced by an abiding fascination with signs of all kinds, both real and imaginary. Beginning with the intricate beauties of the Arabic calligraphic scripts, his work is composed of symbols, glyphs and ciphers drawn from a wide variety of other languages and cultures.
Gu Wenda, in the 1980s, he began the first of a series of projects centered on the invention of meaningless, false Chinese ideograms, depicted as if they were truly old and traditional. One exhibition of this type, held in Xi’an in 1986, featured paintings of fake ideograms on a massive scale.
Apophenia
Artist’s book
Automatic writing
Dada
Experimental literature
Glossolalia
Haptic poetry
Lorem ipsum
Nonsense
Postliterate society
Visual poetry
Voynich manuscript
Ayurveda (Sanskrit: ; Ayurveda, “the complete knowledge for long life”;or ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicine native to India
and a form of alternative medicine.
In Sanskrit, words ayus, meaning “longevity”, and veda, meaning “related to knowledge” or “science”.
The earliest literature on Indian medical practice appeared during the Vedic period in India,
i.e., in the mid-second millennium BCE. The Susruta Sa?hita and the Caraka Sa?hita are great encyclopedias of medicine compiled from various sources from the mid-first millennium BCE to about 500 CE.
They are among the foundational works of Ayurveda. Over the following centuries, ayurvedic practitioners developed a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for the treatment of various ailments .
Western[neutrality is disputed] medicine has ayurveda classified[dubious – discuss] as a system ofcomplementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that is used to complement, rather than replace, the treatment regimen and relationship that exists between a patient and their existing physician
Dhanvantari, the Hindu god of Ayurveda worshipped at an Ayurveda expo,Bangalore.
Acupuncture · Anthroposophic medicine ·Ayurveda · Chiropractic · Herbalism ·Homeopathy · Naturopathy ·Siddha medicine · Traditional medicine
(Chinese · Mongolian · Tibetan) · Unani
NCCAM classifications
Whole medical systems ·Mind-body interventions ·Biologically based therapies ·Manipulative therapy · Energy therapies
See also
Alternative medicine · Glossary · People
At an early period, Ayurveda adopted the physics of the “five elements” (Devanagari: ;P?thvi- (earth), Jala(water), Agni (fire), Vayu (air) and Akasa (Sky)) — that compose the universe, including the human body.
Chyle or plasma (called rasa dhatu), blood (rakta dhatu), flesh (ma?sa dhatu), fat (medha dhatu), bone (asthi dhatu), marrow (majja dhatu), and semen or female reproductive tissue (sukra dhatu) are held to be the seven primary constituent elements – saptadhatu (Devanagari: ) of the body.
Ayurvedic literature deals elaborately with measures of healthful living during the entire span of life and its various phases. Ayurveda stresses a balance of three elemental energies or humors: vata (air & space – “wind”), pitta (fire & water – “bile”) and kapha (water & earth – “phlegm”). According to ayurvedic medical theory, these three substances — do?as (literally that which deteriorates – Devanagari: )—are important for health, because when they exist in equal quantities, the body will be healthy, and when they are not in equal amounts, the body will be unhealthy in various ways. One ayurvedic theory asserts that each human possesses a unique combination of do?as that define that person’s temperament and characteristics. Another view, also present in the ancient literature, asserts that humoral equality is identical to health, and that persons with preponderances of humours are proportionately unhealthy, and that this is not their natural temperament. In ayurveda, unlike the Sa?khya philosophical system, there are 20 fundamental qualities,gu?a (Devanagari: , meaning qualities) inherent in all substances.
Surgery and surgical instruments were employed from a very early period, Ayurvedic theory asserts that building a healthy metabolic system, attaining good digestion, and proper excretion leads to vitality.
Ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, meditation, and massage.
The practice of pañcakarma (Devanagari: ) is a therapeutic regime of purgation, sweating and massage that aims at eliminating toxic elements from the body.As early as the Mahabharata, ayurveda was called “the science of eight components” (a classification that became canonical for ayurveda. They are:
Internal medicine (Kaya-cikitsa)
Paediatrics (Kaumarabh?tyam)
Surgery (Salya-cikitsa)
Eye and ENT (Salakya tantra)
Fear possession (Bhuta vidya): Bhuta vidya has been called psychiatry.
Toxicology (Agadatantram)
Prevention diseases and improving immunity and rejuvenation (rasayana)
Aphrodisiacs and improving health of progeny (Vajikaranam)
In Hindu mythology, the origin of ayurvedic medicine is attributed to the physician of the gods, Dhanvantari.
PracticesSeveral philosophers in India combined religion and traditional medicine—notable examples being that of Hinduism and ayurveda. Shown in the image is the philosopher Nagarjuna—known chiefly for his doctrine of the Madhyamaka (middle path)—who wrote medical works The Hundred Prescriptions and The Precious Collection, among others.
Balance
Hinduism and Buddhism have been an influence on the development of many of ayurveda’s central ideas — particularly its fascination with balance, known in Buddhism as Madhyamaka(Devanagari: Balance is emphasized; suppressing atural urges is seen to be unhealthy, and doing so may almost certainly lead to illness.
However, people are cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure.For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake,sleep, sexual intercourse, and the intake of medicine.
Diagnosis
The Charaka Samhita recommends a tenfold examination of the patient.
The qualities to be judged are:
constitution
abnormality
essence
stability
body measurements
diet suitability
psychic strength
digestive capacity
physical fitness
age
In addition, Chopra (2003) identifies five influential criteria for diagnosis:
origin of the disease
prodrominal (precursory) symptoms
typical symptoms of the fully developed disease
observing the effect of therapeutic procedures
the pathological process’
Ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using all five senses. Hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech.
The study of the lethal points or marma is of special importance.
Ayurvedic doctors regard physical and mental existence together with personality as a unit, each element having the capacity to influence the others. One of the fundamental aspects of ayurvedic medicine is to take this into account during diagnosis and therapy.
Hygiene
Hundreds of plant-based medicines are used in ayurvedic medicine—includingcardamom and cinnamon.
Hygiene is an Indian cultural value and a central practice of ayurvedic medicine. Hygienic living involves regular bathing, cleansing of teeth, skin care, and eye washing. Occasionalanointing of the body with oil is also prescribed.
Treatments
Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments.
Hundreds of plant-based medicines are employed, including cardamom and cinnamon. Some animal products may also be used, for example milk, bones, and gallstones.
In addition, fats are used both for consumption and for external use. Minerals, including sulfur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfateand gold are also consumed as prescribed.This practice of adding minerals to herbal medicine is known as rasa shastra.
In some cases, alcohol is used as a narcotic for the patient undergoing an operation. The advent of Islam introduced opium as a narcotic.
Both oil and tar are used to stop bleeding
Traumatic bleeding is said to be stopped by four different methods ligation of the blood vessel; cauterisation by heat; using different herbal or animal preparations locally which facilitate clotting; and different medical preparations which constrict the bleeding or oozing vessels. Different oils may be used in a number of ways including regular consumption as a part of food, anointing, smearing,head massage, and prescribed application to infected areas.The medical practice or technique of cauterization is the burning of part of a body to remove or close off a part of it in a process called cautery, which destroys some tissue, in an attempt to mitigate damage, remove an undesired growth, or minimize other potential medical harmful possibilities such as infections, when antibiotics are not available. The practice was once widespread for treatment of wounds. Its utility before the advent of antibiotics was effective on several levels:
useful in stopping severe blood-loss and preventing exsanguination
to close amputations
Cautery was historically believed to prevent infection, but current research shows that cautery actually increases the risk for infection by causing more tissue damage and providing a more hospitable environment for bacterial growth.
Actual cautery is a term referring to the white-hot iron—a metal generally heated only up to a dull red glow—that is applied to produceblisters, to stop bleeding of a blood vessel, and other similar purposes.
The main forms of cauterization used today in the first world are electrocautery and chemical cautery—where both are, for example, prevalent in the removal of unsightly warts. Cautery can also mean the branding of a human, either recreational or forced. Accidental burnscan be considered cauterization as well.
Foot massage
Head massage
Facemask
Massage table
Steambox
Srotas
Ensuring the proper functions of channels (srotas) that transport fluids from one point to another is a vital goal of ayurvedic medicine, because the lack of healthy srotas is thought to cause rheumatism, epilepsy, autism, paralysis, convulsions, and insanity. Practitioners induce sweating and prescribe steam-based treatments as a means to open up the channels and dilute the doshas that cause the blockages and lead to disease.
HistoryThe mantra written on rocks. Chanting mantras has been a feature of ayurveda since the Atharvaveda, the vedic spiritual text, was compiled.
Om mani padme hum
The mantra in Tibetan script”om manipadme hu?”, written in Tibetan script on a rock outside the Potala Palace in Tibet
O? ma?ipadme hu?
(Sanskrit: IPA: [õ?? m??ip?d?me? ?u?]) is the six syllabled mantra particularly associated with the four-armed Shadakshari form ofAvalokiteshvara (Tibetan Chenrezig, Chinese Guanyin), the bodhisattva of compassion. Mani means “the jewel” and Padma means “the lotus”.
The mantra is especially revered by devotees of the Dalai Lama, as he is said to be anincarnation of Chenrezig or Avalokiteshvara.
It is commonly carved onto rocks or written on paper which is inserted into prayer wheels, said to increase the mantra’s effects.
TransliterationsOm Mani Peme Hung in Tibetan script
In English the mantra is variously transliterated, depending on the schools of Buddhism as well as individual teachers.
Most authorities consider ma?ipadme to be one compound word rather than two simple words[citation needed]. Sanskrit writing does not have capital letters leaving capitalisation of transliterated mantras varying irrationally from all caps, to initial caps, to no caps. All caps is typical of older scholarly works, and in Tibetan Sadhana texts.
Possible spellings and their transliterations include:
Tibetan: Om Mani Peme Hung or Om Mani Beh Meh Hung or Om mani padme hum (Ladakh)
Devanagari: IAST: o? ma?ipadme hu?
Bengali:
Malayalam:
Tamil:
Chinese ?, pinyin An mání bami hong (due to changes over time in pronunciation, this transcription has been adopted in favor of the transliteration found in the Karandavyuha Sutra, An mání bonàmíng hong)
Korean HangulOm mani padeume hum or
Om mani banme hum
Japanese Katakana On mani padome hun, On mani peme hun
Russian:
Mongolian: or Um maani badmi khum
Vietnamese: Úm ma ni bát ni h?ng or Án ma ni bát mê h?ng
Thai
MeaningThe mantra with the six syllables colored
Mantras may be interpreted by practitioners in many ways, or even as mere sequences of sound whose effects lie beyond strict meaning.
The middle part of the mantra, ma?ipadme, is often interpreted as “jewel in the lotus,”Sanskrit ma?í “jewel, gem, cintamani” and the locative of padma “lotus”, but according toDonald Lopez it is much more likely that ma?ipadme is in fact a vocative, not a locative, addressing a bodhisattva called ma?ipadma, “Jewel-Lotus”- an alternate epithet of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara It is preceded by the o? syllable and followed by the hu?syllable, both interjections without linguistic meaning.
Lopez also notes that the majority of Tibetan Buddhist texts have regarded the translation of the mantra as secondary, focusing instead on the correspondence of the six syllables of the mantra to various other groupings of six in the Buddhist tradition. For example, in theChenrezig Sadhana, Tsangsar Tulku Rinpoche expands upon the mantra’s meaning, taking its six syllables to represent the purification of the six realms of existence:
Syllable Six Paramitas Purifies Samsaric realm Colours Symbol of the Deity (Wish them) To be born in
Om Generosity Pride / Ego Devas White Wisdom Perfect Realm of Potala
Ma Ethics Jealousy / Lust for entertainment Asuras Green Compassion Perfect Realm of Potala
Ni Patience Passion / desire Humans Yellow Body, speech, mind
quality and activity Dewachen
Pad Diligence Ignorance / prejudice Animals Blue Equanimity the presence of Protector (Chenrezig)
Me Renunciation Poverty / possessiveness Pretas (hungry ghosts) Red Bliss Perfect Realm of Potala
Hum Wisdom Aggression / hatred Naraka Black Quality of Compassion the presence of the Lotus Throne (of Chenrezig)
AYURVEDA
One view of the early history of ayurveda asserts that around 1500 BC, ayurveda’s fundamental and applied principles got organised and enunciated. In this historical construction, Ayurveda traces its origins to the Vedas, Atharvaveda in particular, and is connected to Hindu religion. Atharvaveda (one of the four most ancient books of Indian knowledge, wisdom and culture) contains 114 hymns or formulations for the treatment of diseases. Ayurveda originated in and developed from these hymns. In this sense, ayurveda is considered by some to have divine origin. Indian medicine has a long history, and is one of the oldest organised systems of medicine. Its earliest concepts are set out in the sacred writings called the Vedas, especially in the metrical passages of the Atharvaveda, which may possibly date as far back as the 2nd millennium BC. According to a later writer, the system of medicine was received by Dhanvantari from Brahma, and Dhanvantari was deified as the god of medicine. In later times his status was gradually reduced, until he was credited with having been an earthly king named Divodasa.
A different historical narrative been developed by professional historians of medicine during the last twenty years. In this account, the medicine of the Atharvaveda and other Vedas is not directly connected to the origins of Ayurveda, although there are some continuities, especially in the area of pharmacology. The first traces of the ideas that become central to ayurvedic medical theory, such as the theories of doshas (humours) and the classification of disease causes, occur in the Pali Tripitaka, the Buddhist Canon. It has therefore been proposed that ayurvedic theory and practice owes a great deal to the practices and ideas of the ascetic milieu of the fifth to the third centuries BCE. This would include the early Buddhists, the Ajivikas, the Jains, and the ascetics mentioned in the Upanisads, as well as non-denominational renouncers.Underwood & Rhodes (2008) hold that this early phase of traditional Indian medicine identified ‘fever (takman), cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, andskin diseases (including leprosy)’.Treatment of complex ailments, including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones, also ensued during this period.
Plastic surgery, cataract surgery, puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign elements, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections, and stitching of wounds were known. The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread.
The Charaka Samhita text is arguably the principal classic reference. It gives emphasis to the triune nature of each person: body care, mental regulation, and spiritual/consciousness refinement.
Other early works of ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, attributed to Charaka.
The earliest surviving excavated written material which contains references to the works of Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript, dated to the 6th century AD. The Bower manuscript is of special interest to historians due to the presence of Indian medicine and its concepts inCentral Asia.
Vagbhata, the son of a senior doctor by the name of Simhagupta, also compiled his works on traditional medicine
Early ayurveda had a school of physicians and a school of surgeons.
Tradition holds that the text Agnivesh tantra, written by the sage Agnivesh, a student of the sage Bharadwaja, influenced the writings of ayurveda.
The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (ca. 337–422 AD) wrote about the health care system of theGupta empire (320–550) and described the institutional approach of Indian medicine, also visible in the works of Charaka, who mentions a clinic and how it should be equipped. Madhava (fl. 700), Sarngadhara (fl. 1300), and Bhavamisra (fl. 1500) compiled works on Indian medicine.
The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate(ca. 750).
These Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries.
In Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.
British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasty being performed by native methods.
Reports on Indian rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman’s Magazine in 1794.
Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods. Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the western world in 1815.Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western World.
A typical ayurvedic Pharmacy, Rishikesh.
Within India
In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act which aims to standardize qualifications for ayurveda and provide accredited institutions for its study and research was passed by theParliament of India.
In India, over 100 colleges offer degrees in traditional ayurvedic medicine.
The Indian government supports research and teaching in ayurveda through many channels at both the national and state levels, and helps institutionalize traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities.[
The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) is the premier institution for promotion of traditional medicine in India.
The studies conducted by this institution encompass clinical, drug, literary, and family welfare research.
To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as repository of 1200 formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as ayurveda, unani and siddha.
The library also has 50 traditional ayurveda books digitized and available online.
Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971, under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, monitors higher education in ayurveda.
The Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) degree is the basic five-and-a-half year course of graduation. It includes eighteen different subjects comprising courses on anatomy with cadaver dissections, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, modern clinical medicine & clinical surgery, pediatrics, along with subjects on ayurveda like Charaka Samhita, history and evolution of ayurveda, identification and usage of herbs (dravyaguna), and ayurvedic philosophy in diagnostics and treatment. post graduation programmes are also available in various specialities in ayurveda including surgery, paediatrics etc. The degree is awarded as m.d (ayurveda vachaspati) and m.s ayurveda (ayurveda dhanvantri). CCIM has also started the post graduation diplomas in various specialities of ayurveda.
Many clinics in urban and rural areas are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes.
Mukherjee & Wahile cite World Health Organization statistics to demonstrate the popularity of traditional medicine as the primary system of health care.
Outside India
Several international and national initiatives have been formed to legitimize the education and practice of ayurvedic medicine as CAM in countries outside India:
WHO policy of traditional medicine practice and standardized benchmarks for training of Ayurvedic practitioners
The European Federation for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
The European Ayurveda Association[
In Sri Lanka
Institute of Indigenous Medicine affiliated to University of Colombo
Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Institute affiliated to University of Kelaniya
Seemasahitha Gampaha Siddhayrveda Rasayanoushadha Samagama
Ayurveda Lanka Hospital Pvt Ltd.
Dr Eliyantha White – spiritual healer from Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Due to different laws and medical regulations in the rest of the world, the unregulated practice and commercialization of ayurvedic medicine has raised ethical and legal issues; in some cases, this damages the reputation of ayurvedic medicine outside India.
In the United States
Early contributors to the promotion of Ayurveda in the United States include the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Transcendental Meditation group along with Dr. Deepak Chopra. Other important early promoters include Dr. David Frawley, Dr. Vasant Lad, Dr. Robert SvobodaDr. John Douillard, Dr. Sarita Shrestha and Dr. Marc Halpern. In 1995, the California College of Ayurveda became the first State-Approved institution for training practitioners of Ayurveda in the United States marking the beginning of the formalization of Ayurvedic education in the United States. In 1997, Dr. Marc Halpern and several graduates of the California College of Ayurveda formed theCalifornia Association of Ayurvedic Medicine. This association was the first State association promoting the interests of Ayurveda in the United States. In 1998, four individuals founded the National Ayurvedic Medical Association. These four individuals were Dr. Marc Halpern, Wynn Werner, Dr. Kumar Batra and Cynthia Copple. In 2009, the United States of America National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) of the National Institutes of Health expended $1.2 million of its $123 million annual budget on ayurvedic medicine-related research.
In the United Kingdom
Ayurveda was introduced to UK in early eighties. In 2001, the Thames Valley University started the first degree qualification in Ayurveda. It was followed by Manipal Ayurvedic University of Europe (BSc- Ayurveda) in 2006 and Middlesex University offering bachelors and masters degree programmes in Ayurveda.
The Secretary of State for Health has announced in a Ministerial Statement issued on 16 February 2011 by the UK Department of Health that the Health Professions Council (HPC) has been asked to establish a statutory register for practitioners supplying unlicensed herbal medicines including Ayurveda.A formal consultation exercise will take place on specific legislative proposals for establishing the register and proposed reforms of medicines legislation later in 2011. Subject to Parliamentary procedures, the Department of Health aims to have the legislation in place in 2012.
Journals
A variety of journals focus on the topic of ayurvedic medicine:
Ancient Science of Life
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Journal of Research & Education in Indian Medicine (JREIM),
AYU
The International Journal for Ayurveda Research (IJAR)
None of the journals except IJAR and JAIM are PubMed indexed. The first subspeciality journal for the field of ayurvedic medicine was launched in July 2010. Its focus is rheumatology and it is titled the Journal of Clinical Rheumatology in Ayurveda.
Patents
In December 1993, the University of Mississippi Medical Center had a patent issued to them by United States Patent and Trademark Office on the use of turmeric for healing.
The patent was contested by India’s industrial research organization, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), on the grounds that traditional ayurvedic practitioners were already aware of the healing properties of the substance for centuries, and that this prior art made the patent a case of bio-piracy.
The Government of India had become involved in promoting traditional medicine by 1997.
R A Mashelkar, director-general of the Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, made the following observation:
This is a significant development of far-reaching consequences for the protection of the traditional knowledge base in the public domain, which has been an emotional issue for not only the people of India but also for the other third world countries.
Scientific evidence
Chemical structure of curcumin used in ayurvedic medicine. As a traditional medicine, many ayurveda products have not been tested in rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials. In India, research in ayurveda is largely undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha(CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes.
A systematic review of ayurveda treatments for rheumatoid arthritis concluded that there was insufficient evidence, as most of the trials were not done properly, and the one high-quality trial showed no benefits.
A review of ayurveda and cardiovascular disease concluded that while the herbal evidence is not yet convincing, the spices are appropriate, some herbs are promising, andyoga is also a promising complementary treatment.
Some ayurvedic products, mainly herbs used for phytotherapy, have been tested with promising results. Studies suggest that Turmericand its derivative curcumin are antioxidants.
Tinspora cordifolia has been tested.
Among the medhya rasayanas (intellect rejuvenation), two varieties of Salvia have been tested in small trials; one trial provided evidence that Salvia lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) may improve word recall in young adults,and another provided evidence that Salvia officinalis (Common sage) may improve symptoms in Alzheimer’s patients.
In some cases, ayurvedic medicine may provide clues to therapeutic compounds. For example, derivatives of snake venom have various therapeutic properties.
Many plants used as rasayana (rejuvenation) medications are potent antioxidants.
Neem appears to have beneficial pharmacological properties.
Mitra & Rangesh (2003) hold that cardamom and cinnamon stimulate digestive enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules in the human body.
Research suggests that T. arjuna is useful in alleviating the pain of angina pectoris and in treating heart failure andcoronary artery disease.
T. arjuna may also be useful in treating hypercholesterolemia
Karandavyuha Sutra definition
The first known description of the mantra appears in the Karandavyuha Sutra (Chinese: (Taisho Tripitaka 1050);
English: Buddha speaks Mahayana Sublime Treasure King Sutra), which is part of certain Mahayana canons such as the Tibetan. In this sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha states, “This is the most beneficial mantra. Even I made this aspiration to all the million Buddhas and subsequently received this teaching from Buddha Amitabha.”
H.H. the 14th Dalai Lama’s definition
“It is very good to recite the mantra Om mani padme hum, but while you are doing it, you should be thinking on its meaning, for the meaning of the six syllables is great and vast… The first, Om […] symbolizes the practitioner’s impure body, speech, and mind; it also symbolizes the pure exalted body, speech, and mind of a Buddha[…]
“”The path is indicated by the next four syllables. Mani, meaning jewel, symbolizes the factors of method: (the) altruistic intention to become enlightened, compassion, and love.[…]””The two syllables, padme, meaning lotus, symbolize wisdom[…]””Purity must be achieved by an indivisible unity of method and wisdom, symbolized by the final syllable hum, which indicates indivisibility[…]””Thus the six syllables, om mani padme hum, mean that in dependence on the practice of a path which is an indivisible union of method and wisdom, you can transform your impure body, speech, and mind into the pure exalted body, speech, and mind of a Buddha[…]”– H.H. Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama, “Om Mani Padme Hum”
Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche’s definition
“The mantra Om Mani Päme Hum is easy to say yet quite powerful, because it contains the essence of the entire teaching. When you say the first syllable Om it is blessed to help you achieve perfection in the practice of generosity, Ma helps perfect the practice of pure ethics, and Ni helps achieve perfection in the practice of tolerance and patience. Pä, the fourth syllable, helps to achieve perfection of perseverance, Me helps achieve perfection in the practice of concentration, and the final sixth syllable Hum helps achieve perfection in the practice of wisdom.”So in this way recitation of the mantra helps achieve perfection in the six practices from generosity to wisdom. The path of these six perfections is the path walked by all the Buddhas of the three times. What could then be more meaningful than to say the mantra and accomplish the six perfections?”— Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, Heart Treasure of the Enlightened Ones
Karma Thubten Trinley’s definition
“These are the six syllables which prevent rebirth into the six realms of cyclic existence. It translates literally as ‘OM the jewel in the lotus HUM’. OM prevents rebirth in the god realm, MA prevents rebirth in the Asura (Titan) Realm, NI prevents rebirth in the Human realm, PA prevents rebirth in the Animal realm, ME prevents rebirth in the Hungry ghost realm, and HUM prevents rebirth in the Hell realm.”—Karma Thubten Trinley
The mantra: Om Mani Peme Hung Hri
As Bucknell, et al. (1986: p. 15) opine, the complete Avalokiteshvara Mantra includes a finalhri? (Sanskrit: , IPA: which is iconographically depicted in the central space of the syllabic mandala as seen in the ceiling decoration of the Potala Palace.
The hri is not always vocalized audibly, and may be resonated “internally” or “secretly” through intentionality.
Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism
The first known citation of the mantra occurs in the Karandavyuha Sutra published in the 11th Century which appears in the Chinese Buddhist canon.
However, some Buddhist scholars argue that the mantra as practiced in Tibetan Buddhism was based on theSadhanamala, a collection of sadhana published in the twelfth century.
Sufi variation
This mantra is also currently practiced by Sufis, with some variation, in the Naqshbandi tariqa ruled by Arif Shah, Omar Ali Shah’s son and heir. They say this mantra originated in Afghanistan.
Music
DharmaSound: OM Mai Padme Hum (see Buddhismo Ch’an/Zen and Buddhismo Vajrayana)
“Om Mani Padme Hum” by Snuffaluffagus
“Strange Phenomena” by Kate Bush
“Om Mani Peme Hung” by Dead Skeletons
“Merry Christmas Mr. Lawrence – FYI” by Utada Hikaru
Mani by Mantrasphere
Safety
Rasa shastra, the practice of adding metals, minerals or gems to herbs, is a source of toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury andarsenic.
Adverse reactions to herbs due to their pharmacology are described in traditional ayurvedic texts, but ayurvedic practitioners are reluctant to admit that herbs could be toxic and the reliable information on herbal toxicity is not readily available.
A 2004 study found such toxic metals in 20% of ayurvedic preparations that were made in South Asia for sale around Boston and extrapolated the data to the United States more broadly. It concluded that excess consumption of these products could cause health risks.
A 2008 study of more than 230 products found that approximately 20% of remedies (and 40% of rasa shastra medicines) purchased over the Internet from both US and Indian suppliers contained lead, mercury or arsenic.
Traditionally the toxicity of these materials are believed to be reduced through purification processes such as samskaras or shodhanas(for metals), which is similar to the Chinese pao zhi, although the ayurvedic technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques. One medical journal reported:
Crude aconite is an extremely lethal substance, yet ayurveda looks upon it as a therapeutic entity. Crude aconite is always processed, i.e. it undergoes ‘samskaras’ before being utilised in the ayurvedic formulations. This study was undertaken in mice, to ascertain whether “processed” aconite is less toxic as compared to the crude or unprocessed one. It was seen that crude aconite was significantly toxic to mice (100% mortality at a dose of 2.6 mg/mouse) whereas the fully processed aconite was absolutely non-toxic (no mortality at a dose even 8 times as high as that of crude aconite). Further, all the steps in the processing were essential for complete detoxification.
Following concerns about metal toxicity, the Government of India ruled that ayurvedic products must specify their metallic content directly on the labels of the product.
The harmful effects of the samples is attributed in part to the adulterated raw material and lack of workers trained in traditional medicine.
In a letter to the Indian Academy of Sciences, director of the Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune Bhushan Patwardhan stated that the metal adulteration is due to contamination and carelessness during the much faster modern manufacturing processes, and does not occur with traditional methods of preparation.
‘What is Ayurvedic Medicine’, http://www.dr-wakde.com/Ayurvedic_medicine1.html
Who’s using RFID?
SURVEILLANCE ON RFID
Surveillance is getting easier, cheaper, smaller, and ubiquitous.
It’s possible to destroy an RFID tag.
You can crush it, puncture it, or microwave it (but be careful of fires!). You can’t drown it, however, and you can’t demagnetize it. And washing RFID-tagged clothes won’t remove the chips, since they’re specifically designed to withstand years of wearing, washing, and drying. You could remove the chip from your jeans, but you’d have to find it first.
That’s why Congress should require that consumers be notified about products with embedded RFID tags. We should know when we’re being tagged. We should also be able to disable the chips in our own property. If it’s the property of the company we work for, that’s a different matter. But if it’s ours, we should be able to control whether tracking is enabled.
Security professionals need to realize that RFID tags are dumb devices. They listen, and they respond. Currently, they don’t care who sends the signal. Anything your companies’ transceiver can detect, the bad guy’s transceiver can detect. So don’t be lulled intoa false sense of security.
With RFID about to arrive in full force, don’t be lulled at all. Major changes are coming, and not all of them will be positive. The law of unintended consequences is about to encounter surveillance devices smaller than the period at the end of this sentence.
RFID 101
Invented in 1969 and patented in 1973, but only now becoming commercially and technologically viable, RFID tags are essentially microchips, the tinier the better. Some are only 1/3 of a millimeter across. These chips act as transponders (transmitters/responders), always listening for a radio signal sent by transceivers, or RFID readers. When a transponder receives a certain radio query, it responds by transmitting its unique ID code, perhaps a 128-bit number, back to the transceiver. Most RFID tags don’t have batteries (How could they? They’re 1/3 of a millimeter!). Instead, they are powered by the radio signal that wakes them up and requests an answer.
Most of these “broadcasts” are designed to be read between a few inches and several feet away, depending on the size of the antenna and the power driving the RFID tags (some are in fact powered by batteries, but due to the increased size and cost, they are not as common as the passive, non-battery-powered models). However, it is possible to increase that distance if you build a more sensitive RFID receiver.
RFID chips cost up to 50 cents, but prices are dropping. Once they get to 5 cents each, it will be cost-efficient to put RFID tags in almost anything that costs more than a dollar.
RFID is already in use all around us. Ever chipped your pet dog or cat with an ID tag? Or used an EZPass through a toll booth? Or paid for gas using ExxonMobils’ SpeedPass? Then you’ve used RFID.
Some uses, especially those related to security, seem like a great idea. For instance, Delta is testing RFID on some flights, tagging 40,000 customer bags in order to reduce baggage loss and make it easier to route bags if customers change their flight plans.
Three seaport operators – who account for 70% of the world’s port operations – agreed to deploy RFID tags to track the 17,000 containers that arrive each day at US ports. Currently, less than 2% are inspected. RFID tags will be used to track the containers and the employees handling them.
The United States Department of Defense is moving into RFID in order to trace military supply shipments. During the first Gulf War, the DOD made mistakes in its supply allocation. To streamline operations, the U.S. military has placed RFID tags on 270,000 cargo containers and tracks those shipments throughout 40 countries.
On a smaller level, but one that will instantly resonate with security pros, Star City Casino in Sydney, Australia placed RFID tags in 80,000 employee uniforms in order to put a stop to theft. The same idea would work well in corporate PCs, networking equipment, and handhelds.
In all of these cases, RFID use seems reasonable. It is non-intrusive, and it seems to balance security and privacy. Other uses for RFID, however, may be troublesome.
Visa is combining smart cards and RFID chips so people can conduct transactions without having to use cash or coins. These smart cards can also be incorporated into cell phones and other devices. Thus, you could pay for parking, buy a newspaper, or grab a soda from a vending machine without opening your wallet. This is wonderfully convenient, but the specter of targeted personal ads popping up as I walk through the mall, a la Minority Report, does not thrill me.
Michelin, which manufactures 800,000 tires a day, is going to insert RFID tags into its tires. The tag will store a unique number for each tire, a number that will be associated with the car’s VIN (Vehicle Identification Number). Good for Michelin, and car manufacturers, and fighting crime. Potentially bad for you. Who will assure your privacy? Do you really want your car’s tires broadcasting your every move?
The European Central Bank may embed RFID chips in the euro note. Ostensibly to combat counterfeiters and money-launderers, it would also enable banks to count large amounts of cash in seconds. Unfortunately, such a move would also makes it possible for governments to track the passage of cash from individual to individual. Cash is the last truly anonymous way to buy and sell. With RFID tags, that anonymity would be gone. In addition, banks would not be the only ones who could in an instant divine how much cash you were carrying; criminals can also obtain power transceivers.
Several major manufacturers and retailers expect RFID tags to aid in managing the supply chain, from manufacturing to shipping to stocking store shelves, including Gillette (which purchased 500 million RFID tags for its razors), Home Depot, The Gap, Proctor & Gamble, Prada, Target, Tesco (a United Kingdom chain), and Wal-Mart. Especially Wal-Mart.
The retail giant, the largest employer in America, is working with Gillette to create “smart shelves” that can alert managers and stockboys to replenish the supply of razors. More significantly, Wal-Mart intends for its top 100 suppliers to fully support RFID for inventory tracking by 2005. Wal-Mart would love to be able to point an RFID reader at any of the 1 billion sealed boxes of widgets it receives every year and instantly know exactly how many widgets it has. No unpacking, no unnecessary handling, no barcode scanners required.
ALIEN Telepathy. To be Continued…TJ Morris tm ACIR sm”Blessed are those who share the spirit of many friends in this working world. ” TJ?A friend loves at all times.
Proverbs 17:17 Love and Light Eternal – Your wealth is where your friends are. Plautus I desire so to conduct the affairs of this administration that is at the end -
I have lost every other friend on earth, I shall at least have one friend left, and that friend shall be inside of me. – Abraham Lincoln
ET/UFO Journalism 101 – New Ascension Age – Ascension Center EnlightmentAlien Vampire Empire WarsEt Spirit, Aliens and UFOs, Atlantia Ankikathera – Ancient
Spiritual Enlightenment Education
Joined in Alliance with ACE FOLKLIFE
And TJ MORRIS ORGANIZATION – A
PSYCHIC SPRITUALIST CHURCH-Ayurveda can be defined as a system, which uses the inherent principles of … The term “ayurveda” thus means ‘the knowledge of life’ or ‘the science of life’.
What-Does-Ayurveda-Mean – What Is Ayurveda? : Ayurveda is holistic system that addresses health concerns by using diet, herbs, supplements, cooking …
Q. Your name ‘Tri-Dosha’ what does it mean? A. Ayurvedic states that all human beings are made up of three bodily humors; these are Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. …
Apparitional experience · Clairvoyance · Cold reading · Extrasensory perception · Ganzfeld experiment · Near-death experience ·Past life regression · Plant perception (paranormal) · Precognition · Psychic · Psychic reading · Psychokinesis · Psychometry ·Reincarnation research · Remote viewing · Telepathy
Organizations American Society for Psychical Research · International Association for Near-Death Studies · National Laboratory of Psychical Research ·Parapsychological Association · Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory · Society for Psychical Research
A Spiritualist church is a church affiliated with the informal Spiritualist movement which began in the 1840s in America. Spiritualist churches are now found around the world, but are most common in English-speaking countries, while in Latin America, where a form of Spiritualism called Spiritism is more popular, meetings are held in Spiritist centres, most of which are non-profit organizations rather than ecclesiastical bodies.
Edgar Cayce
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Edgar Cayce
Circa October 1910
Born Edgar Cayce
March 18, 1877
Hopkinsville, Kentucky, U.S.
Died January 3, 1945 (aged 67)
Virginia Beach, Virginia, U.S.
Edgar Cayce (/’ke?si?/; 1877–1945) was an American psychic who allegedly had the ability to give answers to questions on subjects such as healing or Atlantis while in a hypnotic trance. Though Cayce himself was a devout Christian and lived before the emergence of the New Age Movement, some believe he was the founder of the movement and influenced its teachings.[1]
Cayce became a celebrity toward the end of his life and the publicity given to his prophecies has overshadowed what to him were usually considered the more important parts of his work, such as healing (the vast majority of his readings were given for people who were sick) and theology (Cayce was a lifelong, devout member of the Disciples of Christ). Skeptics[2] challenge the statement that Cayce demonstrated psychic abilities, and traditional Christians also question his unorthodox answers on religious matters (such as reincarnation and Akashic records, although others accept his abilities as “God-given”).
Today there are thousands of Cayce students and more than 300 books written about Edgar Cayce. Members of Cayce’s organization, the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.) exist worldwide and Edgar Cayce Centers are found in more than 35 countries
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A man we should learn about as Spiritual Conselors. This man was a good teacher.
Biography – Edgar Cayce
Edgar Cayce was born into a farming family on March 18, 1877 near Beverly, seven miles (11 km) south of Hopkinsville, Kentucky.
1877 to 1920: Kentucky period
In December 1893, the Cayce family moved to Hopkinsville, Kentucky and occupied 705 West Seventh, on the south-east corner of Seventh and Young Street. During this time, Cayce received an eighth-grade education; discovered his spiritual vocation; left the family farm to pursue various forms of employment (at Richard’s Dry Goods Store and then in Hopper’s Bookstore, both located on Main Street).
Cayce’s education stopped with the ninth grade because his family could not afford the costs involved.
A ninth-grade education was often considered more than sufficient for working-class children. Much of the remainder of Cayce’s younger years would be characterized by a search for both employment and money.
Throughout his life, Cayce was drawn to church as a member of the Disciples of Christ. He read the Bible once for every year of his life, taught at Sunday school,
and recruited missionaries. He is said[who?] to have agonized over the issue of whether his psychic abilities-and the teachings which resulted—were spiritually legitimate.
In 1900, he formed a business partnership with his father to sell Woodmen of the World Insurance but was struck by severe laryngitis in March that resulted in a complete loss of speech. Unable to work, he lived at home with his parents for almost a year. He then decided to take up the trade of photography, an occupation that would exert less strain on his voice. He began an apprenticeship at the photography studio of W.R. Bowles in Hopkinsville.
A traveling stage hypnotist and entertainer called “Hart—The Laugh Man” was performing at the Hopkinsville Opera House in 1901. He heard about Cayce’s condition and offered to attempt a cure. Cayce accepted, and the experiment took place on stage in front of an audience. Remarkably, Cayce’s voice apparently returned while in a hypnotic trance but allegedly disappeared on awakening. Hart tried a posthypnotic suggestion that the voice would continue to function after the trance, but this proved unsuccessful.
Since Hart had appointments at other cities, he could not continue his hypnotic treatment of Cayce. However, a local hypnotist, Al Layne, offered to help Cayce in restoring his voice. Layne suggested that Cayce describe the nature of his condition and cure while in a hypnotic trance.
Cayce described his own ailment from a first person plural point of view (“we”) instead of the singular (“I”).
In subsequent readings he would generally start off with “We have the body.” According to the reading, his voice loss was due to psychological paralysis and could be corrected by increasing the blood flow to the voice box. Layne suggested that the blood flow be increased, and Cayce’s face supposedly became flushed with blood and his chest area and the throat turned bright red.
After 20 minutes Cayce, still in trance, declared the treatment over. On awakening, his voice was alleged to have remained normal. Relapses were said to have occurred but were said to have been corrected by Layne in the same way, and eventually the cure was said to be permanent.
Layne had read of similar hypnotic cures effected by the Marquis de Puységur, a follower of Franz Mesmer, and was keen to explore the limits of the healing knowledge of the trance voice.
He asked Cayce to describe Layne’s own ailments and suggest cures and reportedly found the results both accurate and effective. Layne suggested that Cayce offer his trance healing to the public, but Cayce was reluctant. He finally agreed on the condition that readings would be free. He began with Layne’s help to offer free treatments to the townspeople. Reports of Cayce’s work appeared in the newspapers, inspiring many postal inquiries.
Cayce was able to work just as effectively using a letter from the individual as with having the person present. Given the person’s name and location, he said he could diagnose the physical and/or mental conditions and provide a remedy. He became popular and soon people from around the world sought his advice through correspondence.
Cayce’s work grew in volume as his fame grew. He asked for voluntary donations to support himself and his family so that he could practice full time. He continued to work in an apparent trance state with a hypnotist all his life. His wife and eldest son later replaced Layne in this role. A secretary, Gladys Davis, recorded his readings in shorthand.
1920 to 1923: Texas period
Historic marker in downtown Selma, Alabama in front of the building in which Cayce lived and operated his photography studio in addition to giving readings.
The growing fame of Cayce coupled with the popularity he received from newspapers attracted several eager commercially minded men who wanted to seek a fortune by using Cayce’s clairvoyant abilities. Even though Cayce was reluctant to help them, he was persuaded to give the readings, which left him dissatisfied with himself and unsuccessful. A cotton merchant offered Cayce a hundred dollars a day for his readings about the daily outcomes in the cotton market. However, despite his poor finances, Cayce refused the merchant’s offer. Others wanted to know where to hunt for treasures; some wanted to know the outcome of horse races. Several times he was persuaded to give the readings as an experiment. However, he was not successful when he used his ability for such purposes, doing no better than chance alone would dictate. These experiments allegedly left him depleted of energy, distraught, and unsatisfied with himself. Finally, he came to the conclusion that he would use his gift only to help the distressed and sick.
He was persuaded to give readings on philosophical subjects in 1923 by Arthur Lammers, a wealthy printer who, by his own admission, had been “studying metaphysics for years”.
While in his supposed trance state, Cayce was told by Lammers that he spoke of Lammers’s past lives and of reincarnation, something Lammers believed in, which was a popular subject of the day but not an accepted part of Christian doctrine. Cayce questioned his stenographer as to what he had said in his trance state and remained unconvinced. Cayce himself challenged Lammers’s charge that he had validated astrology and reincarnation in the following dialogue:
Cayce “I said all that?…I couldn’t have said all that in one reading.” “No,” Lammers said; “but you confirmed it. You see, I have been studying metaphysics for years, and I was able by a few questions, by the facts you gave, to check what is right and what is wrong with a whole lot of the stuff I’ve been reading. The important thing is that the basic system which runs through all the mystery religions, whether they come from Tibet or the pyramids of Egypt, is backed up by you. It’s actually the right system.”
Cayce’s stenographer recorded the following:
“In this we see the plan of development of those individuals set upon this plane, meaning the ability to enter again into the presence of the Creator and become a full part of that creation.
Insofar as this entity is concerned, this is the third appearance on this plane, and before this one, as the monk. We see glimpses in the life of the entity now as were shown in the monk, in this mode of living. The body is only the vehicle ever of that spirit and soul that waft through all times and ever remain the same.”
Cayce was quite unconvinced (that he had been referring to and, as such, had validated the doctrine of reincarnation), and the best Lammers could offer was that the reading “opens up the door” and went on to share his beliefs and knowledge of the “truth” with Cayce. It appeared Cayce’s instincts were telling him this was no ordinary reading. This client who came for a reading came with quite a bit of information of his own to share with Cayce and seemed intent upon convincing Cayce, now that he felt the reading had confirmed his strongly held beliefs.
It should be noted, however, that 12 years earlier Cayce had briefly alluded to reincarnation. In reading 4841-1, given April 22, 1911, Cayce referred to the soul being “transmigrated.” Because, as noted below, there are several thousand missing Cayce readings from the period up to 1923, it is possible that he may have also mentioned reincarnation in other readings as well.
Cayce reported that his conscience bothered him severely over this conflict. Lammers overwhelmed, manipulated, confused, reassured and argued with Cayce. Ultimately his “trance voice,” the “we” of the readings, also supposedly dialogued with Cayce and finally persuaded him to continue with these kinds of readings. In 1925 Cayce reported that his “voice” had instructed him to move toVirginia Beach, Virginia.
1925 to 1945: Virginia Beach period
The Cayce Hospital 2006
Cayce’s mature period, in which he created the several institutions which would survive him in some form, can be considered to have started in 1925. By this time he was a professional psychic with a small staff of employees and volunteers. The “readings” increasingly came to involve occult or esoteric themes.
In 1929, the Cayce hospital was established in Virginia Beach, sponsored by a wealthy recipient of the trance readings, Morton Blumenthal.
Cayce gained national prominence in 1943 through a high-profile article in Coronet titled”Miracle Man of Virginia Beach”.
He said he couldn’t refuse people who felt they needed his help, and he increased the frequency of his readings to eight per day to try to make an impression on the ever-growing pile of requests. He said this took a toll on his health as it was emotionally draining and often fatigued him. He even went so far as to say that the readings themselves scolded him for attempting too much and that he should limit his workload to just two readings a day or else they would kill him.
Edgar Cayce suffered from a stroke and died on January 3, 1945.
He is buried in Riverside Cemetery in Hopkinsville, Kentucky.
PSYCHIC
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Storefront psychic fortuneteller in Boston
A psychic =/’sa?k?k/; from the Greek psychikos—”of the mind, mental”, also called sensitive)
is a person who professes an ability to perceive information hidden from the normal senses through extrasensory perception (ESP), or is said by others to have such abilities. It is also used to describe theatrical performers who use techniques such as prestidigitation, cold reading, and hot reading to produce the appearance of such abilities. It can also denote an ability of the mind to influence the world physically and to telekinetic powers such as those professed by Uri Geller.
Psychics appear regularly in fantasy fiction, such as in the novel The Dead Zone by Stephen King, or the Marvel Comics telepath and psychic Jean Grey. A large industry exists whereby psychics provide advice and counsel to clients.
Some famous contemporary psychics include Miss Cleo, John Edward, Danielle Egnew, Jose Ortiz El Buen Samaritano, and Sylvia Browne.
Critics attribute psychic powers to intentional trickery or self-delusion.1988 the U.S. National Academy of Sciences gave a report on the subject that concluded there is “no scientific justification from research conducted over a period of 130 years for the existence of parapsychological phenomena.”
Even so, psychic powers continue to be asserted bypsychic detectives and in practices such as psychic archaeology and even psychic surgery.
Etymology
The word psychic is derived from the Greek word psychikos (“of the mind” or “mental”) and refers in part to the human mind or psyche (ex. “psychic turmoil”). The Greek word also means “soul”. In Greek mythology, the maiden Psyche was the deification of the humansoul. The word derivation of the Latin psyche is from the Greek ps?ch?, literally, breath, derivative of ps?´chein, to breathe, blow, hence, live.
French astronomer and spiritualist Camille Flammarion is credited as having first used the word psychic, while it was later introduced to the English language by Edward William Cox in the 1870s.
Early seers and prophets
Elaborate systems of divination and fortune-telling date back to ancient times. Perhaps the most widely-known system of early civilization fortune-telling was astrology, where practitioners believed the relative positions of celestial bodies could lend insight into people’s lives and even predict their future circumstances. Some fortune-tellers were said to be able to make predictions without the use of these elaborate systems (or in conjunction with them), through some sort of direct apprehension or vision of the future. These people were known as seers or prophets, and in later times as clairvoyants (French word meaning “clear sight” or “clear seeing”) and psychics.
Seers formed a functionary role in early civilization, often serving as advisors, priests, and judges.
A number of examples are included in biblical accounts. The book of 1 Samuel (Chapter 9) illustrates one such functionary task when Samuel is asked to find the donkeys of the future king Saul.
The role of prophet appeared perennially in ancient cultures. In Egypt, the priests of Ra at Memphisacted as seers. In ancient Assyria seers were referred to as nabu, meaning “to call” or “announce”.
The Delphic Oracle is one of the earliest stories in classical antiquity of prophetic abilities. The Pythia, the priestess presiding over the
Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, was believed to be able to deliver prophecies inspired by Apollo during rituals beginning in the 8th century BC.
It is often said that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapors rising from the ground, and that she spoke gibberish, believed to be the voice of Apollo, which priests reshaped into the enigmatic prophecies preserved in Greek literature. Other scholars believe records from the time indicate that the Pythia spoke intelligibly, and gave prophecies in her own voice.
The Pythia was a position served by a succession of women probably selected from amongst a guild of priestesses of the temple. The last recorded response was given in 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius I ordered pagan temples to cease operation. Recent geological investigations raise the possibility that ethylene gas caused the Pythia’s state of inspiration.
One of the most enduring historical references to what some consider to be psychic ability is the prophecies of Michel de Nostredame(1503 – 1566), often Latinized to Nostradamus, published during the French Renaissance period.
Nostradamus was a Frenchapothecary and seer who wrote collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide and have rarely been out of print since his death. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Taken together, his written works are known to have contained at least 6,338 quatrains or prophecies,
as well as at least eleven annual calendars. Most of the quatrains deal with disasters, such as plagues, earthquakes, wars, floods, invasions, murders, droughts, and battles – all undated.
Nostradamus is a controversial figure. His many enthusiasts, as well as the popular press, credit him with predicting many major world events. Interest in his work is still considerable, especially in the media and in popular culture. By contrast, most academic scholars maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus’ quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations (sometimes deliberate) or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power.
In addition to the belief that some historical figures were endowed with a predisposition to psychic experiences, some psychic abilities were thought to be available to everyone on occasion. For example, the belief in prophetic dreams was common and persistent in many ancient cultures.
Nineteenth century progression
Edgar Cayce (1877–1945) was a psychic of the 20th century and made many highly publicized predictions.
In the mid-nineteenth century, Modern Spiritualism became prominent in the United States and the United Kingdom. The movement’s distinguishing feature was the belief that the spirits of the dead could be contacted by mediums to lend insight to the living.
The movement was fueled in part by anecdotes of psychic powers. One such person believed to have extraordinary abilities was Daniel Dunglas Home, who gained fame during the Victorian period for his reported ability to levitate to various heights and speak to the dead.
As the Spiritualist movement grew other comparable groups arose, including the Theosophical Society, which was co-founded in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891). Theosophy coupled spiritualist elements with Eastern mysticism and was influential in the early 20th century, later influencing the New Age movement during the 1970s. Blavatsky herself claimed numerous psychic powers.
Late twentieth century
By the late twentieth century psychics were commonly associated with New Age culture.
Psychic readings and advertising for psychics was very common in the 1990’s and readings were offered for a fee and given in settings such as over the phones, in a home, or at psychic fairs.
Belief in psychic abilities
In a survey, reported in 1990, of members of the National Academy of Sciences, only 2% of respondents thought that extrasensory perception had been scientifically demonstrated, with another 2% thinking that the phenomena happened sometimes. Asked about research in the field, 22% thought that it should be discouraged, 63% that it should be allowed but not encouraged, and 10% that it should be encouraged; neuroscientists were the most hostile to parapsychology of all the specialties.
A survey of the beliefs of the general United States population about paranormal topics was conducted by The Gallup Organization in 2005.
The survey found that 41 percent of those polled believed in extrasensory perception and 26 percent believed in clairvoyance. 31 percent of those surveyed indicated that they believe in telepathy or psychic communication.
A poll of 439 college students conducted in 2006 by researchers Bryan Farha of Oklahoma City University and Gary Steward of University of Central Oklahoma, suggested that college seniors and graduate students were more likely to believe in psychic phenomena than college freshmen.
23 percent of college freshmen expressed a belief in paranormal ideas. The percentage was greater among college seniors (31%) and graduate students (34%).
The poll showed lower belief in psychic phenomena among science students than social science and education students.
Some people also believe that psychic abilities can be activated or enhanced through the study and practice of various disciplines and techniques such as meditation, with a number of books and websites being dedicated to instruction in these methods. Another popular belief is that psychic ability is hereditary, with a psychic parent passing their abilities on to their children
Psychic advice industry
Many people proclaim to have psychic abilities and some make a living as professional psychics or earn celebrity hosting their own TV or radio programs. Individuals such as Gary Spivey, John Edward and Sylvia Browne either have their own television shows or are frequently featured on talk shows. (see Paranormal television).
Some psychics are first known by the public as celebrities; for example, rock singer and actress Danielle Egnew, who has made frequent radio and television appearances as a psychic, rather than a singer.
Science fiction
The use of psychic abilities as a plot device or super power is common in fiction. Psychic abilities in science fiction are often depicted as inborn and heritable, as in Alfred Bester’s The Demolished Man, A. E. van Vogt’s Slan, Anne McCaffrey’s Talents & Tower and the Hive series, and the television series Babylon 5. Another recurring trope is the conveyance of psychic power through psychoactive drugs, as in the Dune novels and indirectly in the Scanners films, as well as the ghosts in the Starcraft franchise . Somewhat differently, in Madeleine L’Engle’s A Wind in the Door and Robert A. Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land, psychic abilities may be achieved by any human who learns the proper mental discipline, known as kything in the former work and grokking in the latter. Popular movies include The initiation of Sarah. Psychic characters are also common in superhero comic books, for instance Jean Grey and Professor Xfrom the Marvel comic X-Men.
Criticism and research.
Participant of a Ganzfeld Experiment whose results have been criticized as being misinterpreted as evidence for telepathy.
Parapsychological research has attempted to use random number generators to test for psychokinesis, mild sensory deprivation in the Ganzfeld experiment to test for extrasensory perception, and research trials conducted under contract by the U.S. government to investigate remote viewing. Some of these tests such as the Ganzfeld have been put forward as evidence of psychic phenomena by parapsychologists, and according to the Parapsychological Association, the consensus within that field is that there is good evidence for extrasensory perception, psychokinesis, and presentiment] Critics such as Ed J. Gracely say that this evidence is not sufficient for acceptance, partly because the intrinsic probability of psychic phenomena is very small.
Critics such as Ray Hyman and the National Science Foundation suggest that parapsychology has methodological flaws that can explain the experimental results that parapsychologists attribute to paranormal explanations, and various critics have classed the field as pseudoscience. This has largely been due to lack of replication of results by independent experimenters.
The evidence presented for psychic phenomena is not sufficiently verified for scientific acceptance, and there exist many non-paranormal alternative explanations for claimed instances of psychic events. Parapsychologists, who generally believe that there is some evidence for psychic ability, disagree with critics who believe that no psychic ability exists and that many of the instances of more popular psychic phenomena such as mediumism, can be attributed to non-paranormal techniques such as cold reading, hot reading, or even self-delusion.
Magicians such as James Randi, Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics, but they present psychological explanations as opposed to paranormal ones
In January 2008 the results of a study using neuroimaging were published. To provide what are purported to be the most favorable experimental conditions, the study included appropriate emotional stimuli and had participants who are biologically or emotionally related, such as twins. The experiment was designed to produce positive results if telepathy, clairvoyance or precognition occurred, but despite this no distinguishable neuronal responses were found between psychic stimuli and non-psychic stimuli, while variations in the same stimuli showed anticipated effects on patterns of brain activation. The researchers concluded that “These findings are the strongest evidence yet obtained against the existence of paranormal mental phenomena.”
James Alcock had cautioned the researchers against the wording of said statement.
A detailed study of Sylvia Browne predictions about missing persons and murder cases has found that despite her repeated claims to be more than 85% correct, “Browne has not even been mostly correct in a single case.”
Automatic writing or psychography is writing which the writer states to be produced from a subconscious and/or spiritual source without conscious awareness of the content.
History
George (Georgie) Hyde-Lees, the wife of William Butler Yeats, claimed that she could write automatically. In 1975, Wendy Hart of Maidenhead claimed that she wrote automatically about Nicholas Moore, a sea captain who died in 1642. Her husband, who did research on Moore, affirmed that this person had resided at St Columb Major in Cornwall during theEnglish Civil War.
Spiritual Automatic Writing
Sample of “Martian” automatic writing by medium Hélène Smith, as found in Théodore Flouroy’s From India to the Planet Mars.
Spiritism
In spiritism, spirits are claimed to take control of the hand of a medium to write messages, letters, and even entire books. Automatic writing can happen in a trance or waking state.
Criticism
A 1998 article in Psychological Science described a series of experiments designed to determine whether people who believed in automatic writing could be shown that it might be the ideomotor effect. The paper indicated that “our attempt to introduce doubt about the validity of automatic writing did not succeed.” The paper noted that “including information about the controversy surrounding facilitated communication did not affect self-efficacy ratings, nor did it affect the number of responses that were produced. In this sense, illusory facilitation appears to be a very robust phenomenon, not unlike illusory correlation, which is not reversed by warning participants about the phenomenon.”
Psychology professor Théodore Flournoy investigated the claim by 19th-century medium Hélène Smith (Catherine Müller) that she did automatic writing to convey messages from Mars in Martian language. Flournoy concluded that her “Martian” language had a strong resemblance to Ms. Smith’s native language of French and that her automatic writing was “romances of the subliminal imagination, derived largely from forgotten sources (for example, books read as a child).” He invented the term cryptomnesia to describe this phenomenon.
RFID Issues
Right now, you can buy a hammer, a pair of jeans, or a razor blade with anonymity. With RFID tags, that may be a thing of the past. Some manufacturers are planning to tag just the packaging, but others will also tag their products. There is no law requiring a labelindicating that an RFID chip is in a product. Once you buy your RFID-tagged jeans at The Gap with RFID-tagged money, walk out of the store wearing RFID-tagged shoes, and get into your car with its RFID-tagged tires, you could be tracked anywhere you travel. Bar codes are usually scanned at the store, but not after purchase. But RFID transponders are, in many cases, forever part of the product, and designed to respond when they receive a signal. Imagine everything you own is “numbered, identified, catalogued, and tracked.” Anonymity and privacy? Gone in a hailstorm of invisible communication, betrayed by your very property.
But let’s not stop there. Others are talking about placing RFID tags into all sensitive or important documents: “it will be practical to put them not only in paper money, but in drivers’ licenses, passports, stock certificates, manuscripts, university diplomas, medical degrees and licenses, birth certificates, and any other sort of document you can think of where authenticity is paramount.” In other words, those documents you’re required to have, that you can’t live without, will be forever tagged.
Consider the human body as well. Applied Digital Solutions has designed an RFID tag – called the VeriChip – for people. Only 11 mm long, it is designed to go under the skin, where it can be read from four feet away. They sell it as a great way to keep track of children, Alzheimer’s patients in danger of wandering, and anyone else with a medical disability, but it gives me the creeps. The possibilities are scary. In May, delegates to the Chinese Communist Party Congress were required to wear an RFID-equipped badge at all times so their movements could be tracked and recorded. Is there any doubt that, in a few years, those badges will be replaced by VeriChip-like devices?
Surveillance is getting easier, cheaper, smaller, and ubiquitous. Sure, it’s possible to destroy an RFID tag. You can crush it, puncture it, or microwave it (but be careful of fires!). You can’t drown it, however, and you can’t demagnetize it. And washing RFID-tagged clothes won’t remove the chips, since they’re specifically designed to withstand years of wearing, washing, and drying. You could remove the chip from your jeans, but you’d have to find it first.
That’s why Congress should require that consumers be notified about products with embedded RFID tags. We should know when we’re being tagged. We should also be able to disable the chips in our own property. If it’s the property of the company we work for, that’s a different matter. But if it’s ours, we should be able to control whether tracking is enabled.
Ayurvedic doctors regard physical and mental existence together with personality as a unit, each element having
the capacity to influence the others. One of the fundamental aspects of ayurvedic medicine is to take this into
account during diagnosis and therapy.
Nevertheless, it is not an ‘alternative medicine’ – it doesn’t aim to replace the conventional medicine. On the
contrary, it is based on the concept of comprehensive medicine making use of everything that has revealed to be
of benefit to the human being. Moreover it supplements ‘material science’ with aspects of spiritual science in order
to assess the individual as a whole entity. For instance, this may include physical body features, personal history,
behaviour, emotions, habits and many other aspects besides – all of which determine an individual’s personality.
Ayurvedic medicine therefore attempts to include the individuality of the patient, as well as accepted features of an
illness, in the treatments process. For just as each person is unique, so is each treatment – even through some
may appear to apply to many people.
Even if, owing to their characteristic features, the same disease pictures constantly recur, each illness manifests
itself differently in each patient – a manifestation inseparable from the
uniqueness of the individual. Ayurvedic medicine therefore aims to form
a picture of the physical, psychological, and personal circumstances that
have paved the way for an illness to take hold. Taking such factors into
consideration during diagnosis and therapy and re-applying the process
to every new patient, guided by scientific findings, medical experience,
personal discernment, and intuition, is fundamental to ayurvedic medicine.
Any medicine that ignores the person as an individual cannot claim to be true
human medicine.
Michel de Nostredame
(14 or 21 December 1503 – 2 July 1566), usually Latinised to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections ofprophecies that have since become famous worldwide. He is best known for his book Les Propheties (The Prophecies), the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Since the publication of this book, which has rarely been out of print since his death, Nostradamus has attracted a following that, along with the popular press, credits him with predicting many major world events.
Most academic sources maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus’s quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations (sometimes deliberate) or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power. Moreover, none of the sources listed offers any evidence that anyone has ever interpreted any of Nostradamus’s quatrains specifically enough to allow a clear identification of any event in advance.
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About Theresa J. Thurmond Morris
Bio
Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris is an Author/Entrepreneur. TJ specializes in paranormal/super natural phenomenon. TJ was a professional consultant and expert witness on legal investigations and has prior military and government service in the USA 1980-1993. Professionally she uses her initials TJ. TJ has written several paranormal books including Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Alien UFO Story by TJ, Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide, Roswell Connection, Roswell UFO Encounters, UFOS & Extraterrestrials, and Uplifting the Soul. All books are in print available. TJ shares her life with TJ Morris & Friends and is an Ambassador of Goodwill with American Culture International Relations and ACIR. TJ Morris is her trademark ACIR her servicemark.
TJ also edits books for her friends and publishes books such as mysteries and paranormal romance. Professional History in corporate international marketing, manufacturing,legal investigations, newspaper columnist, and magazine publisher. TJ lives in Kentucky USA with husband who is also an author. TJ is a speaker, spiritual consultant, producer,publisher. TJ spends much of her time assisting others as a consultant in business and with building websites. TJ’s are ACIR.us, AmericanNewsMagazine.com, TJMorris.org, ETSpirit.org, ASCENSIONcenter.org, and many others as media online press including TimelyManorBooks.com. Tj’s books available on Amazon and Lulu under Theresa J Morris and TJ Thurmond Morris. TJ has been interested in the Alien ET UFO Community all her life with a strong research history in the metaphysics, ontology, and is founder of the ACE Folklife Historical Society and Ascension Center.org. TJ is also a natural born leader as a Capricorn with Aquarius rising and promotes expos, seminars, and her friends and their business interests. TJ attracts others who desire to share similar interests in social networks and is a social entrepreneur. TJ writes about what interests her including her friends and their businesses. TJ loves people, places, things, and having a near death experience learned the power of meditation and prayer for all those who believe as she does in Ascension Vertical Lifestyles for body-mind-spirit. TJ has been a Life Coach to those who request her services as a mentor. TJ is a known planner organizer since she founded Psychic Network in Hawaii 1990-1993 and has worked in seminars and expos in the USA.
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ACE FOLKLIFE – NEW AGE OF ASCENSION
ASCENSION COSMOLOGY
TIME TRAVEL WITH WORM HOLES
Fourth Dimensional Travel for those who desire to learn about SCI FI PROPHETS.
Learn about the Fourth dimension.
We now recognize the seven heavens as dimensions such as the universe, is one, multiverse is two, metaverse is three. Xenoverse is fourth, Omniverse is fifth, Alphaverse is sixth, and Omegaverse is seventh.
Being caught up in the seven heavens has been mentioned in what we call our sacred scriptures from time to time by those we regard as prophets and spiritual teachers.
We are learning to adapt to change about our world with our own thoughts. This includes how we believe in our traditions regarding physical science, physical cosmology, metaphysical cosmology, and religious cosmology that in the New AGE of ASCENSION it is all going to be retrievable by the “common folk” and all can receive the divine revelations or the serendipity synergy from the outside higher forces and dimensions of those whom we regard as the higher beings.
These beings allow some of us to act as their messengers as we are chosen as Agashan avatar ascension masters and are reincarnated into this lifetime to assist in large changes and movements that effect the entire planet’s humanoid sentient intelligent beings way of thinking, believing, and knowing.
In mathematics, the group of rotations about a fixed point in four-dimensional Euclidean space is denoted SO(4). The name comes from the fact that it is (isomorphic to) the special orthogonal group of order 4.
In this article rotation means rotational displacement. For the sake of uniqueness rotation angles are assumed to be in the segment
[0,p]except where mentioned or clearly implied by the context otherwise.
Special property of SO(4) among rotation groups in general
The odd-dimensional rotation groups do not contain the central inversion and are simple groups.
The even-dimensional rotation groups do contain the central inversion -I and have the group C2 = {I, -I} as their centre. From SO(6) onwards they are almost-simple in the sense that the factor groups of their centers are simple groups.
SO(4) is different: there is no conjugation by any element of SO(4) that transforms left- and right-isoclinic rotations into each other.Reflections transform a left-isoclinic rotation into a right-isoclinic one by conjugation, and vice versa. This implies that under the group O(4) of all isometries with fixed point O the subgroups S3L and S3R are mutually conjugate and so are not normal subgroups of O(4). The 5D rotation group SO(5) and all higher rotation groups contain subgroups isomorphic to O(4). Like SO(4), all even-dimensional rotation groups contain isoclinic rotations. But unlike SO(4), in SO(6) and all higher even-dimensional rotation groups any pair of isoclinic rotations through the same angle is conjugate. The sets of all isoclinic rotations are not even subgroups of SO(2N), let alone normal subgroups.
SO(4) is commonly identified with the group of orientation-preserving isometric linear mappings of a 4D vector space with inner product over the reals onto itself.
With respect to an orthonormal basis in such a space SO(4) is represented as the group of real 4th-order orthogonal matrices withdeterminant +1.
Isoclinic decomposition
A 4D rotation given by its matrix is decomposed into a left-isoclinic and a right-isoclinic rotation as follows: Let be its matrix with respect to an arbitrary orthonormal basis.
Calculate from this the so-called associate matrix
M has rank one and is of unit Euclidean norm as a 16D vector if and only if A is indeed a 4D rotation matrix. In this case there exist reals a, b, c, d; p, q, r, s such that and (a2 + b2 + c2 + d2)(p2 + q2 + r2 + s2) = 1. There are exactly two sets of a, b, c, d; p, q, r, s such that
a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 1 and
p2 + q2 + r2 + s2 = 1. They are each other’s opposites.
The rotation matrix then equals
This formula is due to Van Elfrinkhof (1897).
The first factor in this decomposition represents a left-isoclinic rotation, the second factor a right-isoclinic rotation. The factors are determined up to the negative 4th-order identity matrix, i.e. the central inversion.
Relation to quaternions
A point in 4D space with Cartesian coordinates (u, x, y, z) may be represented by a quaternion u + xi + yj + zk.
A left-isoclinic rotation is represented by left-multiplication by a unit quaternion QL = a + bi + cj + dk. In matrix-vector language this can be seen on Wikipedia.
Likewise, a right-isoclinic rotation is represented by right-multiplication by a unit quaternion QR = p + qi + rj + sk, which is in matrix-vector form
In the preceding section (Isoclinic decomposition) it is shown how a general 4D rotation is split into left- and right-isoclinic factors.
In quaternion language Van Elfrinkhof’s formula reads or in symbolic form.
According to the German mathematician Felix Klein this formula was already known to Cayley in 1854.Quaternion multiplication is associative.
Therefore along with gravity, other forces can be explained.
When it comes to waves, we have many examples to with which to relate. Waves create ripples in water, and compress and decompress air molecules, creating sound.
Almost all waves we know about need matter to exist.
A water wave cannot exist without water, and sound
cannot exist without air.
Waves on the electromagnetic spectrum including light, radio waves, and X-rays can travel through a vacuum: the absence of matter.
This is breaks all known laws!
No other wave can exist in a vacuum, but somehow, electromagnetism can!
There have been several theories to explain this, such as the suggestion of aether, “which fill[s] the vacuum and act[s] as a medium for light”
.This gives a shady explanation of how light, proposed to be simultaneously a wave and a particle, can vibrate its own matter,
allowing it to travel through empty space.
This theory, however, had many gaps and paradoxes, and eventually
was proven wrong in laboratories.
In the early twenties, the Kaluza-Klein theory was born, suggesting that
electromagnetic waves were actually vibrations in 3-D space itself .This defies imagination, as this is only possible through the acceptance of the fourth spatial dimension. Just like the two-dimensional surface of
water can ripple, causing it to occupy multiple coordinates in three-space, three-dimensional space can ripple, causing it to occupy multiple coordinates in four-space.
Another strange possibility opened with fourth dimension is the existence of
parallel universes.
Using the third dimension, several two-dimensional planes can
co-exist in a parallel manner.
Similarly, there could be multiple universes (3-D
spaces) co-existing in four-dimensional hyperspace.
This of course is extremely
theoretical, and could never be proven. It can only be explained through thought
experiments. Imagine an occurrence of extreme space-time war page happening in
two parallel universes at identical XYZ coordinates. They could possibly merge,
creating a tunnel, or wormhole connecting parallel universes via the fourth
dimension.
If multiple universes do not exist, or a trans-universal
wormhole is impossible to obtain, there is still the possibility of a universe
connecting with itself .
Science fiction writers have often romanced with the idea of shortcuts
through space.
The fourth dimension turns these dreams into reality.
It once was thought impossible to exceed the speed of light, but it is possible to travel one light year in less than one year. We are just now learning about that which can travel like tachyon energy which is faster than the speed of light in the Universe, Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse, Omniverse, Alphaverse, and Omegaverse the seven dimensions of space which contains various bubbles and branes in the various inside levels as bubbles.
How? By traveling through a worm hole that takes a shortcut through the fourth dimension.
ACE FOLKLIFE – Alien Civilizations Exist as we preserve Art, Culture, Education in our own folklife, folklore, and traditions that we learned in our own families and communities.ACE FOLKLIFE – ASCENSION AGE
EDUCATION & ENLIGHTENMENT ETYMOLOGY PROJECT –
We have many unsung heroes that brought us to this point in time. For now, we call ourselves historians, authors, writers, journalists, artists, educators, entertainers, storytellers, sages, seers, shaman, oracles, and orators of the world. We share other words of our world in Theoretical Physics with Etymologists. Etymologies are not definitions but explanations of what our words mean and how they sound as a historical base.
We choose to share the following for those who are curious about what makes up our interest in the world and in the work of the Ascension Center and the ET Spirit Organization.
Here is some words and information that we hope will assist you on your journey with the TJ MORRIS ORGANIZATION in ALLIANCE with ETSpirit.org and ASCENSIONCenter.ORG
Etymologies are not definitions; they’re explanations of what our words meant and how they sounded 600 or 2,000 years ago.
The dates beside a word indicate the earliest year for which there is a surviving written record of that word (in English, unless otherwise indicated). This should be taken as approximate, especially before about 1700, since a word may have been used in conversation for hundreds of years before it turns up in a manuscript that has had the good fortune to survive the centuries.
The basic sources of this work are Weekley’s “An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English,” Klein’s “A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language,” “Oxford English Dictionary” (second edition), “Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology,” Holthausen’s “Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Englischen Sprache,” and Kipfer and Chapman’s “Dictionary of American Slang.”
A full list of print sources used in this compilation can be found here.
Since this dictionary went up, it has benefited from the suggestions of dozens of people I have never met, from around the world. Tremendous thanks and appreciation to all of you.
SEE EYMOLOGY DICTIONARY
Online Etymology Dictionary – Choice for now!http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=pseudo-science&allowed_in_frame=0
Hierarchy within the Omniverse
Universe: The inside description of a context that is relative in size/structure (attributes/modes) to the known universe that we inhabit. A Universe, also known as a Cosmos, is a particular individual space-time organization with a specified number of dimensions of space and time and definite and specific laws of physics. Other Universes (other Cosmoses) may have different numbers of dimensions of space and time and different laws of physics than our own Universe (Cosmos.
Multiverse: The part of infinity that directly joins a given universe with all possible configurations of that universe.
Metaverse: In string theory, the part that is along with, after; over also denoting change in the multiverse that houses the branes or film that each universe is said to be attached to and hang like individual sheets in a hypermagnetic wave with rhythms of hypercosmic strings going up and down that has a third element causing up, down, backwards, forwards, motions inside the Xenoverse.
Note: In computer science, a metaverse is a virtual reality simulation based on the physical reality of a single individual universe, but one or more levels of implementation above it. It is conceived that it will be possible in forthcoming centuries to create such simulations using massive arrays of matrioshka brains and Jupiter brains.[5][6]
Xenoverse: the unknown alien elements that are beyond and part of the metaverse and multiverse structure. Compared to a patchwork quilt hanging on a line to dry in space that is multivariate inside the Omniverse. While Omniverse is said to be the outside ring of all that is known, the xenoverse is the inside the hypermacrocosm that is unknown beyond the metaverse—the unknown sets of laws that govern how branes behave to create metaverses, the laws of which govern the creation of multiverses.
Omniverse: All possible attributes and modes are in play, multiverses are categorized by the attributes/modes active in its child universes. Some or all possible modes of existence are actualized. If we take the point of origin as our being as a point in measurement, then we can generate the following hierarchy: 1. our location in space-time, 2. this universe (cosmos), 3. the multiverse, 4. the metaverse, 5. the xenoverse, 6. the omniverse.
Allegorical illustrations of the concept
One can think of the omniverse as a tree structure: the omniverse is the trunk, the metaverse is the set of laws that govern the formation of branches, each multiverse is a branch, and each universe (cosmos) is a leaf.
Alternatively, the omniverse can be illustrated as a forest in which a metaverse is the set of laws that govern the cosmic ecology that determines the distribution of trees in the forest, a multiverse is a tree in the forest, a universe as a branch on that tree, and all further branches and leaves are further subset horizons within that universe.
Physicists such as Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose have suggested that universes both fork and combine, which could be visualized as more of a system of roads and pathways.
PATHWAYS IN ETYMOLOGY LEADING BACK TO THE XENOVERSE OR UNKNOWN IN THE OMNIVERSE…
ACE FOLKLIFE and ASCENSION CENTER – EDUCATION & ENLIGHTENMENT
We the members of TJ Morris.ORG are in an an alliance with the ET SPIRIT.ORG and ACE Folklife and the Ascension Center.ORG. All four of these ORGANIZATIONS are PART OF THE PLANET INFORMATION ET WORK.COM PROJECT. We are all a part of the WORLD INFORMATION NETWORK.INFO and .US.
We claim to share in the OPEN SOURCE project with MOZILLA FIREFOX and other ARCHVING PROJECTS including the ACE at the SMITHSONIAN in Washington, D.C. – We do our best to share our work and our words to assist others including but not limited to media and libraries online. TJ Morris tm ACIR sm. We are also sharing our websites with the ACIR of the United States of America for full cooperation for intergovernmental support for the cooperation in the global community online and in cyberspace.
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alien (adj.) mid-14c., “strange, foreign,” from O.Fr. alien “alien, strange, foreign; an alien, stranger, foreigner,” from L. alienus “of or belonging to another, foreign, alien, strange,” also, as a noun, “a stranger, foreigner,” adj. form of alius “(an)other” (see alias). Meaning “of another planet” first recorded 1944 in science fiction writing; the noun in this sense is from 1953. The noun sense of “foreigner” is first attested early 14c. An alien priory (c.1500) is one owing obedience to a mother abbey in a foreign country.metaphysics late 14c., “branch of speculation which deals with the first causes of things,” from M.L. metaphysica, neut. pl. of Medieval Gk. (ta) metaphysika, from Gk. ta meta ta physika “the (works) after the Physics,” title of the 13 treatises which traditionally were arranged after those on physics and natural sciences in Aristotle’s writings. The name was given c.70 B.C.E. by Andronicus of Rhodes, and was a ref. to the customary ordering of the books, but it was misinterpreted by Latin writers as meaning “the science of what is beyond the physical.” Hence, metaphysical came to be used in the sense of “abstract, speculative” (e.g. by Johnson, who applied it to certain 17c. poets, notably Donne and Cowley, who used “witty conceits” and abstruse imagery). The word originally was used in English in the singular; plural form predominated after 17c., but singular made a comeback late 19c. in certain usages under German influence.rocket (2) “projectile,” 1610s, from It. rocchetto “a rocket,” lit. “a bobbin,” dim. of rocca “a distaff,” so called because of cylindrical shape. The Italian word probably is from a Germanic source (cf. O.H.G. rocko “distaff,” O.N. rokkr), from P.Gmc. *rukka-, from PIE base*rug- “to spin.” Originally “fireworks rocket,” meaning “device propelled by a rocket engine” first recorded 1919; rocket-ship first attested 1927. The verb meaning “to spring like a rocket” is from 1883. Rocket science in the figurative sense of “difficult, complex process or topic” is attested by 1985. Rocket scientist is from 1952.induction late 14c., “advancement toward the grace of God;” also (c.1400) “formal installation of a clergyman,” from O.Fr. induction (14c.) or directly from L. inductionem (nom. inductio) “a leading in, introduction,” noun of action from pp. stem of inducere “to lead” (seeinduce). As a term in logic (early 15c.) it is from Cicero’s use of inductio to translate Gk. epagoge “leading to” in Aristotle.Induction starts with known instances and arrives at generalizations; deduction starts from the general principle and arrives at some individual fact. As a term of science, c.1800; military service sense is from 1934, Amer.Eng.trachea
c.1400, from M.L. trachea (mid-13c.), as in trachea arteria, from L.L. trachia (c.400), from Gk. trakheia, in trakheia arteria”windpipe,” lit. “rough artery” (so called from the rings of cartilage that form the trachea), from fem. of trakhys “rough.” Seeartery for connection with windpipe in Greek science.billion 1680s, from Fr. billion (originally byllion in Chuquet’s unpublished “Le Triparty en la Science des Nombres,” 1484; copied by De la Roche, 1520), from bi- “two” + (m)illion. A million million in Britain and Germany (numeration by groups of sixes), which was the original sense; subsequently altered in French to “a thousand million” (numeration by groups of threes) and picked up in that form in U.S., “due in part to French influence after the Revolutionary War” [David E. Smith, “History of Mathematics,” 1925]. France then reverted to the original meaning in 1948. British usage is truer to the etymology, but U.S. sense is said to be increasingly common there in technical writing.discipline (n.) early 13c., “penitential chastisement; punishment,” from O.Fr. descepline (11c.) “discipline, physical punishment; teaching; suffering; martyrdom,” and directly from L. disciplina “instruction given, teaching, learning, knowledge,” also “object of instruction, knowledge, science, military discipline,” from discipulus (see disciple). Sense of “treatment that corrects or punishes” is from notion of “order necessary for instruction.” The Latin word is glossed in O.E. by þeodscipe. Meaning “branch of instruction or education” is first recorded late 14c. Meaning “military training” is from late 15c.; that of “orderly conduct as a result of training” is from c.1500.agnostic 1870, “one who professes that the existence of a First Cause and the essential nature of things are not and cannot be known” [Klein]; coined by T.H. Huxley (1825-1895) from Gk. agnostos “unknown, unknowable,” from a- “not” + gnostos “(to be) known” (see gnostic). Sometimes said to be a reference to Paul’s mention of the altar to “the Unknown God,” but according to Huxley it was coined with reference to the early Church movement known as Gnosticism (see Gnostic).
I … invented what I conceived to be the appropriate title of ‘agnostic,’ … antithetic to the ‘Gnostic’ of Church history who professed to know so much about the very things of which I was ignorant. [T.H. Huxley, “Science and Christian Tradition,” 1889]
The adjective is first recorded 1873.etymology late 14c., ethimolegia “facts of the origin and development of a word,” from O.Fr. et(h)imologie (14c., Mod.Fr. étymologie), from L.etymologia, from Gk. etymologia, properly “study of the true sense (of a word),” from etymon “true sense” (neut. of etymos “true, real, actual,” related to eteos “true”) + -logia “study of, a speaking of” (see -logy). In classical times, of meanings; later, of histories. Latinized by Cicero as veriloquium. As a branch of linguistic science, from 1640s. Related: Etymological; etymologically.aphorism 1520s (especially in reference to the “Aphorisms of Hippocrates”), from M.Fr. aphorisme (14c., aufforisme), from L.L. aphorismus, from Gk. aphorismos “definition, pithy sentence,” from aphorizein “to mark off, divide,” from apo- “from” (see apo-) + horizein”to bound.” An aphorism is a short, pithy statement containing a truth of general import; an axiom is a statement of self-evident truth; a theorem is a demonstrable proposition in science or mathematics; an epigram is like an aphorism, but lacking in general import. Maxim and saying can be used as synonyms for aphorism.conscience early 13c., from O.Fr. conscience “conscience, innermost thoughts, desires, intentions; feelings” (12c.), from L. conscientia”knowledge within oneself, sense of right, a moral sense,” from conscientem (nom. consciens), prp. of conscire “be (mutually) aware,” from com- “with,” or “thoroughly” (see com-) + scire “to know” (see science). Probably a loan-translation of Gk.syneidesis, lit. “with-knowledge.” Sometimes nativized in O.E./M.E. as inwit. Russian also uses a loan-translation, so-vest, “conscience,” lit. “with-knowledge.”meta- prefix meaning 1. “after, behind,” 2. “changed, altered,” 3. “higher, beyond,” from Gk. meta (prep.) “in the midst of, in common with, by means of, in pursuit or quest of,” from PIE *me- “in the middle” (cf. Goth. miþ, O.E. mið “with, together with, among;” seemid). Notion of “changing places with” probably led to senses “change of place, order, or nature,” which was a principal meaning of the Gk. word when used as a prefix (but also denoting “community, participation; in common with; pursuing”). Third sense, “higher than, transcending, overarching, dealing with the most fundamental matters of,” is due to misinterpretation of metaphysics as “science of that which transcends the physical.” This has led to a prodigious erroneous extension in modern usage, with meta-affixed to the names of other sciences and disciplines, especially in the academic jargon of literary criticism, which affixes it to just about anything that moves and much that doesn’t.
pseudo-science also pseudoscience, “a pretended or mistaken science,” 1844, from pseudo- + science.politics (n.) 1520s, “science of government,” from politic (adj.), modeled on Aristotle’s ta politika “affairs of state,” the name of his book on governing and governments, which was in English mid-15c. as “Polettiques.” Also see -ics.
Politicks is the science of good sense, applied to public affairs, and, as those are forever changing, what is wisdom to-day would be folly and perhaps, ruin to-morrow. Politicks is not a science so properly as a business. It cannot have fixed principles, from which a wise man would never swerve, unless the inconstancy of men’s view of interest and the capriciousness of the tempers could be fixed. [Fisher Ames (1758–1808)]
Meaning “a person’s political allegiances or opinions” is from 1769.physiology 1560s, “study and description of natural objects,” from L. physiologia “natural science, study of nature,” from Gk. physiologia”natural science,” from physio-, comb. form of physis “nature” (see physic) + logia “study” (see -logy). Meaning “science of the normal function of living things” is attested from 1610s.
linguistics “the science of languages,” 1847; see linguistic; also see -ics.anaesthesiology 1908, from anaesthesia + -ology.
Anesthesiology. This is the new term adopted by the University of Illinois defining “the science that treats of the means and methods of producing in man or animal various degrees of insensibility with or without hypnosis.” [“Medical Herald,” January, 1912]
phonics 1680s, “science of sound,” from Gk. phone “sound” (see fame) + -ics. The meaning “method of teaching reading” is first attested 1908, though the system dates from 1844.cyberspace 1982, often as two words at first, coined by science fiction writer William Gibson (best known for “Neuromancer”) and used by him in a short story published in 1982, from cyber- (see cybernetics) + space.ethics “the science of morals,” c.1600, pl. of M.E. ethik “study of morals” (see ethic). The word also traces to Ta Ethika, title of Aristotle’s work.neuroscience 1963, from neuro- + science.kinematics “science of motion,” 1840, from Fr. cinématique (Ampère, 1834), from Gk. kinesis “movement, motion” (see cite).musicology “the study of the science of music,” 1909, from music + -ology.anthropology “science of the natural history of man,” 1590s, originally especially of the relation between physiology and psychology, from Mod.L.anthropologia or coined independently in English from anthropo- + -logy. In Aristotle, anthropologos is used literally, as “speaking of man.”forestry 1690s, “privilege of a royal forest,” from O.Fr. foresterie, from forest (see forest). Meaning “science of managing forests” is from 1859.
aristology “science of dining,” 1835, from Gk. ariston “breakfast” (see ere, so called from being the early meal of the day) + -ology. Related:Aristological.phrenology 1815, from Gk., lit. “mental science,” from phren (gen. phrenos) “mind” + -logy “study of.” Applied to the theory of mental faculties originated by Gall and Spurzheim that led to the 1840s mania for reading personality clues in the shape of one’s skull and the “bumps” of the head.magnetism 1610s, from Mod.L. magnetismus (see magnet + -ism). Figurative sense of “personal charm” is from 1650s; in the hypnotic sense it is from Mesmer (see mesmerize). Meaning “science of magnetics” is recorded from early 19c.mutant (n.) 1901, in the biological sense, from L. mutantem (nom. mutans) “changing,” prp. of mutare “to change” (see mutable). In the science fiction sense, it is attested from 1954.physiological c.1600, “pertaining to natural science,” from physiology + -ical. 1814 as “pertaining to physiology.” Related: Physiologically.hakeem 1580s, physician in Arab countries, from Arabic hakim “wise,” from stem of hakuma “he was wise;” whence also hakam “judge,”hikmah “wisdom, science.”Terran “of or pertaining to the planet Earth,” 1881, in science fiction writing, from L. terra (see terrain). Also used as a noun meaning “inhabitant of the Earth” (1953). An earlier form, terrene was used in M.E. in sense of “belonging to this world, earthly, secular, temporal” (c.1300), later, “of the Earth as a planet” (1630s).toolbar 1960 as a frame fitted to a tractor to hold tools; from tool (n.) + bar (1). Computer sense is attested from 1991.
Among 100-odd new features in Excel 3.0 is a row of “buttons” on the screen called the Toolbar. Located under the pull-down menus, the Toolbar provides rapid access to frequently used commands. [“Popular Science,” April 1991.]
professor late 14c., “one who teaches a branch of knowledge,” from L. professor “person who professes to be an expert in some art or science, teacher of highest rank,” agent noun from profitieri “lay claim to, declare openly” (see profess). As a title prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706. Short form prof is recorded from 1838.scienter Latin, lit. “knowingly,” from sciens, prp. of scire “to know” (see science) + adv. suffix -ter.
Related: Physiologic; physiologist.
AYURVEDIC
ayurvedic 1917, “pertaining to traditional Hindu science of medicine,” from ayurveda “science of life,” from ayur “life” + veda “knowledge.”physic c.1300, “art of healing, medical science,” also “natural science” (c.1300), from O.Fr. fisike “natural science, art of healing” (12c.), from L. physica (fem. sing.) “study of nature,” from Gk. physike episteme “knowledge of nature,” from fem. of physikos “pertaining to nature,” from physis “nature,” from phyein “to bring forth, produce, make to grow” (cf. phyton “growth, plant,” phyle “tribe, race,” phyma “a growth, tumor”) from PIE base *bheu- “to be exist, grow” (cf. O.E. beon “to be,” see be). Especially in Gk. ta physika, lit. “the natural things,” name of Aristotle’s treatise on nature.
The verb meaning “to dose with science fiction 1929 (first attested in “Science Wonder Stories” magazine), though there is an isolated use from 1851; abbreviated form sci-fi is from 1955.science c.1300,
“knowledge (of something) acquired by study,” also “a particular branch of knowledge,” from O.Fr. science, from L. scientia”knowledge,” from sciens (gen. scientis), prp. of scire “to know,” probably originally “to separate one thing from another, to distinguish,” related to scindere “to cut, divide,” from PIE base *skei- (cf. Gk. skhizein “to split, rend, cleave,” Goth. skaidan, O.E.sceadan “to divide, separate;” see shed (v.)).
Modern sense of “non-arts studies” is attested from 1670s. The distinction is commonly understood as between theoretical truth (Gk. episteme) and methods for effecting practical results (tekhne), but sciencesometimes is used for practical applications and art for applications of skill. Main modern (restricted) sense of “body of regular or methodical observations or propositions … concerning any subject or speculation” is attested from 1725; in 17c.-18c. this concept commonly was called philosophy.
To blind (someone) with science “confuse by the use of big words or complex explanations” is attested from 1937, originally noted as a phrase from Australia and New Zealand.physics 1580s, “natural science,” from physic in sense of “natural science.” Also see -ics. Specific sense of “science treating of properties of matter and energy” is from 1715. Physicist coined 1840 by the Rev. William Whewell (1794–1866), Eng. polymath, to denote a “cultivator of physics” as opposed to a physici
ith medicine” is attested from late 14c.
hermetic c.1600 (implied in hermetically), “completely sealed,” also (1630s) “dealing with occult science or alchemy,” from L. hermeticus, from Gk. Hermes, god of science and art, among other things, identified by Neoplatonists, mystics, and alchemists with the Egyptian god Thoth as Hermes Trismegistos “Thrice-Great Hermes,” who supposedly invented the process of making a glass tube airtight (a process in alchemy) using a secret seal.perspective late 14c., “science of optics,” from O.Fr. perspective, from M.L. perspectiva ars “science of optics,” from fem. of perspectivus “of sight, optical” from L. perspectus, pp. of perspicere “inspect, look through,” from per- “through” + specere “look at” (see scope(1)). Sense of “art of drawing objects so as to give appearance of distance or depth” is first found 1590s, influenced by It.prospettiva, an artists’ term. The figurative meaning “mental outlook over time” is first recorded 1762.astronaut coined 1929 in science fiction, popularized from 1961 by U.S. space program, from astro- + nautes “sailor” (see naval). Fr.astronautique (adj.) had been coined 1927 by “J.H. Rosny,” pen name of Belgian-born science fiction writer Joseph Henri Honoré Boex (1856–1940) on model of aéronautique, and Astronaut was used in 1880 as the name of a fictional spaceship by English writer Percy Greg (1836-1889) in “Across the Zodiac.”scientific 1580s, from M.Fr. scientifique, from M.L. scientificus “pertaining to science,” from L. scientia “knowledge” (see science) + -ficus”making” + facere “to make” (see factitious). Originally used to translate Gk. epistemonikos “making knowledge” in Aristotle’s “Ethics.” First record of scientific revolution is from 1803; scientific method is from 1854; scientific notation is from 1961. Related:Scientifical.
mathematic late 14c. as singular, replaced by early 17c. by mathematics, from L. mathematica (pl.), from Gk. mathematike tekhne”mathematical science,” fem. sing. of mathematikos (adj.) “relating to mathematics, scientific,” from mathema (gen. mathematos) “science, knowledge, mathematical knowledge,” related to manthanein “to learn,” from PIE base *mn-/*men-/*mon- “to think, have one’s mind aroused” (cf. Gk. menthere “to care,” Lith. mandras “wide-awake,” O.C.S. madru “wise, sage,” Goth. mundonsis”to look at,” Ger. munter “awake, lively”).ideology 1796, “science of ideas,” originally “philosophy of the mind which derives knowledge from the senses” (as opposed to metaphysics), from Fr. idéologie “study or science of ideas,” coined by French philosopher Destutt de Tracy (1754-1836) from idéo- “of ideas,” from Gk. idea (see idea) + -logy. Later used in a sense “impractical theorizing” (1813). Meaning “systematic set of ideas, doctrines” first recorded 1909.
Ideology … is usually taken to mean, a prescriptive doctrine that is not supported by rational argument. [D.D. Raphael, “Problems of Political Philosophy,” 1970]
Star Wars name of a popular science fiction film released in 1977; also the informal name for a space-based missile defense system proposed in 1983 by U.S. president Ronald Reagan.grok “to understand empathically,” 1961, arbitrary formation by U.S. science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein (1907–1988) in his book “Stranger in a Strange Land.” In popular use 1960s; perhaps obsolete now except in internet technology circles.teleportation 1931, as a term in psychics and science fiction, from tele- + (trans)portation.erg (1) unit of energy in the C.G.S. system, coined 1873 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science from Gk. ergon “work” (see urge (v.)).speciesism “discrimination against certain animals based on assumption of human superiority,” first attested 1975 in Richard D. Ryder’s “Victims of Science,” from species + -ism.
DEMOGRAPHICS
demographics 1967, the science of divining from demographic statistics; see demography + -ics. Originally in reference to TV audiences and advertisers.
hyperdrive by 1955, an invented word of science fiction writers to describe anything that can power a space craft faster than the speed of light. See hyper- + drive.electronics 1910, from electronic; cf. also -ics. The science of how electrons behave in vacuums, gas, semi-conductors, etc.robotics 1941, from robot + -ics. Coined in a science fiction context by Russian-born U.S. author Isaac Asimov (1920–1992), who proposed the “Three Laws of Robotics” in 1968.bioethics coined 1970 by U.S. biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter II (1911–2001), who defined it as “Biology combined with diverse humanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival.” Frombio- + ethics.-ology suffix indicating “branch of knowledge, science,” the usual form of -logy, with the -o- belonging to the preceding element. Related:-ologist.oncology 1857, coined in English from Mod.L. onco- “tumor,” from Gk. onkos “mass, bulk” + -logy “science or study of.”scientist 1834, coined from L. scientia (see science) by the Rev. William Whewell (1794–1866), Eng. polymath, by analogy with artist.acoustics 1680s, “science of sound,” from acoustic (also see -ics). Meaning “acoustic properties” of a building, etc., attested from 1885.audiology science of hearing and treatment of deafness, 1946, from audio- + -ology. Related: Audiologist.economics 1580s, “art of managing a household,” perhaps from Fr. économique (see economic); also see -ics. Meaning “science of wealth” is from 1792.
Science -
Christ title given to Jesus of Nazareth, O.E. crist, from L. Christus, from Gk. khristos “the anointed” (translation of Heb. mashiah; seemessiah), verbal adj. of khriein “to rub, anoint” (see chrism). The L. term drove out O.E. hæland “healer” as the preferred descriptive term for Jesus. A title, treated as a proper name in O.E., but not regularly capitalized until 17c. Pronunciation with long-i- is result of Irish missionary work in England, 7c.-8c. The ch- form, regular since c.1500, was rare before. Capitalization of the word begins 14c. but is not fixed until 17c.
host (n.3) “body of Christ, consecrated bread,” c.1300, from L. hostia “sacrifice,” also “the animal sacrificed,” applied in Church Latin to Christ; probably ultimately related to host (n.1) in its root sense of “stranger, enemy.”B.C. abbreviation of Before Christ, in chronology, attested by 1823. The phrase itself, Before Christ, in dating, with exact years, is in use by 1660s.epiphany early 14c., “festival of the manifestation of Christ to the gentiles” (celebrated Jan. 6; usually with a capital -E-), from O.Fr.epiphanie, from L.L. epiphania, neuter plural (taken as feminine singular), from late Gk. epiphaneia “manifestation, striking appearance” (in N.T., “advent or manifestation of Christ”), from epiphanes “manifest, conspicuous,” from epiphainein “to manifest, display,” from epi “on, to” (see epi-) + phainein “to show” (see phantasm). Of divine beings other than Christ, first recorded 1660s; general literary sense of “any manifestation or revelation” appeared 1840, first in De Quincey.premillennial 1846, “before the millennium,” especially in theological sense of “before the Second Coming of Christ;” from pre- + millennial.Premillenarian, one who believes the second coming of Christ will precede the Millennium, is from 1844.
Scientifical.mathematic late 14c. as singular, replaced by early 17c. by mathematics, from L. mathematica (pl.), from Gk. mathematike tekhne”mathematical science,” fem. sing. of mathematikos (adj.) “relating to mathematics, scientific,” from mathema (gen. mathematos) “science, knowledge, mathematical knowledge,” related to manthanein “to learn,” from PIE base *mn-/*men-/*mon- “to think, have one’s mind aroused” (cf. Gk. menthere “to care,” Lith. mandras “wide-awake,” O.C.S. madru “wise, sage,” Goth. mundonsis”to look at,” Ger. munter “awake, lively”).ideology 1796, “science of ideas,” originally “philosophy of the mind which derives knowledge from the senses” (as opposed to metaphysics), from Fr. idéologie “study or science of ideas,” coined by French philosopher Destutt de Tracy (1754-1836) from idéo- “of ideas,” from Gk. idea (see idea) + -logy. Later used in a sense “impractical theorizing” (1813). Meaning “systematic set of ideas, doctrines” first recorded 1909.
Ideology … is usually taken to mean, a prescriptive doctrine that is not supported by rational argument. [D.D. Raphael, “Problems of Political Philosophy,” 1970]
Star Wars name of a popular science fiction film released in 1977; also the informal name for a space-based missile defense system proposed in 1983 by U.S. president Ronald Reagan.grok “to understand empathically,” 1961, arbitrary formation by U.S. science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein (1907–1988) in his book “Stranger in a Strange Land.” In popular use 1960s; perhaps obsolete now except in internet technology circles.teleportation 1931, as a term in psychics and science fiction, from tele- + (trans)portation.erg (1) unit of energy in the C.G.S. system, coined 1873 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science from Gk. ergon “work” (see urge (v.)).
(see urge (v.)).speciesism “discrimination against certain animals based on assumption of human superiority,” first attested 1975 in Richard D. Ryder’s “Victims of Science,” from species + -ism.demographics 1967, the science of divining from demographic statistics; see demography + -ics. Originally in reference to TV audiences and advertisers.hyperdrive by 1955, an invented word of science fiction writers to describe anything that can power a space craft faster than the speed of light. See hyper- + drive.electronics 1910, from electronic; cf. also -ics. The science of how electrons behave in vacuums, gas, semi-conductors, etc.robotics 1941, from robot + -ics. Coined in a science fiction context by Russian-born U.S. author Isaac Asimov (1920–1992), who proposed the “Three Laws of Robotics” in 1968.bioethics coined 1970 by U.S. biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter II (1911–2001), who defined it as “Biology combined with diverse humanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival.” Frombio- + ethics.-ology suffix indicating “branch of knowledge, science,” the usual form of -logy, with the -o- belonging to the preceding element. Related:-ologist.oncology 1857, coined in English from Mod.L. onco- “tumor,” from Gk. onkos “mass, bulk” + -logy “science or study of.”scientist 1834, coined from L. scientia (see science) by the Rev. William Whewell (1794–1866), Eng. polymath, by analogy with artist.acoustics 1680s, “science of sound,” from acoustic (also see -ics). Meaning “acoustic properties” of a building, etc., attested from 1885.audiology science of hearing and treatment of deafness, 1946, from audio- + -ology. Related: Audiologist.economics 1580s, “art of managing a household,” perhaps from Fr. économique (see economic); also see -ics. Meaning “science of wealth” is from 1792.
linguistics “the science of languages,” 1847; see linguistic; also see -ics.anaesthesiology 1908, from anaesthesia + -ology.
Anesthesiology. This is the new term adopted by the University of Illinois defining “the science that treats of the means and methods of producing in man or animal various degrees of insensibility with or without hypnosis.” [“Medical Herald,” January, 1912]
phonics 1680s, “science of sound,” from Gk. phone “sound” (see fame) + -ics. The meaning “method of teaching reading” is first attested 1908, though the system dates from 1844.cyberspace 1982, often as two words at first, coined by science fiction writer William Gibson (best known for “Neuromancer”) and used by him in a short story published in 1982, from cyber- (see cybernetics) + space.ethics “the science of morals,” c.1600, pl. of M.E. ethik “study of morals” (see ethic). The word also traces to Ta Ethika, title of Aristotle’s work.neuroscience 1963, from neuro- + science.kinematics “science of motion,” 1840, from Fr. cinématique (Ampère, 1834), from Gk. kinesis “movement, motion” (see cite).musicology “the study of the science of music,” 1909, from music + -ology.anthropology “science of the natural history of man,” 1590s, originally especially of the relation between physiology and psychology, from Mod.L.anthropologia or coined independently in English from anthropo- + -logy. In Aristotle, anthropologos is used literally, as “speaking of man.”forestry 1690s, “privilege of a royal forest,” from O.Fr. foresterie, from forest (see forest). Meaning “science of managing forests” is from 1859.aristology “science of dining,” 1835, from Gk. ariston “breakfast” (see ere, so called from being the early meal of the day) + -ology. Related:Aristological.phrenology 1815, from Gk., lit. “mental science,” from phren (gen. phrenos) “mind” + -logy “study of.” Applied to the theory of mental faculties originated by Gall and Spurzheim that led to the 1840s mania for reading personality clues in the shape of one’s skull and the “bumps” of the head.magnetism 1610s, from Mod.L. magnetismus (see magnet + -ism). Figurative sense of “personal charm” is from 1650s; in the hypnotic sense it is from Mesmer (see mesmerize). Meaning “science of magnetics” is recorded from early 19c.mutant (n.)
1901, in the biological sense, from L. mutantem (nom. mutans) “changing,” prp. of mutare “to change” (see mutable). In the science fiction sense, it is attested from 1954.physiological c.1600, “pertaining to natural science,” from physiology + -ical. 1814 as “pertaining to physiology.” Related: Physiologically.hakeem 1580s, physician in Arab countries, from Arabic hakim “wise,” from stem of hakuma “he was wise;” whence also hakam “judge,”hikmah “wisdom, science.”Terran “of or pertaining to the planet Earth,” 1881, in science fiction writing, from L. terra (see terrain). Also used as a noun meaning “inhabitant of the Earth” (1953). An earlier form, terrene was used in M.E. in sense of “belonging to this world, earthly, secular, temporal” (c.1300), later, “of the Earth as a planet” (1630s).toolbar 1960 as a frame fitted to a tractor to hold tools; from tool (n.) + bar (1). Computer sense is attested from 1991.
Among 100-odd new features in Excel 3.0 is a row of “buttons” on the screen called the Toolbar. Located under the pull-down menus, the Toolbar provides rapid access to frequently used commands. [“Popular Science,” April 1991.]
professor late 14c., “one who teaches a branch of knowledge,” from L. professor “person who professes to be an expert in some art or science, teacher of highest rank,” agent noun from profitieri “lay claim to, declare openly” (see profess). As a title prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706. Short form prof is recorded from 1838.scienter Latin, lit. “knowingly,” from sciens, prp. of scire “to know” (see science) + adv. suffix -ter.
Christian O.E. cristen, from Church L. christianus, from Eccles. Gk. christianos, from Christos (see Christ). First used in Antioch, according to Acts xi.25-26. Christian Science is from 1863.horology science of time, 1819, probably from Gk. hora “hour” (see hour) + -logy. Earlier it meant “clock, clock dial” (c.1500), from L.horologium. Related: Horologist.jurisprudence 1620s, “knowledge of law,” from L. jurisprudentia “the science of law,” from juris “of right, of law” (gen. of jus; see jurist) +prudentia “knowledge, a foreseeing” (see prudence). Meaning “the philosophy of law” is first attested 1756.theory 1590s, “conception, mental scheme,” from L.L. theoria (Jerome), from Gk. theoria “contemplation, speculation, a looking at, things looked at,” from theorein “to consider, speculate, look at,” from theoros “spectator,” from thea “a view” + horan “to see” (seewarrant). Sense of “principles or methods of a science or art (rather than its practice)” is first recorded 1610s. That of “an explanation based on observation and reasoning” is from 1630s.android “automaton resembling a human being,” 1847, from Mod.L. androides (itself attested as a Latin word in English from 1727), from Gk. andro- “human” (see andro-) + eides “form, shape.” Gk. androdes meant “like a man, manly;” cf. also Gk. andrias “image of a man, statue.” Listed as “rare” in OED 1st edition (1879), popularized from c.1951 by science fiction writers.divinity c.1300, “science of divine things;” late 14c., “quality of being divine,” also “a divine being,” from O.Fr. devinité (12c.), from L.divinitatem (nom. divinitas), from divinus (see divine).
ontology “metaphysical science or study of being,” 1660s (Gideon Harvey), from Mod.L. ontologia (c.1600), from Gk. on (gen. ontos) “being” (prp. of einai “to be;” see essence) + -logia “writing about, study of” (see -ology).armory “arms and weapons collectively,” c.1300; see arm (n.2) + -ory. Meaning “place where arms are manufactured” is from mid-15c. Also used in a sense of “arsenal” (mid-15c.), “the science of heraldry” (late 15c.), from O.Fr. armoierie, from armoier “to blazon,” from L. arma “weapons” (see arm (2)).prescience late 14c., from L.L. praescientia “fore-knowledge,” from *praescientem, prp. of *praescire “to know in advance,” from L. prae”before” (see pre-) + scire “to know” (see science).pathology “science of diseases,” 1610s, from Fr. pathologie, from Mod.L. pathologia, from Gk. pathologikos “treating of disease,” frompathos “suffering” (see pathos) + -logia “study” (see -logy).lyceum 1580s, Latin form of Gk. lykeion, grove or garden with covered walks near Athens where Aristotle taught, from neut. of Lykeios”wolf-slayer,” an epithet of Apollo, whose temple was nearby, from lykos “wolf.” Hence, Fr. lycée, name given in France to state-run secondary schools. In England, early 19c., lyceum was the name taken by a number of literary societies; in U.S., after c.1820, it was the name of institutes that sponsored popular lectures in science and literature.physician early 13c., fisicien, from O.Fr. fisicien “physician” (12c., Mod.Fr. physicien means “physicist”), from fisique “art of healing,” from L.physica “natural science” (see physic).
nescient 1620s, from L. nescientem (nom. nesciens), prp. of nescire, from ne “not” + scire “to know” (see science).scent (v.) c.1400, from O.Fr. sentir “to feel, perceive, smell,” from L. sentire ” to feel, perceive, sense” (see sense). Originally a hunting term. The -c- appeared 17c., perhaps by influence of ascent, descent, etc., or by influence of science. The noun is first recorded late 14c. Almost always applied to agreeable odors.pluralism 1818, as a term in church administration, from plural + -ism. Attested from 1882 as a term in philosophy for a theory which recognizes more than one ultimate principle. In political science, attested from 1919 (in Harold J. Laski) in sense “theory which opposes monolithic state power.” General sense of “toleration of diversity within a society or state” is from 1933. Related: Pluralist;pluralistic.earthling O.E. yrþling “plowman” (see earth + -ling); the sense of “inhabitant of the earth” is from 1590s. Earthman was originally (1860) “a demon who lives in the earth;” science fiction sense of “inhabitant of the planet Earth” first attested 1949 in writing of Robert Heinlein. Earlier in this sense was earthite (1825).omniscience 1610s, from M.L. omniscientia “all-knowledge,” from L. omnis “all” (see omni-) + scientia “knowledge” (see science).optic 1540s, from M.Fr. optique, obtique (c.1300), from M.L. opticus “of sight or seeing,” from Gk. optikos “of or having to do with sight,” from optos “seen, visible,” from op-, root of opsesthai “be going to see,” related to ops “eye,” from PIE *oqw- “eye/see” (see eye). Optics “science of sight and light” is from 1570s.agronomy “science of land management for crop production,” 1814, from Fr. agronomie, from Gk. agronomos “overseer of land,” from agros”field” (see acre) + -nomos “law or custom, administering,” related to nemein “manage” (see numismatics). Related:Agronomist; agronomic.
technology 1610s, “discourse or treatise on an art or the arts,” from Gk. tekhnologia “systematic treatment of an art, craft, or technique,” originally referring to grammar, from tekhno- (see techno-) + -logia (see -logy). The meaning “science of the mechanical and industrial arts” is first recorded 1859. High technology attested from 1964; short form high-tech is from 1972.dissent (v.) early 15c., from L. dissentire “differ in sentiments, disagree, be at odds, contradict, quarrel,” from dis- “differently” (see dis-) +sentire “to feel, think” (see sense). Related: Dissented; dissenting. The noun is 1580s, from the verb.
Has there ever been a society which has died of dissent? Several have died of conformity in our lifetime. [Jacob Bronowski “Science and Human Values,” 1956]
philology late 14c., “love of learning,” from O.Fr. philologie, from L. philologia “love of learning, love of letters,” from Gk. philologia “love of discussion, learning, and literature,” from philo- “loving” + logos “word, speech.” Meaning “science of language” is first attested 1716; this confusing secondary sense has never been popular in the U.S., where linguistics (q.v.) is preferred.political 1550s, “pertaining to a polity, civil affairs, or government;” from L. politicus (see politic (adj.)). Meaning “taking sides in party politics” (usually pejorative) is from 1749. Political prisoner first recorded 1860; political science is from 1779 (first attested in Hume). Political animal translates Gk. politikon zoon (Aristotle, “Politics,” I.ii.9) “an animal intended to live in a city; a social animal.”statistics 1770, “science dealing with data about the condition of a state or community,” from Ger. Statistik, popularized and perhaps coined by German political scientist Gottfried Aschenwall (1719-1772) in his “Vorbereitung zur Staatswissenschaft” (1748), from Mod.L.statisticum (collegium) “(lecture course on) state affairs,” from It. statista “one skilled in statecraft,” from L. status (see state(n.1)). Meaning “numerical data collected and classified” is from 1829. Abbreviated form stats first recorded 1961.economic 1590s, “pertaining to management of a household,” perhaps shortened from economical or from Fr. économique or directly from L. oeconomicus “of domestic economy,” from Gk. oikonomikos “practiced in the management of a household or family,” hence, “frugal, thrifty,” from oikonomia (see economy (n.)). Meaning “relating to the science of economics” is from 1835 and now is the main sense, economical retaining the older one of “characterized by thrift.”garbage early 15c., “giblets of a fowl, waste parts of an animal,” later confused with garble in its sense of “siftings, refuse.” Perhaps some senses derive from O.Fr. garbe “a bundle of sheaves, entrails,” from P.Gmc. *garba- (cf. Du. garf, Ger. garbe “sheaf”), from PIE*ghrebh- “a handful, a grasp.” Sense of “refuse, filth” is first attested 1580s; used figuratively for “worthless stuff” from 1590s.Garbology “study of waste as a social science” is from 1976.
ray (1) “beam of light,” c.1300, from O.Fr. rai (nom. rais) “ray, spoke,” from L. radius “ray, spoke, staff, rod” (see radius). Not common before 17c.; of the sun, usually in reference to heat (beam being preferred for light). Science fiction ray-gun is first recorded 1931 (but cf. Martian heat ray weapon in H.G. Wells’ “War of the Worlds,” 1898).critical 1580s, “censorious,” from critic + -al (1). Meaning “pertaining to criticism” is from 1741; medical sense is from c.1600; meaning “of the nature of a crisis” is from 1640s; that of “crucial” is from 1841, from the “decisive” sense in L. criticus. Related: Criticality(1756; in the nuclear sense, 1950); critically (1650s, “accurately;” 1815, “in a critical situation”). In nuclear science, critical mass is attested from 1940.static (adj.) 1640s (earlier statical, 1560s), “pertaining to the science of weight and its mechanical effects,” from Mod.L. statica, from Gk.statikos “causing to stand, skilled in weighing,” from stem of histanai “to cause to stand, weigh,” from PIE base *sta- “stand” (seestet). The sense of “having to do with bodies at rest or with forces that balance each other” is first recorded 1802. Applied to frictional electricity from 1839. The noun meaning “radio noise” is first recorded 1913; figurative sense of “aggravation, criticism” is attested from 1926.artificial late 14c., in the phrase artificial day “part of the day from sunrise to sunset,” from O.Fr. artificial, from L. artificialis “of or belonging to art,” from artificium (see artifice). Meaning “made by man” (opposite of natural) is from early 15c. Applied to things that are not natural, whether real (artificial light) or not (artificial flowers). Artificial insemination dates from 1897. Artificial intelligence “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines” was coined in 1956.plebiscite “direct vote of the people,” 1860 (originally in reference to Italian unification), from Fr. plébiscite (1776 in modern sense), from L.plebiscitum “a decree or resolution of the people,” from plebs (gen. plebis) “the common people” + scitum “decree,” properly neuter pp. of sciscere “to assent, vote for, approve,” inchoative of scire “to know” (see science). Used earlier (1530s) in a purely Roman historical context. Related: Plebiscitary.creation late 14c., “action of creating, a created thing,” from O.Fr. creacion (14c., Mod.Fr. création) “creation, coming into being,” from L.creationem (nom. creatio) “a creating, a producing,” in classical use “an electing, appointment, choice,” noun of action from pp. stem of creare (see create). Meaning “that which God has created, the world and all in it” is from 1610s. The native word in the Biblical sense was O.E. frum-sceaft. Of fashion costumes, desserts, etc., from 1870s, from French. Creation science is attested by 1970.
operation late 14c., “action, performance, work,” also “the performance of some science or art,” from O.Fr. operacion, from L. operationem(nom. operatio) “a working, operation,” from pp. stem of operari “to work, labor” (in L.L. “to have effect, be active, cause”), fromopera “work, effort,” related to opus (gen. operis) “a work” (see opus). The surgical sense is first attested 1590s. Military sense of “series of movements and acts” is from 1749.nomenclature c.1600, “a name,” from Fr. nomenclature, from L. nomenclatura “calling of names,” from nomenclator “namer,” from nomen”name” (see name) + calator “caller, crier,” from calare “call out” (see claim). Nomenclator in Rome was the title of a steward whose job was to announce visitors, and also of a prompter who helped a stumping politician recall names and pet causes of his constituents. Meaning “list or catalogue of names” first attested 1630s; that of “system of naming” is from 1660s; sense of “terminology of a science” is from 1789.Arabic (adj.) early 14c., from O.Fr. Arabique (13c.), from L. Arabicus “Arabic” (see Arab). O.E. used Arabisc “Arabish.” Originally in reference to gum arabic; noun meaning “Arabic language” is from late 14c. Arabic numerals (actually Indian) first attested 1727; they were introduced in Europe by Gerbert of Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) after a visit to Islamic Spain in 967-970. A prominent man of science, he taught in the diocesan school at Reims, but the numbers made little headway against conservative opposition in the Church until after the Crusades. The earliest depiction of them in English, in “The Crafte of Nombrynge” (c.1350) correctly identifies them as “teen figurys of Inde.”cucumber late 14c., from O.Fr. cocombre (13c., Mod.Fr. concombre), from L. cucumerem (nom. cucumis), perhaps from a pre-Italic Mediterranean language. The Latin word also is the source of It. cocomero, Sp. cohombro, Port. cogombro. Replaced O.E.eorþæppla (pl.), lit. “earth-apples.” Cowcumber was common form 17c.-18c., and that pronunciation lingered into 19c. Planted as a garden vegetable by 1609 by Jamestown colonists. Phrase cool as a cucumber (c.1732) embodies ancient folk knowledge confirmed by science in 1970: inside of a field cucumber on a warm day is 20 degrees cooler than the air temperature.anatomy late 14c., “study of the structure of living beings;” c.1400, “anatomical structures,” from O.Fr. anatomie, from L.L. anatomia, from Gk. anatomia, from anatome “dissection,” from ana- “up” (see ana-) + temnein “to cut” (see tome). “Dissection” (1540s), “mummy” (1580s), and even “skeleton” (1590s) were primary senses of this word in Shakespeare’s day; meaning “the science of the structure of organized bodies” predominated from 17c. Often mistakenly divided as an atomy or a natomy.
The scyence of the Nathomy is nedefull and necessarye to the Cyrurgyen [1541]
is nedefull and necessarye to the Cyrurgyen [1541]
ballistics 1753, “art of throwing; science of projectiles,” with -ics + L. ballista “ancient military machine for hurling stones,” from Gk.ballistes, from ballein “to throw, to throw so as to hit,” also in a looser sense, “to put, place, lay;” from PIE base *gwele- “to throw, reach,” in extended senses “to pierce” (cf. Skt. apa-gurya “swinging,” balbaliti “whirls, twirls;” Gk. bole “a throw, beam, ray,”belemnon “dart, javelin,” belone “needle”). Here, too, probably belongs Gk. ballizein “to dance,” lit. “to throw one’s body,” ancient Greek dancing being highly athletic.gloss (n.2) “word inserted as an explanation,” 1540s (earlier gloze, c.1300), from L. glossa “obsolete or foreign word,” one that requires explanation; hence also “explanation, note,” from Gk. glossa (Ionic), glotta (Attic) “obscure word, language,” also “mouthpiece,” lit. “tongue,” from PIE *glogh- “thorn, point, that which is projected” (cf. O.C.S. glogu “thorn”). Figurative use from 1540s. Bothglossology (1716) and glottology (1841) have been used in the sense “science of language.”
age (n.) late 13c., “long but indefinite period in human history,” from O.Fr. aage (11c., Mod.Fr. âge) “age; life, lifetime, lifespan; maturity,” earlier edage, from V.L. *aetaticum (cf. Sp. edad, It. eta, Port. idade “age”), from L. aetatem (nom. aetas), “period of life, age, lifetime, years,” from aevum “lifetime, eternity, age,” from PIE base *aiw- “vital force, life, long life, eternity” (see eon). Meaning “time something has lived, particular length or stage of life” is from early 14c. Used especially for “old age” since early 14c. Expelled native eld. Age-group attested from 1904, originally a term in the science of demographics.exploitation 1803, “productive working” of something, a positive word among those who used it first, though regarded as a Gallicism, from Fr.exploitation, noun of action from exploiter (see exploit (v.)). Bad sense developed 1830s-50s, in part from influence of French socialist writings (especially Saint Simon), also perhaps influenced by U.S. anti-slavery writing; and the insulting word was hurled at activities it once had crowned as praise.
It follows from this science [conceived by Saint Simon] that the tendency of the human race is from a state of antagonism to that of an universal peaceful association — from the dominating influence of the military spirit to that of the industriel one; from what they call l’exploitation de l’homme par l’homme to the exploitation of the globe by industry. [“Quarterly Review,” April & July 1831]
aesthetic 1798, from Ger. Ästhetisch or Fr. esthétique, both from Gk. aisthetikos “sensitive, perceptive,” from aisthanesthai “to perceive (by the senses or by the mind), to feel,” from PIE *awis-dh-yo-, from base *au- “to perceive” (see audience).
Popularized in English by translation of Immanuel Kant, and used originally in the classically correct sense “the science which treats of the conditions of sensuous perception.” Kant had tried to correct the term after Alexander Baumgarten had taken it in German to mean “criticism of taste” (1750s), but Baumgarten’s sense attained popularity in English c.1830s (despite scholarly resistance) and removed the word from any philosophical base. Walter Pater used it (1868) to describe the late 19c. movement that advocated “art for art’s sake,” which further blurred the sense. Related: Aesthetically.dysphemism 1884, “substitution of a vulgar or derogatory word or expression for a dignified or normal one,” from Gk. dys- “bad, abnormal, difficult” (see dys-) + pheme “speaking,” from phanai “speak” (see fame; Gk. dysphemia meant “ill language, words of ill omen”). The opposite of euphemism. Rediscovered 1933 from French formation dysphémisme (1927, Carnoy).
The French psychologist Albert J. Carnoy gave an extensive definition in his study Le Science du Mot, which in translation runs: “Dysphemism is unpitying, brutal, mocking. It is also a reaction against pedantry, rigidity and pretentiousness, but also against nobility and dignity in language” (1927, xxii, 351). [Geoffrey L. Hughes, “An Encyclopedia of Swearing,” 2006]Encyclopedia of Swearing,” 2006]
bio- from Gk. bio-, comb. form of bios “one’s life, course or way of living, lifetime” (as opposed to zoe “animal life, organic life”), from PIE base *gweie- “to live” (cf. Skt. jivah “alive, living;” O.E. cwic “alive;” L. vivus “living, alive,” vita “life;” M.Pers. zhiwak “alive;” O.C.S. zivo “to live;” Lith. gyvas “living, alive;” O.Ir. bethu “life,” bith “age;” Welsh byd “world”). Equivalent of L. vita. The correct usage is that in biography, but in modern science it has been extended to mean “organic life.”craft (n.) O.E. cræft, originally “power, physical strength, might,” from P.Gmc. *krab-/*kraf- (cf. O.Fris. kreft, O.H.G. chraft, Ger. Kraft”strength, skill;” O.N. kraptr “strength, virtue”). Sense expanded in O.E. to include “skill, art, science, talent” (via a notion of “mental power”), which led to the meaning “trade, handicraft, calling.” The word still was used for “might, power” in M.E. Use for “small boat” is first recorded 1670s, probably from a phrase resembling vessels of small craft and referring either to the trade they did or the seamanship they required, or perhaps it preserves the word in its original sense of “power.” The verb is O.E. cræftan “to exercise a craft, build;” meaning “to make skilfully” is from early 15c., obsolete from 16c., but revived c.1950s, largely in U.S. advertising and commercial senses.astrology late 14c., from L. astrologia “astronomy, the science of the heavenly bodies,” from Gk. astrologia “telling of the stars,” from astron”star” (see astro-) + -logia “treating of” (see -logy). Originally identical with astronomy, it had also a special sense of “practical astronomy, astronomy applied to prediction of events.” This was divided into natural astrology “the calculation and foretelling of natural phenomenon” (tides, eclipses, etc.), and judicial astrology “the art of judging occult influences of stars on human affairs” (also known as astromancy, 1650s). Differentiation between astrology and astronomy began late 1400s and by 17c. this word was limited to “reading influences of the stars and their effects on human destiny.”subject (n.) early 14c., “person under control or dominion of another,” from O.Fr. suget, subget “a subject person or thing” (12c.), from L.subjectus, noun use of pp. of subicere “to place under,” from sub “under” + combining form of iacere “to throw” (see jet (v.)). In 14c., sugges, sogetis, subgit, sugette; form re-Latinized in English 16c. Meaning “person or thing that may be acted upon” is recorded from 1590s. Meaning “subject matter of an art or science” is attested from 1540s, probably short for subject matter (late 14c.), which is from M.L. subjecta materia, a loan translation of Gk. hypokeimene hyle (Aristotle), lit. “that which lies beneath.” Likewise some specific uses in logic and philosophy are borrowed directly from L. subjectum “foundation or subject of a proposition,” a loan-translation of Aristotle’s to hypokeimenon. Grammatical sense is recorded from 1630s. The adj. is attested from early 14c.
space (n.) c.1300, “an area, extent, expanse, lapse of time,” aphetic of O.Fr. espace, from L. spatium “room, area, distance, stretch of time,” of unknown origin. Astronomical sense of “stellar depths” is first recorded 1667 in “Paradise Lost.”
Space isn’t remote at all. It’s only an hour’s drive away if your car could go straight upwards. [Sir Fred Hoyle, “London Observer,” 1979]
Typographical sense is attested from 1670s (typewriter space bar is from 1888). Space age is attested from 1946; spacewalk is from 1965. Many compounds first appeared in science fiction and speculative writing, e.g. spaceship (1894, “Journey in Other Worlds”); spacesuit (1920); spacecraft (1930, “Scientific American”); space travel (1931); space station (1936, “Rockets Through Space”); spaceman (1942, “Thrilling Wonder Stories;” earlier it meant “journalist paid by the length of his copy,” 1892). Space race attested from 1959. Space shuttle attested by 1970.doctor (n.) c.1300, “Church father,” from O.Fr. doctour, from M.L. doctor “religious teacher, adviser, scholar,” in classical L. “teacher,” agent noun from docere “to show, teach, cause to know,” originally “make to appear right,” causative of decere “be seemly, fitting” (seedecent). Meaning “holder of highest degree in university” is first found late 14c.; as is that of “medical professional” (replacing native leech (2)), though this was not common till late 16c. The transitional stage is exemplified in Chaucer’s Doctor of phesike(Latin physica came to be used extensively in M.L. for medicina). Similar usage of the equivalent of doctor is colloquial in most European languages: cf. It. dottore, Fr. docteur, Ger. doktor, Lith. daktaras, though these are typically not the main word in those languages for a medical healer. For similar evolution, cf. Skt. vaidya- “medical doctor,” lit. “one versed in science.” Ger. Arzt, Du.arts are from L.L. archiater, from Gk. arkhiatros “chief healer,” hence “court physician.” Fr. médecien is a back formation frommédicine, replacing O.Fr. miege, from L. medicus.
social (adj.) c.1500 (implied in socially), “characterized by friendliness or geniality,” also “allied, associated,” from M.Fr. social (14c.), from L.socialis “united, living with others,” from socius “companion,” probably originally “follower,” and related to sequi “to follow” (cf. O.E. secg, O.N. seggr “companion,” which seem to have been formed on the same notion; see sequel). Meaning “living or liking to live with others, disposed to friendly intercourse” is attested from 1729. Meaning “pertaining to society as a natural condition of human life” first attested 1695, in Locke.
Social climber is from 1926; social work is 1890; social worker 1904. Social drink(ing) first attested 1976. Social studies as an inclusive term for history, geography, economics, etc., is attested from 1938. Social security “system of state support for needy citizens” is attested from 1908. Social butterfly is from 1910, in figurative reference to “flitting.” Social contract is from Rousseau.Social Darwinism attested from 1887. Social engineering attested from 1899. Social science is from 1811. In late 19c. newspapers,social evil is “prostitution.” Social justice is attested by 1718; social network by 1971; social networking by 1984.time (n.) O.E. tima “limited space of time,” from P.Gmc. *timon “time” (cf. O.N. timi “time, proper time,” Swed. timme “an hour”), from PIE*di-mon-, from base *da- “cut up, divide” (see tide). Abstract sense of “time as an indefinite continuous duration” is recorded from late 14c. Personified since at least 1509 as an aged bald man (but with a forelock) carrying a scythe and an hour-glass. In English, a single word encompasses time as “extent” and “point” (Fr. temps/fois, Ger. zeit/mal) as well as “hour” (e.g. “what time is it?” cf. Fr. heure, Ger. Uhr). Extended senses such as “occasion,” “the right time,” “leisure,” or times (v.) “multiplied by” developed in O.E. and M.E., probably as a natural outgrowth of phrases like, “He commends her a hundred times to God” (O.Fr. La comande a Deu cent foiz).
to have a good time ( = a time of enjoyment) was common in Eng. from c 1520 to c 1688; it was app. retained in America, whence readopted in Britain in 19th c. [OED]
Time of day (now mainly preserved in negation, i.e. what someone won’t give you if he doesn’t like you) was a popular 17c. salutation (e.g. “Good time of day vnto your Royall Grace,” “Richard III,” I.iii.18). Times as the name of a newspaper dates from 1788. Time warp first attested 1954; time capsule first recorded 1938, in reference to New York World’s Fair; time-traveling in the science fiction sense first recorded 1895 in H.G. Wells’ “The Time Machine.” To do time “serve a prison sentence” is from 1865.Time frame is attested by 1964; time line (also timeline) by 1890; time-limit is from 1880. About time, ironically for “long past due time,” is recorded from 1920. Behind the times “old-fashioned” is recorded from 1846, first attested in Dickens.hill O.E. hyll “hill,” from P.Gmc. *hulni- (cf. M.Du. hille, Low Ger. hull “hill,” O.N. hallr “stone,” Goth. hallus “rock,” O.N. holmr “islet in a bay,” O.E. holm “rising land, island”), from PIE base *kel- “to rise, be elevated, be prominent” (cf. Skt. kutam “top, skull;” L.collis “hill,” columna “projecting object,” culmen “top, summit,” cellere “raise,” celsus “high;” Gk. kolonos “hill,” kolophon”summit;” Lith. kalnas “mountain,” kalnelis “hill,” kelti “raise”). Formerly including mountains, now usually confined to heights under 2,000 feet.
In Great Britain heights under 2,000 feet are generally called hills; ‘mountain’ being confined to the greater elevations of the Lake District, of North Wales, and of the Scottish Highlands; but, in India, ranges of 5,000 and even 10,000 feet are commonly called ‘hills,’ in contrast with the Himalaya Mountains, many peaks of which rise beyond 20,000 feet. [OED]
The term mountain is very loosely used. It commonly means any unusual elevation. In New England and central New York, elevations of from one to two thousand feet are called hills, but on the plains of Texas, a hill of a few hundred feet is called a mountain. [Ralph S. Tarr, “Elementary Geology,” Macmillan, 1903]
Despite the differences in defining mountain systems, Penck (1896), Supan (1911) and Obst (1914) agreed that the distinction between hills, mountains, and mountain systems according to areal extent or height is not a suitable classification. [“Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology,” 2004]
Phrase over the hill “past one’s prime” is first recorded 1950.shit (v.) O.E. scitan, from P.Gmc. *skit-, from PIE *skheid- “split, divide, separate.” Related to shed (v.) on the notion of “separation” from the body (cf. L. excrementum, from excernere “to separate”). It is thus a cousin to science and conscience. The noun is O.E.scitte “purging;” sense of “excrement” dates from 1580s, from the verb. Despite what you read in an e-mail, “shit” is not an acronym. The notion that it is a recent word may be because the word was taboo from c.1600 and rarely appeared in print (neither Shakespeare nor the KJV has it), and even in “vulgar” publications of the late 18c. it is disguised by dashes. It drew the wrath of censors as late as 1922 (“Ulysses” and “The Enormous Room”), scandalized magazine subscribers in 1957 (a Hemingway story in “Atlantic Monthly”) and was omitted from some dictionaries as recently as 1970 (“Webster’s New World”). Extensive slang usage; verb meaning “to lie, to tease” is from 1934; that of “to disrespect” is from 1903. Noun use for “obnoxious person” is since at least 1508; meaning “misfortune, trouble” is attested from 1937. Shat is a humorous past tense form, not etymological, first recorded 18c. Shite, now a jocular or slightly euphemistic variant, formerly a dialectal variant, reflects the vowel in the O.E. verb (cf. Ger. scheissen). Shit-faced “drunk” is 1960s student slang; shit list is from 1942. To not give a shit “not care” is from 1922; up shit creek “in trouble” is from 1937. To shit bricks “be very frightened” attested by 1961. The connection between fear and involuntary defecation has generated expressions since 14c., and probably also is behind scared shitless (1936).
The expression [the shit hits the fan] is related to, and may well derive from, an old joke. A man in a crowded bar needed to defecate but couldn’t find a bathroom, so he went upstairs and used a hole in the floor. Returning, he found everyone had gone except the bartender, who was cowering behind the bar. When the man asked what had happened, the bartender replied, ‘Where were you when the shit hit the fan?’ [Hugh Rawson, “Wicked Words,” 1989]
ACE FOLKLIFE GUIDE ON FAIRIES
ETYMOLOGY
Sidhe “the hills of the fairies,” 1793; but in Yeats, “the fairie folk” (1899), elipsis of Ir. (aos) sidhe “people of the faerie mound” (cf. second element in banshee).fairy c.1300, fairie, “enchantment, magic,” from O.Fr. faerie “land of fairies, meeting of fairies, enchantment, magic,” from fae “fay,” from L. fata (pl.) “the Fates,” from PIE *bha- “to speak” (see fame). As “a supernatural creature” from late 14c. [contra Tolkien; cf. “This maketh that ther been no fairyes” in “Wife of Bath’s Tale”], perhaps via intermediate forms such as fairie knight”supernatural or legendary knight” (early 14c.). The diminutive winged beings so-called in children’s stories seem to date from early 17c.
Yet I suspect that this flower-and-butterfly minuteness was also a product of “rationalization,” which transformed the glamour of Elfland into mere finesse, and invisibility into a fragility that could hide in a cowslip or shrink behind a blade of grass. It seems to become fashionable soon after the great voyages had begun to make the world seem too narrow to hold both men and elves; when the magic land of Hy Breasail in the West had become the mere Brazils, the land of red-dye-wood. [J.R.R. Tolkien,” On Fairy-Stories,” 1947]
The slang meaning “effeminate male homosexual” is first recorded 1895. Fairy ring is from 1590s. Fossil sea urchins found on the English downlands were called fairy loaves.good-neighbor also (chiefly British English) good-neighbour, adj. phrase, in reference to U.S. foreign policy, especially in Latin America, 1928, originally in Herbert Hoover. The good neighbours is Scottish euphemism for “the fairies” (1580s).
oaf 1610s (implied in oafish), also auf (1620s), “a changeling; a foolish child left by the fairies” [Johnson], from a Scandinavian source, cf. Norw. alfr “silly person,” in O.N., “elf” (see elf). Hence, “a misbegotten, deformed idiot.” Until recently, some dictionaries still gave the plural as oaves.myth 1830, from Gk. mythos “speech, thought, story, myth,” of unknown origin.
Myths are “stories about divine beings, generally arranged in a coherent system; they are revered as true and sacred; they are endorsed by rulers and priests; and closely linked to religion. Once this link is broken, and the actors in the story are not regarded as gods but as human heroes, giants or fairies, it is no longer a myth but a folktale. Where the central actor is divine but the story is trivial … the result is religious legend, not myth.” [J. Simpson & S. Roud, “Dictionary of English Folklore,” Oxford, 2000, p.254]
General sense of “untrue story, rumor” is from 1840.gentry c.1300, “nobility of rank or birth,” from O.Fr. genterise, variant of gentilise “noble birth, gentleness,” from gentil (see gentle). Meaning “noble persons” is from 1520s. Earlier in both senses was gentrice (c.1200 as “nobility of character,” late 14c. as “noble persons”). In Anglo-Irish, gentry was a name for “the fairies” (1880), and gentle could mean “enchanted” (1823).Pict an ancient people of Great Britain, late 14c., from L.L. Picti (late 3c., probably a nickname given them by Roman soldiers), usually taken as derived from picti “painted,” but probably ultimately from the Celtic name of the tribe, perhaps Pehta, Peihta, lit. “the fighters” (cf. Gaul. Pictavi, who gave the name to the French city of Poitiers). They painted and tattooed themselves, which may have suggested a Roman folk-etymology alteration of the name. The O.E. name for the people was Peohtas.
In Scottish folk-lore the Pechts are often represented as a dark pygmy race, or an underground people; and sometimes identified with elves, brownies, or fairies.
ACE is the acronym of the American Cinema Editors association.
The society was the original idea of two Paramount Studio film editors, Warren Low and Jack Ogilvie, who arranged for an historic meeting of representative editors to discuss starting the organization. It was held at the Masquers Club in Hollywood on October 26, 1950 and, besides Low and Ogilvie, was attended by George Amy, Folmar Blangsted, James Clark, Frank Gross, Richard Heermance, William Hornbeck, Fred Knudtson, William Lyon, Fredrick Smith, Richard Van Enger and Hugh Winn.
A Charter Membership meeting was held on November 28, 1950 attended by 108 of the industry’s top film editors followed by the first General Membership meeting on January 9, 1951 at which a name for the society was adopted when Donn Hayes suggested “American Cinema Editors”, abbreviated to “ACE” as its acronym. (Members are identified on screen credits with “A.C.E.” following their names.) On May 29, 1951 the AMERICAN CINEMA EDITORS became a non-profit corporation under the laws of the State of California.
From its inception the ACE membership was committed to the encouragement of mutually-beneficial dialogue with other members of the motion picture industry and to educating the general public. The first of several seminars, known as the “ACE Roundtable”, was inaugurated in 1951 to discuss problems shared with other industry groups. A panel discussion on “Better Pictures Through Creative Cooperation” was held on June 5, 1951 at the Masquers Club moderated by Fredrick Smith with guest speakers: Delmer Daves, President, Screen Directors Guild; Paul Groese, President, Art Directors Society; William Perlberg, President, Screen Producers Guild; Ronald Reagan, President, Screen Actors Guild; Ray Rennahan, President, American Society of Cinematographers; and Karl Tunberg, President, Screen Writers Guild.
Beginning as early as 1951 a speaker’s platform headed by James E. Newcom was formed to give lectures to cinema classes at universities. Now called the ACE Visiting Editor Program, some of the members who have lectured or taught classes during the past few years are: former Presidents James Blakely, George Grenville and Michael Hoggan, Tom Rolf, former Vice President Bernard Balmuth and ACE members Donn Cambern, Anne Coates, Mark Goldblatt, Tina Hirsch, Michael Hoe, Evan Lottman, William Reynolds and Ralph Winters. In addition to in-person lectures, ACE has produced two films, “Basic Principle of filmEditing” and “Interpretations and Values of Film Editing”, which are still available to educational facilities.
In May, 1951 the CINEMEDITOR made its initial appearance as the official magazine of the society. Beginning with a four to eight-page publication with limited distribution, the size and format is currently enlarged to about forty pages and is mailed to wide and varied group of subscribers.
The first annual ACE Awards dinner honoring the nominees for the Film Editing Award given by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was held at the Beverly Hills Hotel on March 14, 1951. George Murphy was master of ceremonies and Dore Schary was the keynote speaker. Frank Capra presented the awards and Jerry Lewis and Dean Martin entertained. These awards for Academy nominees were held annually through 1961.
In 1962 the society decided that editors were the best judges of their peers’ ability and created the annual ACE Awards. Members nominated and voted for best achievements in editing motion pictures and television. Winners received plaques until 1965 when the statue nicknamed “Eddie” was given for the first time. Since then the presentations have come to be referred to as the Annual ACE Eddie Awards. In 1973 ACE started the Student Editing Competition (available to students throughout the continental United States) the nominees of which were also included in the
event.
Source(s):
http://www.ace-filmeditors.org
5 years ago

American Chronicle | Alien ET Contactee TJ Shares the Death of her Parents prior to 2012

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A REAL ALIEN ET ON EARTH!

READ THE STORY HERE!
American Chronicle | Alien ET Contactee TJ Shares the Death of her Parents prior to 2012

FIND TJ FROM NOW ON AT TJMORRRIS.org at http://tjmorris.org
TJ MORRIS.ORG BEGINS THE DAY TJ’s FATHER DIED!

A ERA IN TIME – NOW BEGINS THE TJTM STORIES OF THE ASCENSION AGE – GOLDEN AGE OF COSMOLOGY!

Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris was born December 26, 1951 at NOON, a CAPRICORN with AQUARIUS RISING!

Now, learn of the Alien Extraterrestrial Hybrids Beginnings in the Book SERIES called “TAKEN UP”!


“Movies are what bring us all closer together!” TJTM

See http://twitter.com/TJTM
and HTTP://facebook.com/THERESAMORRIS

also TJThurmondMorris
TJMorrisPublishing
TJMorris.org
AscensionCenter.org
ETSpirit.org
SocialParanormal.com


ALL THERESA’s 21 DOMAINS were SHUT DOWN BY BLUEHOST.com at MIDNIGHT THE NIGHT BEFORE HER FATHER DIED! = THEY SHUT ALL OUR CONNECTION DOWN TO TJ and HER FATHER DIED! HOW IRONIC# – READ THE STORY ABOVE ON AMERICAN CHRONICLE AND ALSO ON UFODIGEST.COM




BLUEHOST.COM was chosen based on the location in LDS COUNTRY – UTAH!


NOW, TJ used GODADDY.COM – NETWORKSOLUTIONS.COM and WEB.COM


TJ is an Ambassador of Goodwill for American Culture International Relations as ACIR